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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 224005 matches for " R. Chadwick "
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Training Gamble leads to Corporate Grumble?
David R. Chadwick
Computer Science , 2008,
Abstract: Fifteen years of research studies have concluded unanimously that spreadsheet errors are both common and non-trivial. Now we must seek ways to reduce spreadsheet errors. Several approaches have been suggested, some of which are promising and others, while appealing because they are easy to do, are not likely to be effective. To date, only one technique, cell-by-cell code inspection, has been demonstrated to be effective. We need to conduct further research to determine the degree to which other techniques can reduce spreadsheet errors.
Characterization of DXZ4 conservation in primates implies important functional roles for CTCF binding, array expression and tandem repeat organization on the X chromosome
Christine R McLaughlin, Brian P Chadwick
Genome Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2011-12-4-r37
Abstract: In order to identify important elements within DXZ4, we explored preservation of DNA sequence and chromatin conformation of the macrosatellite in primates. We found that DXZ4 DNA sequence conservation beyond New World monkeys is limited to the promoter and CTCF binding site, although DXZ4 remains a GC-rich tandem array. Investigation of chromatin organization in macaques revealed that DXZ4 in males and on the active X chromosome is packaged into heterochromatin, whereas on the inactive X, DXZ4 was euchromatic and bound by CTCF.Collectively, these data suggest an important conserved role for DXZ4 on the X chromosome involving expression, CTCF binding and tandem organization.Macrosatellites are a type of variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) that primarily differ from other VNTRs by the size of the individual repeat unit (from 2 to >12 kb) and restriction of the array to one or two locations in the genome [1]. To date, at least eight different macrosatellite arrays have been described in the human genome [1-6], although several others remain largely unexplored [1].Among the human macrosatellites, the best characterized is D4Z4, located at the subtelomeric regions of chromosomes 4q35 [6] and 10q26 [7,8]. D4Z4 consists of a tandem array of 3.3-kb repeat units that can cover hundreds of kilobases at these chromosomal locations [6]. D4Z4 has been a major focus for research since a link was made between the array and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) [6,9], an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by progressive atrophy of muscles in the face, shoulders and upper arms [10]. In almost all cases, FSHD onset is associated with contraction of the array at 4q35 to ten or fewer repeat units [6,9]. Contraction alone is not sufficient for disease onset, as pathogenesis is linked to a reduction in the number of D4Z4 repeat units on a defined haplotype termed 4qA161 [11]. Like other macrosatellites [1,2,5,12,13], D4Z4 is expressed [14]. Each D4Z4 monomer in the array
An artificial neural network technique for downscaling GCM outputs to RCM spatial scale
R. Chadwick, E. Coppola,F. Giorgi
Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (NPG) , 2011,
Abstract: An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach is used to downscale ECHAM5 GCM temperature (T) and rainfall (R) fields to RegCM3 regional model scale over Europe. The main inputs to the neural network were the ECHAM5 fields and topography, and RegCM3 topography. An ANN trained for the period 1960–1980 was able to recreate the RegCM3 1981–2000 mean T and R fields with reasonable accuracy. The ANN showed an improvement over a simple lapse-rate correction method for T, although the ANN R field did not capture all the fine-scale detail of the RCM field. An ANN trained over a smaller area of Southern Europe was able to capture this detail with more precision. The ANN was unable to accurately recreate the RCM climate change (CC) signal between 1981–2000 and 2081–2100, and it is suggested that this is because the relationship between the GCM fields, RCM fields and topography is not constant with time and changing climate. An ANN trained with three ten-year "time-slices" was able to better reproduce the RCM CC signal, particularly for the full European domain. This approach shows encouraging results but will need further refinement before becoming a viable supplement to dynamical regional climate modelling of temperature and rainfall.
Classification of Spreadsheet Errors
Kamalasen Rajalingham,David R. Chadwick,Brian Knight
Computer Science , 2008,
Abstract: This paper describes a framework for a systematic classification of spreadsheet errors. This classification or taxonomy of errors is aimed at facilitating analysis and comprehension of the different types of spreadsheet errors. The taxonomy is an outcome of an investigation of the widespread problem of spreadsheet errors and an analysis of specific types of these errors. This paper contains a description of the various elements and categories of the classification and is supported by appropriate examples.
Plasma Cell Granuloma of the Thyroid: A Conservative Approach to a Rare Condition and Review of the Literature
W. A. Barber,M. Fernando,D. R. Chadwick
Journal of Thyroid Research , 2010, DOI: 10.4061/2010/840469
Abstract: Introduction. We present a case of an 89-year-old female who attended our surgical endocrine clinic with a 3-month history of a left-sided neck lump. There was no past medical history of thyroid disease. Methods. Following examination and further investigation, including core biopsy, a diagnosis of plasma cell granuloma of the thyroid was made. Biochemical testing of thyroid function and Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody was in-keeping with an associated Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Results. The patient was treated conservatively with thyroxine and regularly seen in clinic. TSH levels improved and the lump showed signs of regression. Conclusion. Plasma cell granuloma of the thyroid is rare with only 16 previously reported cases. We present a new approach to management without the use of surgery or steroids. The literature is reviewed comparing clinico-pathological features and management of other reported cases. 1. Case Report An 89-year-old female presented with a 3-month history of a left-sided neck lump. The lump had been steadily increasing in size during this time. There was no history of shortness of breath, dysphagia, or stridor and no history of voice change. The patient had a past medical history of vascular dementia, hypertension, and B12 deficiency secondary to pernicious anaemia. Regular medications included aspirin, bendrofluazide, and 3 monthly injections of hydroxocobalamin. There was no past medical history of thyroid disease or neck irradiation and no family history of autoimmune disease. On examination the patient was frail and clinically euthyroid. Examination of the neck revealed a large firm, irregular mass in the upper pole of the left thyroid lobe with a background of multinodular goitre. The lump measured 6.1?cm? ?5.5?cm with calipers on presentation. There was no evidence of lymphadenopathy and the trachea was central with no signs of stridor. Initial assessment was suggestive of lymphoma or poorly differentiated carcinoma. In order to increase diagnostic accuracy, a needle core biopsy was taken rather than fine needle aspiration. Two passes were made using a 14-guage needle. TFTs were checked revealing a TSH of 17.6? IU/L (0.4–5.5? IU/L) with a Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody (TPA) of 557?IU/ml (0–50?IU/ml) and free T4 of 12.5?pmol/L (11–26?pmol/L). Full blood count, liver function tests, and urea and electrolytes were all in the normal range. These results were in-keeping with hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Two core biopsies both measuring 15?mm were obtained for histological examination. This showed a heavy plasma cell
Climatology of GPS phase scintillation and HF radar backscatter for the high-latitude ionosphere under solar minimum conditions
P. Prikryl, P. T. Jayachandran, S. C. Mushini,R. Chadwick
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2011,
Abstract: Maps of GPS phase scintillation at high latitudes have been constructed after the first two years of operation of the Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Network (CHAIN) during the 2008–2009 solar minimum. CHAIN consists of ten dual-frequency receivers, configured to measure amplitude and phase scintillation from L1 GPS signals and ionospheric total electron content (TEC) from L1 and L2 GPS signals. Those ionospheric data have been mapped as a function of magnetic local time and geomagnetic latitude assuming ionospheric pierce points (IPPs) at 350 km. The mean TEC depletions are identified with the statistical high-latitude and mid-latitude troughs. Phase scintillation occurs predominantly in the nightside auroral oval and the ionospheric footprint of the cusp. The strongest phase scintillation is associated with auroral arc brightening and substorms or with perturbed cusp ionosphere. Auroral phase scintillation tends to be intermittent, localized and of short duration, while the dayside scintillation observed for individual satellites can stay continuously above a given threshold for several minutes and such scintillation patches persist over a large area of the cusp/cleft region sampled by different satellites for several hours. The seasonal variation of the phase scintillation occurrence also differs between the nightside auroral oval and the cusp. The auroral phase scintillation shows an expected semiannual oscillation with equinoctial maxima known to be associated with aurorae, while the cusp scintillation is dominated by an annual cycle maximizing in autumn-winter. These differences point to different irregularity production mechanisms: energetic electron precipitation into dynamic auroral arcs versus cusp ionospheric convection dynamics. Observations suggest anisotropy of scintillation-causing irregularities with stronger L-shell alignment of irregularities in the cusp while a significant component of field-aligned irregularities is found in the nightside auroral oval. Scintillation-causing irregularities can coexist with small-scale field-aligned irregularities resulting in HF radar backscatter. The statistical cusp and auroral oval are characterized by the occurrence of HF radar ionospheric backscatter and mean ground magnetic perturbations due to ionospheric currents.
Three-dimensional anatomy of the knee joint of ostriches (Struthio camelus)
Kyle P Chadwick,Sophie Regnault,Vivian Allen,John R. Hutchinson
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.547v1
Abstract: The three-dimensional anatomy of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) knee (femorotibial, femorofibular, and femoropatellar) joint has scarcely been studied, and could elucidate certain mechanobiological properties of sesamoid bones. The adult ostrich is unique in that it has double patellae, while another similar ratite bird, the emu, has none. Understanding why these patellae form and what purpose they may serve is dually important for future studies on ratites as well as understanding mechanobiological characteristics of sesamoid bone development. For this purpose, we present a three-dimensional anatomical study of the ostrich knee joint, detailing osteology, ligaments and menisci, and myology. We have identified seven muscles which connect to the two patellae and compare our findings to past descriptions. These descriptions can be used to further study the biomechanical loading and implications of the double patella in the ostrich.
Three-dimensional anatomy of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) knee joint
Kyle P. Chadwick,Sophie Regnault,Vivian Allen,John R. Hutchinson
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7717/peerj.706
Abstract: The three-dimensional anatomy of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) knee (femorotibial, femorofibular, and femoropatellar) joint has scarcely been studied, and could elucidate certain mechanobiological properties of sesamoid bones. The adult ostrich is unique in that it has double patellae, while another similar ratite bird, the emu, has none. Understanding why these patellae form and what purpose they may serve is dually important for future studies on ratites as well as for understanding the mechanobiological characteristics of sesamoid bone development. For this purpose, we present a three-dimensional anatomical study of the ostrich knee joint, detailing osteology, ligaments and menisci, and myology. We have identified seven muscles which connect to the two patellae and compare our findings to past descriptions. These descriptions can be used to further study the biomechanical loading and implications of the double patella in the ostrich.
GENOMICS, PUBLIC HEALTH AND IDENTITY
Chadwick,Ruth;
Acta bioethica , 2003, DOI: 10.4067/S1726-569X2003000200007
Abstract: this paper questions the utility of the ethical principles that are usually invoked to deal with genomic issues, particularly genetic databases. concepts such as solidarity, benefit sharing, equity, public participation, and collective identity are discussed. the author argues that genetic banks are precipitating new concern over group interest, as opposed to concern over issues arising from individualistic medical ethics. genomics era needs new paradigms in ethics. an individualistic approach based on choice and autonomy is not useful, because we make choices not only as individuals but also as members of different groups. the doctrine of informed consent evolved in different historical conditions from the ones we face in the era of genomics. this is complicated by the global context of genetic research, in addition to powerful commercial interests. this suggests that it is not sufficient to move from an individual-centred ethic approach to a more community-centred one; an approach of renegotiating the relationship between individual and community. we need also to be clear about what the interests at stake are, which may mean reconceiving the terms 'individual' and 'community' in this context and the ways in which their interests are affected, identifying the sources of collective identity that are at stake
GENOMICS, PUBLIC HEALTH AND IDENTITY GENóMICA, SALUD PúBLICA E IDENTIDAD GENOMICA, SAUDE PúBLICA E IDENTIDADE
Ruth Chadwick
Acta Bioethica , 2003,
Abstract: This paper questions the utility of the ethical principles that are usually invoked to deal with genomic issues, particularly genetic databases. Concepts such as solidarity, benefit sharing, equity, public participation, and collective identity are discussed. The author argues that genetic banks are precipitating new concern over group interest, as opposed to concern over issues arising from individualistic medical ethics. Genomics era needs new paradigms in ethics. An individualistic approach based on choice and autonomy is not useful, because we make choices not only as individuals but also as members of different groups. The doctrine of informed consent evolved in different historical conditions from the ones we face in the era of genomics. This is complicated by the global context of genetic research, in addition to powerful commercial interests. This suggests that it is not sufficient to move from an individual-centred ethic approach to a more community-centred one; an approach of renegotiating the relationship between individual and community. We need also to be clear about what the interests at stake are, which may mean reconceiving the terms 'individual' and 'community' in this context and the ways in which their interests are affected, identifying the sources of collective identity that are at stake Este artículo cuestiona la utilidad de los principios éticos que son generalmente aludidos para abordar problemas de genómica, particularmente los de bancos de datos genéticos. Conceptos como solidaridad, compartir los beneficios, equidad, participación pública e identidad colectiva son discutidos. La autora sugiere que los bancos de datos genéticos están generando nuevas preocupaciones sobre los intereses del grupo, preocupaciones opuestas a los temas de una ética médica individualista. La era de la genómica necesita nuevos paradigmas éticos. Un enfoque individualista basado en la elección y la autonomía no es útil, puesto que tomamos decisiones no sólo como individuos sino también como miembros de diferentes grupos. La doctrina del consentimiento informado surgió en condiciones históricas diferentes de las que enfrentamos en la era de la genómica. Esto se complica por el contexto global de la investigación genómica y la presencia de poderosos intereses comerciales. Ello sugiere que no es suficiente moverse desde un enfoque centrado en el individuo a un enfoque más centrado en la comunidad; uno de renegociación de la relación entre individuo y comunidad. Necesitamos también tener claro cuáles son los intereses en riesgo, lo que puede significar rede
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