Abstract:
When the separation between layers in a double-quantum-well system is sufficiently small, the ground state of the two-dimensional electron gas at filling factor 1 has an interwell phase coherence even in the absence of tunneling. For non-zero tunneling, this coherent state goes through a commensurate-incommensurate transition as the sample is tilted with respect to the quantizing magnetic field at filling factor 1. In this article, we compute the optical (infrared) absorption spectrum of the coherent state from the commensurate state at small tilt angle to the soliton-lattice state at larger tilt angle and comment on the possibility of observing experimentally the distinctive signature of the soliton lattice.

Abstract:
The dynamical structure of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate limits the efficiency of the condensate in cooling slow impurity atoms. To illustrate the point, we show that an impurity atom moving in a homogeneous zero-temperature condensate is not scattered incoherently if its velocity is lower than the condensate sound velocity $c$, limiting cooling to velocities $v \geq c$. This striking effect is an expression of superfluidity and provides a direct means to detect the fundamental property of superfluidity in atomic condensates. Furthermore, we show that the fermionic lithium-isotope, $^{6}$Li, is a reasonable candidate for sympathetic cooling by a $^{23}$Na-condensate.

Abstract:
We study the spin-ordering and the magnon collective modes of the two-dimensional Wigner crystal state at strong magnetic fields. Our work is based on the Hartree-Fock approximation for the ground state and the time-dependent Hartree-Fock approximation for the collective modes. We find that the ground state is ferromagnetic, i.e that all spins are aligned at T=0 even when the electronic g-factor is negligibly small. The magnon calculations show that the spin-stiffness is much smaller in the crystal state than in fluid states which occur at nearby Landau level filling factors.

Abstract:
The collective modes of striped phases in a quantum Hall system are computed using the time-dependent Hartree-Fock approximation. Uniform stripe phases are shown to be unstable to the formation of modulations along the stripes, so that within the Hartree-Fock approximation the groundstate is a stripe crystal. Such crystalline states are generically gapped at any finite wavevector; however, in the quantum Hall system the interactions of modulations among different stripes is found to be remarkably weak, leading to an infinite collection of collective modes with immeasurably small gaps. The resulting long wavelength behavior is derivable from an elastic theory for smectic liquid crystals. Collective modes for the phonon branch are computed throughout the Brillouin zone, as are spin wave and magnetoplasmon modes. A soft mode in the phonon spectrum is identified for partial filling factors sufficiently far from 1/2, indicating a second order phase transition. The modes contain several other signatures that should be experimentally observable.

Abstract:
The collective modes of stripes in double layer quantum Hall systems are computed using the time-dependent Hartree-Fock approximation. It is found that, when the system possesses spontaneous interlayer coherence, there are two gapless modes, one a phonon associated with broken translational invariance, the other a pseudospin-wave associated with a broken U(1) symmetry. For large layer separations the modes disperse weakly for wavevectors perpendicular to the stripe orientation, indicating the system becomes akin to an array of weakly coupled one-dimensional XY systems. At higher wavevectors the collective modes develop a roton minimum associated with a transition out of the coherent state with further increasing layer separation. A spin wave model of the system is developed, and it is shown that the collective modes may be described as those of a system with helimagnetic ordering.

Abstract:
In the large $U$ limit, the ground state of the half-filled, nearest-neighbor Hubbard model on the triangular lattice is the three-sublattice antiferromagnet. In sharp contrast with the square-lattice case, where transverse spin-waves and charge excitations remain decoupled to all orders in $t/U$, it is shown that beyond leading order in $t/U$ the three Goldstone modes on the triangular lattice are a linear combination of spin and charge. This leads to non-vanishing conductivity at any finite frequency, even though the magnet remains insulating at zero frequency. More generally, non-collinear spin order should lead to such gapless insulating behavior.

Abstract:
We present an effective elastic theory which {\em quantitatively} describes the stripe phase of the two-dimensional electron gas in high Landau levels ($N\geq2$). The dynamical matrix is obtained with remarkably high precision from the density-density correlation function in the time-dependent Hartree-Fock approximation. A renormalization group analysis shows that at T=0, as the partial filling factor $\Delta\nu\equiv\nu-\lfloor\nu\rfloor$ moves away from 1/2, the anisotropic conducting state may undergo quantum phase transitions: stripes may get pinned along their conducting direction by disorder, or may lock into one another to form a two-dimensional crystal. The model predicts values of $\Delta\nu$ for each transition. The transitions should be reflected in the temperature dependence of the dissipative conductivity.

Abstract:
We propose to use a new platform - ultracold polar molecules - for quantum computing with switchable interactions. The on/off switch is accomplished by selective excitation of one of the "0" or "1" qubits - long-lived molecular states - to an "excited" molecular state with a considerably different dipole moment. We describe various schemes based on this switching of dipolar interactions where the selective excitation between ground and excited states is accomplished via optical, micro-wave, or electric fields. We also generalize the schemes to take advantage of the dipole blockade mechanism when dipolar interactions are very strong. These schemes can be realized in several recently proposed architectures.

Abstract:
The two-dimensional electron gas in a bilayer graphene in the Bernal stacking supports a variety of uniform broken-symmetry ground states in Landau level N=0 at integer filling factors $\nu \in [-3,4].$ When an electric potential difference (or bias) is applied between the layers at filling factors $\nu =-1,3$, the ground state evolves from an interlayer coherent state at small bias to a state with orbital coherence at higher bias where \textit{electric} dipoles associated with the orbital pseudospins order spontaneously in the plane of the layers. In this paper, we show that by further increasing the bias at these two filling factors, the two-dimensional electron gas goes first through a Skyrmion crystal state and then into an helical state where the pseudospins rotate in space. The pseudospin textures in both the Skyrmion and helical states are due to the presence of a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in the effective pseudospin Hamiltonian when orbital coherence is present in the ground state. We study in detail the electronic structure of the helical and Skyrmion crystal states as well as their collective excitations and then compute their electromagnetic absorption.

Abstract:
ABC-stacked trilayer graphene's chiral band structure results in three ($n=0,1,2$) Landau level orbitals with zero kinetic energy. This unique feature has important consequences on the interaction driven states of the 12-fold degenerate (including spin and valley) N=0 Landau level. In particular, at many filling factors $\nu_{T} =\pm5,\pm4,\pm2,\pm1$ a quantum phase transition from a quantum Hall liquid state to a triangular charge density wave occurs as a function of the single-particle induced LL orbital splitting $\Delta_{LL}$. This phase transition should be characterized by a re-entrant integer quantum Hall effect with the Hall conductivity corresponding to the {\it adjacent} interaction driven integer quantum Hall plateau.