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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 228514 matches for " R. Douglas Greer "
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The Separate Development of Children’s Listener and Speaker Behavior and the Intercept as Behavioral Metamorphosis  [PDF]
R. Douglas Greer, Peter Pohl, Lin Du, Jennifer Lee Moschella
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2017.713045
Abstract: The study of verbal behavior focuses on communicative functions of the speakers/producers as they affect the behavior of listeners/observers. Effects on the listener reinforce the speaker and the listener/observer benefits (i.e., is reinforced) from the behavior of the speaker/producer. The interlocking of, and exchange of, the speaker and listener behavior between individuals and within one’s own skin constitute bidirectional operants. These bidirectional operants are instances of social interactions and measures of social behavior. Evidence suggests that the act of listening, among other observing responses, is initially developmentally independent from speaker behavior. How they become joined parallels the biological phenomenon of metamorphosis. The succession of changes has been empirically identified as a succession of verbal behavior development cusps, which are described in their sequence biologically as a manifestation of functional metamorphosis. The onset of a cusp constitutes first instances of behavior and accompanying stimulus control that allows infants and children to contact parts of the environment for the first time resulting in their learning things impossible to learn before or learning faster. Cusps for the intercept of the speaker and listener lead to bidirectional operants and provide explanations for how children incidentally learn the names of things, become increasingly social, and make subsequent complex behavior possible. Many of the cusps identified in our research resulted from the missing behavior and stimulus control of children with autism. Once cusps were established, these children learned things they could not learn before, learned faster, and learned by contacting parts of the social environment they could not contact before. These findings led to a theory of verbal behavior development that point to the selection of bidirectional operants as behavioral phenotypes during functional metamorphosis, which has enhanced the survival of Homo sapiens through emergent symbolic skills for more effective collaboration between two or more individuals.
Translating clinical training into practice in complex mental health systems: Toward opening the 'Black Box' of implementation
Greer Sullivan, Dean Blevins, Michael R Kauth
Implementation Science , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1748-5908-3-33
Abstract: Our experiences appear to be consonant with the implementation model proposed by Fixsen. In this paper we offer a modified version of the Fixsen model with separate components related to training and implementation.This report further reinforces what others have noted, namely that educational interventions intended to change clinical practice should employ a multilevel approach if patients are to truly benefit from new skills gained by clinicians. We utilize an implementation research model to illustrate how the aims of the second intervention were realized and sustained over the 12-month follow-up period, and to suggest directions for future implementation research. The present report attests to the validity of, and contributes to, the emerging literature on implementation research.There is an ongoing need within healthcare systems to train clinicians to deliver evidence-based care, particularly when clinicians are well past their initial training. Educational programs may be especially challenging in mental health because adequate training in many therapeutic techniques, such as cognitive behavioral therapy or psychosocial rehabilitation skills, is typically time consuming and labor intensive for both the trainer and trainee. Once clinicians are trained, implementing new practices in treatment settings in complex health systems poses additional challenges [1-3].In this debate paper, we describe a series of training interventions for mental health providers undertaken by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) South Central Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center (SC MIRECC) in a large, geographically dispersed network of care, Veterans Integrated Service Network 16 (VISN 16). The experience we gained from these interventions has informed our thinking about training and implementation basics. Now we are preparing to test some of the implementation components that we have delineated through our direct experiences.The first intervention consisted of a
Strain rate effects in the mechanical response of polymer anchored carbon nanotube foams
A. Misra,J. R. Greer,C. Daraio
Physics , 2008,
Abstract: Super-compressible foam-like carbon nanotube films have been reported to exhibit highly nonlinear viscoelastic behaviour in compression similar to soft tissue. Their unique combination of light weight and exceptional electrical, thermal and mechanical properties have helped identify them as viable building blocks for more complex nanosystems and as stand-alone structures for a variety of different applications. In the as-grown state, their mechanical performance is limited by the weak adhesion between the tubes, controlled by the van der Waals forces, and the substrate allowing the forests to split easily and to have low resistance in shear. Under axial compression loading carbon nanotubes have demonstrated bending, buckling8 and fracture9 (or a combination of the above) depending on the loading conditions and on the number of loading cycles. In this work, we partially anchor dense vertically aligned foam-like forests of carbon nanotubes on a thin, flexible polymer layer to provide structural stability, and report the mechanical response of such systems as a function of the strain rate. We test the sample under quasi-static indentation loading and under impact loading and report a variable nonlinear response and different elastic recovery with varying strain rates. A Bauschinger-like effect is observed at very low strain rates while buckling and the formation of permanent defects in the tube structure is reported at very high strain rates. Using high-resolution transmission microscopy
Opiate-Induced Suppression of Rat Hypoglossal Motoneuron Activity and Its Reversal by Ampakine Therapy
Amanda R. Lorier,Gregory D. Funk,John J. Greer
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008766
Abstract: Hypoglossal (XII) motoneurons innervate tongue muscles and are vital for maintaining upper-airway patency during inspiration. Depression of XII nerve activity by opioid analgesics is a significant clinical problem, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Currently there are no suitable pharmacological approaches to counter opiate-induced suppression of XII nerve activity while maintaining analgesia. Ampakines accentuate α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-?propionate(AMPA) receptor responses. The AMPA family of glutamate receptors mediate excitatory transmission to XII motoneurons. Therefore the objectives were to determine whether the depressant actions of μ-opioid receptor activation on inspiratory activity includes a direct inhibitory action at the inspiratory premotoneuron to XII motoneuron synapse, and to identify underlying mechanism(s). We then examined whether ampakines counteract opioid-induced depression of XII motoneuron activity.
Gene Expression in the Spinal Cord in Female Lewis Rats with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Induced with Myelin Basic Protein
Hayley R. Inglis, Judith M. Greer, Pamela A. McCombe
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048555
Abstract: Background Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the best available model of multiple sclerosis, can be induced in different animal strains using immunization with central nervous system antigens. EAE is associated with inflammation and demyelination of the nervous system. Micro-array can be used to investigate gene expression and biological pathways that are altered during disease. There are few studies of the changes in gene expression in EAE, and these have mostly been done in a chronic mouse EAE model. EAE induced in the Lewis with myelin basic protein (MBP-EAE) is well characterised, making it an ideal candidate for the analysis of gene expression in this disease model. Methodology/Principal Findings MBP-EAE was induced in female Lewis rats by inoculation with MBP and adjuvants. Total RNA was extracted from the spinal cords and used for micro-array analysis using AffimetrixGeneChip Rat Exon 1.0 ST Arrays. Gene expression in the spinal cords was compared between healthy female rats and female rats with MBP-EAE. Gene expression in the spinal cord of rats with MBP-EAE differed from that in the spinal cord of normal rats, and there was regulation of pathways involved with immune function and nervous system function. For selected genes the change in expression was confirmed with real-time PCR. Conclusions/Significance EAE leads to modulation of gene expression in the spinal cord. We have identified the genes that are most significantly regulated in MBP-EAE in the Lewis rat and produced a profile of gene expression in the spinal cord at the peak of disease.
Rictor/TORC2 Regulates Caenorhabditis elegans Fat Storage, Body Size, and Development through sgk-1
Kevin T. Jones,Elisabeth R. Greer,David Pearce,Kaveh Ashrafi
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000060
Abstract: The target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase coordinately regulates fundamental metabolic and cellular processes to support growth, proliferation, survival, and differentiation, and consequently it has been proposed as a therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer, metabolic disease, and aging. The TOR kinase is found in two biochemically and functionally distinct complexes, termed TORC1 and TORC2. Aided by the compound rapamycin, which specifically inhibits TORC1, the role of TORC1 in regulating translation and cellular growth has been extensively studied. The physiological roles of TORC2 have remained largely elusive due to the lack of pharmacological inhibitors and its genetic lethality in mammals. Among potential targets of TORC2, the pro-survival kinase AKT has garnered much attention. Within the context of intact animals, however, the physiological consequences of phosphorylation of AKT by TORC2 remain poorly understood. Here we describe viable loss-of-function mutants in the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of the TORC2-specific component, Rictor (CeRictor). These mutants display a mild developmental delay and decreased body size, but have increased lipid storage. These functions of CeRictor are not mediated through the regulation of AKT kinases or their major downstream target, the insulin-regulated FOXO transcription factor DAF-16. We found that loss of sgk-1, a homolog of the serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase, mimics the developmental, growth, and metabolic phenotypes of CeRictor mutants, while a novel, gain-of-function mutation in sgk-1 suppresses these phenotypes, indicating that SGK-1 is a mediator of CeRictor activity. These findings identify new physiological roles for TORC2, mediated by SGK, in regulation of C. elegans lipid accumulation and growth, and they challenge the notion that AKT is the primary effector of TORC2 function.
Rictor/TORC2 Regulates Caenorhabditis elegans Fat Storage, Body Size, and Development through sgk-1
Kevin T Jones,Elisabeth R Greer,David Pearce,Kaveh Ashrafi
PLOS Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000060
Abstract: The target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase coordinately regulates fundamental metabolic and cellular processes to support growth, proliferation, survival, and differentiation, and consequently it has been proposed as a therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer, metabolic disease, and aging. The TOR kinase is found in two biochemically and functionally distinct complexes, termed TORC1 and TORC2. Aided by the compound rapamycin, which specifically inhibits TORC1, the role of TORC1 in regulating translation and cellular growth has been extensively studied. The physiological roles of TORC2 have remained largely elusive due to the lack of pharmacological inhibitors and its genetic lethality in mammals. Among potential targets of TORC2, the pro-survival kinase AKT has garnered much attention. Within the context of intact animals, however, the physiological consequences of phosphorylation of AKT by TORC2 remain poorly understood. Here we describe viable loss-of-function mutants in the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of the TORC2-specific component, Rictor (CeRictor). These mutants display a mild developmental delay and decreased body size, but have increased lipid storage. These functions of CeRictor are not mediated through the regulation of AKT kinases or their major downstream target, the insulin-regulated FOXO transcription factor DAF-16. We found that loss of sgk-1, a homolog of the serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase, mimics the developmental, growth, and metabolic phenotypes of CeRictor mutants, while a novel, gain-of-function mutation in sgk-1 suppresses these phenotypes, indicating that SGK-1 is a mediator of CeRictor activity. These findings identify new physiological roles for TORC2, mediated by SGK, in regulation of C. elegans lipid accumulation and growth, and they challenge the notion that AKT is the primary effector of TORC2 function.
Electronegativity in quantum electronic transport
R. J. Bartlett,G. Fagas,J. C. Greer
Physics , 2007,
Abstract: Electronegativity is shown to control charge transfer, energy level alignments, and electron currents in single molecule tunnel junctions, all of which are governed by correlations contained within the density matrix. This is demonstrated by the fact that currents calculated from the one-electron reduced density matrix to second order in electron correlation are identical to the currents obtained from the Green's function corrected to second order in electron self-energy.
A Study on Communication Media Selection: Comparing the Effectiveness of the Media Richness, Social Influence, and Media Fitness  [PDF]
Rui Gu, Kunihiko Higa, Douglas R. Moodie
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2011.43035
Abstract: Media selection has become a more complex problem because of the fast development of Information and Communication Technology. However, there is little quantified work on the tools for media selection decisions. The three main tools available are Media Richness Theory (MRT) [1], Social Influence Perspectives (SIP) [2], and Media Fitness Framework (MFF) [3,4]. MFF is a combination of the factors from MRT and SIP with additional factors for environmental and resource limitations. In this research, we tested the effectiveness of media selection prediction of these three tools on 72 communication tasks from 18 companies. We then compared the results to real data. This comparison showed MFF to be more effective than either MRT or SIP, particularly in multiple-media situations. MFF also had a faster convergence of media selection prediction.
Toma de perspectiva y teoría de la mente: Aspectos conceptuales y empíricos. Una propuesta complementaria y pragmática
María Jesús Martín García,Inmaculada Gómez Becerra,Mapy Chávez Brown,Douglas Greer
Salud mental , 2006,
Abstract:
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