Abstract:
Using simple conditions drawn from the stability of the cosmos in terms of vacuum energy density, the cut-off momentum of entanglement is related to the planckian mass. In so doing the black hole entropy is shown to be independent of the number of field species that contribute to vacuum fluctuations. And this is in spite of the fact that the number of field species is a linear multiplicand of the entanglement entropy when this latter is expressed in terms of the fundamental momentum cut-off of all fields.

Abstract:
In the context of the two-fluid model introduced to tame the transplanckian problem of black hole physics, the inflaton field of the chaotic inflation scenario is identified with the fluctuation of the density of modes. Its mass comes about from the exchange of degrees of freedom between the two fluids.

Abstract:
The notion of time in cosmology is revealed through an examination of transition matrix elements of radiative processes occurring in the cosmos. To begin with, the very concept of time is delineated in classical physics in terms of correlations between the succession of configurations which describe a process and a standard trajectory called the clock. The total is an isolated system of fixed energy. This is relevant for cosmology in that the universe is an isolated system which we take to be homogeneous and isotropic. Furthermore, in virtue of the constraint which arises from reparametrization invariance of time, it has total energy zero. Therefore the momentum of the scale factor is determined from the energy of matter. In the quantum theory this is exploited through use of the WKB approximation for the wave function of the scale factor, justified for a large universe. The formalism then gives rise to matrix elements describing matter processes. These are shown to take on the form of usual time dependent quantum amplitudes wherein the temporal dependence is given by a background which is once more fixed by the total energy of matter.

Abstract:
Using as dynamical variable the square of the radius of the Universe, we solve analytically the Einstein equations in the framework of Robertson-Walker models where a cosmological constant describing phenomenologically the vacuum energy decays into radiation. Emphasis is put on the computation of the entropy creation.

Abstract:
The personal and scientific history of the discovery of spontaneous symmetry breaking in gauge theories is outlined and its scientific content is reviewed

Abstract:
The method of Hawking to obtain black hole evaporation through Bogoljubov transformation between asymptotic modes (in and out) is generalized. The construction is local in that the in modes (of say positive frequency) are decomposed by Bogoljubov transformation into positive and negative frequency local inertial modes (i.e. those which are solutions of the d'Alembertian in terms of the local normal coordinates). From this follows an interesting reexpression of the local energy momentum tensor, more particularly of the outgoing energy flux. One finds that even in the local description there exists a partial thermal character parametrized by a local temperature. There exists quantum interference effects as well. These become negligible at large distance from the black hole.

Abstract:
The particle detector model consisting of a harmonic oscillator coupled to a scalar field in $1+1$ dimensions is investigated in the inertial case. The same approach is then used in the accelerating case. The absence of radiation from a uniformly accelerated detector in a stationnary state is discussed and clarified.

Abstract:
We show how to apply post selection in the context of weak measurement of Aharonov and collaborators to construct the quantum back reaction on a classical field. The particular case which we study in this paper is pair creation in an external electric field and the back reaction is the counter field produced by the pair \underline {as} it is made. The construction leads to a complex electric field obtained from non diagonal matrix elements of the current operator, the interpretation of which is clear in terms of weak measurement. The analogous construction applied to black hole physics (thereby leading to a complex metric) is relegated to a future paper.

Abstract:
In a recent work, Unruh showed that Hawking radiation is unaffected by a truncation of free field theory at the Planck scale. His analysis was performed numerically and based on a hydrodynamical model. In this work, by analytical methods, the mathematical and physical origin of Unruh's result is revealed. An alternative truncation scheme which may be more appropriate for black hole physics is proposed and analyzed. In both schemes the thermal Hawking radiation remains unaffected even though transplanckian energies no longer appear. The universality of this result is explained by working in momentum space. In that representation, in the presence of a horizon, the d'Alembertian equation becomes a singular first order equation. In addition, the boundary conditions corresponding to vacuum before the black hole formed are that the in--modes contain positive momenta only. Both properties remain valid when the spectrum is truncated and they suffice to obtain Hawking radiation.

Abstract:
The minimal length uncertainty principle of Kempf, Mangano and Mann (KMM), as derived from a mutilated quantum commutator between coordinate and momentum, is applied to describe the modes and wave packets of Hawking particles evaporated from a black hole. The transplanckian problem is successfully confronted in that the Hawking particle no longer hugs the horizon at arbitrarily close distances. Rather the mode of Schwarzschild frequency $\omega$ deviates from the conventional trajectory when the coordinate $r$ is given by $| r - 2M|\simeq \beta_H \omega / 2 \pi$ in units of the non local distance legislated into the uncertainty relation. Wave packets straddle the horizon and spread out to fill the whole non local region. The charge carried by the packet (in the sense of the amount of "stuff" carried by the Klein--Gordon field) is not conserved in the non--local region and rapidly decreases to zero as time decreases. Read in the forward temporal direction, the non--local region thus is the seat of production of the Hawking particle and its partner. The KMM model was inspired by string theory for which the mutilated commutator has been proposed to describe an effective theory of high momentum scattering of zero mass modes. It is here interpreted in terms of dissipation which gives rise to the Hawking particle into a reservoir of other modes (of as yet unknown origin). On this basis it is conjectured that the Bekenstein--Hawking entropy finds its origin in the fluctuations of fields extending over the non local region.