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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 224942 matches for " R. Braun "
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Time, Compassion/Respect, and Thoroughness Are Important Predictors of Overall Patient Satisfaction at an Urban County ER
Braun, R.
Western Journal of Emergency Medicine : Integrating Emergency Care with Population Health , 2002,
Investigating the Signature of Aquatic Resource Use within Pleistocene Hominin Dietary Adaptations
Will Archer, David R. Braun
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069899
Abstract: There is general agreement that the diet of early hominins underwent dramatic changes shortly after the appearance of stone tools in the archaeological record. It is often assumed that this change is associated with dietary expansion to incorporate large mammal resources. Although other aspects of the hominin diet, such as aquatic or vegetal resources, are assumed to be a part of hominin subsistence, identifying evidence of these adaptations has proved difficult. Here we present a series of analyses that provide methodological support for the inclusion of aquatic resources in hominin dietary reconstructions. We suggest that bone surface modifications in aquatic species are morphologically distinguishable from bone surface modifications on terrestrial taxa. We relate these findings to differences that we document in the surface mechanical properties of the two types of bone, as reflected by significant differences in bone surface microhardness values between aquatic and terrestrial species. We hypothesize that the characteristics of bone surface modifications on aquatic taxa inhibit the ability of zooarchaeologists to consistently diagnose them correctly. Contingently, this difficulty influences correspondence levels between zooarchaeologists, and may therefore result in misinterpretation of the taphonomic history of early Pleistocene aquatic faunal assemblages. A blind test using aquatic specimens and a select group of 9 experienced zooarchaeologists as participants was designed to test this hypothesis. Investigation of 4 different possible explanations for blind test results suggest the dominant factors explaining patterning relate to (1) the specific methodologies employed to diagnose modifications on aquatic specimens and (2) the relative experience of participants with modifications on aquatic bone surfaces. Consequently we argue that an important component of early hominin diets may have hitherto been overlooked as a result of (a) the paucity of referential frameworks within which to identify such a component and (b) the inability of applied identification methodologies to consistently do so.
Magnetic fields in nearby galaxies
G. Heald,R. Braun
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: We describe a recent full-polarization radio continuum survey, performed using the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT), of several nearby galaxies in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) sample. The WSRT-SINGS survey has been utilized to study the polarized emission and Faraday rotation measures (RMs) in the targets, and reveals an important new observational trend. The azimuthal distribution of polarized flux seems to be intimately related to the kinematic orientation of galaxies, such that in face-on galaxies the lowest level of polarized flux is detected along the kinematic major axis. In highly inclined galaxies, the polarized flux is minimized on both ends of the major axis, and peaks near the minor axis. Using models of various three-dimensional magnetic field geometries, and including the effects of turbulent depolarization in the midplane, we are able to reproduce the qualitative distribution of polarized flux in the target galaxies, its variation with inclination, and the distribution of RMs, thereby constraining the global magnetic field structure in galaxies. Future radio telescope facilities, now being planned and constructed, will have properties making them extremely well-suited to perform vastly larger surveys of this type, and are thereby poised to significantly increase our understanding of the global structure of galactic magnetic fields. We discuss progress that can be made using surveys which will be realized with these new facilities, focusing in particular on the Aperture Tile in Focus (APERTIF) and Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescopes, both based on Focal Plane Array (FPA) designs, which are expected to be particularly useful for wide-field polarization applications.
Diffuse neutral hydrogen in the HI Parkes All Sky Survey
A. Popping,R. Braun
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201015058
Abstract: Observations of neutral hydrogen can provide a wealth of information about the distribution and kinematics of galaxies. To detect HI beyond the ionisation edge of galaxy disks, column density sensitivities have to be achieved that probe the regime of Lyman limit systems. Typically HI observations are limited to a brightness sensitivity of NHI~10^19 cm-2 but this has to be improved by at least an order of magnitude. In this paper, reprocessed data is presented that was originally observed for the HI Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS). HIPASS provides complete coverage of the region that has been observed for the Westerbork Virgo Filament HI Survey (WVFS), presented in accompanying papers, and thus is an excellent product for data comparison. The region of interest extends from 8 to 17 hours in right ascension and from -1 to 10 degrees in declination. Although the original HIPASS product already has good flux sensitivity, the sensitivity and noise characteristics can be significantly improved with a different processing method. The newly processed data has an 1sigma RMS flux sensitivity of ~10 mJy beam-1 over 26 km s-1, corresponding to a column density sensitivity of ~3\cdot10^17 cm-2. While the RMS sensitivity is improved by only a modest 20%, the more substantial benefit is in the reduction of spectral artefacts near bright sources by more than an order of magnitude. In the reprocessed region we confirm all previously catalogued HIPASS sources and have identified 29 additional sources of which 14 are completely new HI detections. Extended emission or companions were sought in the nearby environment of each discrete detection. With the improved sensitivity after reprocessing and its large sky coverage, the HIPASS data is a valuable resource for detection of faint HI emission.(Abridged)
A smooth surface in P4 not of general type has degree at most 66
R. Braun,M. Cook
Mathematics , 1997,
Abstract: We continue the work of Braun and Floystad, and Cook bounding the degree of smooth surfaces in P4 not of general type using generic initial ideal theory.
The Kinematic and Spatial Deployment of Compact, Isolated High-Velocity Clouds
R. Braun,W. B. Burton
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: We have identified a class of high-velocity clouds which are compact and apparently isolated. The clouds are compact in that they have angular sizes less than 2 degrees FWHM. They are isolated in that they are separated from neighboring emission by expanses where no emission is seen to the detection limit of the available data. Candidates for inclusion in this class were extracted from the Leiden/Dwingeloo HI survey of Hartmann & Burton and from the Wakker & van Woerden catalogue of high-velocity clouds. The candidates were subject to independent confirmation using either the 25-meter telescope in Dwingeloo or the 140-foot telescope in Green Bank. We argue that the resulting list, even if incomplete, is sufficiently representative of the ensemble of compact, isolated HVCs - CHVCs - that the characteristics of their disposition on the sky, and of their kinematics, are revealing of some physical aspects of the class. The CHVCs are in fact distributed quite uniformly across the sky. A global search for the reference frame which minimizes the velocity dispersion of the ensemble returns the Local Group Standard of Rest with high confidence. The CHVCs are not stationary with respect to this reference frame but have a mean infall velocity of 100 km/s. These properties are strongly suggestive of a population which has as yet had little interaction with the more massive Local Group members. At a typical distance of about 1 Mpc these objects would have sizes of about 15 kpc and gas masses, M_HI, of a few times 10^7 M_Sun, corresponding to those of (sub-)dwarf galaxies. (abridged)
F-theory on Genus-One Fibrations
Volker Braun,David R. Morrison
Mathematics , 2014, DOI: 10.1007/JHEP08(2014)132
Abstract: We argue that M-theory compactified on an arbitrary genus-one fibration, that is, an elliptic fibration which need not have a section, always has an F-theory limit when the area of the genus-one fiber approaches zero. Such genus-one fibrations can be easily constructed as toric hypersurfaces, and various $SU(5)\times U(1)^n$ and $E_6$ models are presented as examples. To each genus-one fibration one can associate a $\tau$-function on the base as well as an $SL(2,\mathbb{Z})$ representation which together define the IIB axio-dilaton and 7-brane content of the theory. The set of genus-one fibrations with the same $\tau$-function and $SL(2,\mathbb{Z})$ representation, known as the Tate-Shafarevich group, supplies an important degree of freedom in the corresponding F-theory model which has not been studied carefully until now. Six-dimensional anomaly cancellation as well as Witten's zero-mode count on wrapped branes both imply corrections to the usual F-theory dictionary for some of these models. In particular, neutral hypermultiplets which are localized at codimension-two fibers can arise. (All previous known examples of localized hypermultiplets were charged under the gauge group of the theory.) Finally, in the absence of a section some novel monodromies of Kodaira fibers are allowed which lead to new breaking patterns of non-Abelian gauge groups.
The Westerbork SINGS Survey II. Polarization, Faraday Rotation, and Magnetic Fields
G. Heald,R. Braun,R. Edmonds
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200912240
Abstract: A sample of large northern Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) galaxies has recently been observed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). We present observations of the linearly polarized radio continuum emission in this WSRT-SINGS galaxy sample. Of the 28 galaxies treated in this paper, 21 are detected in polarized radio continuum at 18- and 22-cm wavelengths. We utilize the rotation measure synthesis (RM-Synthesis) method, as implemented by Brentjens & de Bruyn, to coherently detect polarized emission from a large fractional bandwidth, while simultaneously assessing the degree of Faraday rotation experienced by the radiation along each line-of-sight. This represents the first time that the polarized emission and its Faraday rotation have been systematically probed down to ~10 microJy/beam RMS for a large sample of galaxies. Non-zero Faraday rotation is found to be ubiquitous in all of the target fields, from both the Galactic foreground and the target galaxies themselves. In this paper, we present an overview of the polarized emission detected in each of the WSRT-SINGS galaxies. The most prominent trend is a systematic modulation of the polarized intensity with galactic azimuth, such that a global minimum in the polarized intensity is seen toward the kinematically receding major axis. The implied large-scale magnetic field geometry is discussed in a companion paper. A second novel result is the detection of multiple nuclear Faraday depth components that are offset to both positive and negative RM by 100-200 rad/m^2 in all targets that host polarized (circum-)nuclear emission.
Neural Substrates of Spontaneous Musical Performance: An fMRI Study of Jazz Improvisation
Charles J. Limb, Allen R. Braun
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001679
Abstract: To investigate the neural substrates that underlie spontaneous musical performance, we examined improvisation in professional jazz pianists using functional MRI. By employing two paradigms that differed widely in musical complexity, we found that improvisation (compared to production of over-learned musical sequences) was consistently characterized by a dissociated pattern of activity in the prefrontal cortex: extensive deactivation of dorsolateral prefrontal and lateral orbital regions with focal activation of the medial prefrontal (frontal polar) cortex. Such a pattern may reflect a combination of psychological processes required for spontaneous improvisation, in which internally motivated, stimulus-independent behaviors unfold in the absence of central processes that typically mediate self-monitoring and conscious volitional control of ongoing performance. Changes in prefrontal activity during improvisation were accompanied by widespread activation of neocortical sensorimotor areas (that mediate the organization and execution of musical performance) as well as deactivation of limbic structures (that regulate motivation and emotional tone). This distributed neural pattern may provide a cognitive context that enables the emergence of spontaneous creative activity.
Impact of Robotic Dispensing Machines in German Pharmacies on Business Performance Indicators
F Ruhle, R Braun, H Ostermann
Libyan Journal of Medicine , 2009,
Abstract: To assess the impact of robotic dispensing machines in community pharmacies on staff efficiency and sales of over-the-counter drugs. Setting: The study was done on 253 community pharmacies in Germany that use a robotic dispensing machine manufactured by ROWA during 2008. Method: Data concerning the financial and economic impact of using a robotic dispensing machine in community pharmacies was gathered using a structured questionnaire and analysed in terms of its financial implications. Key findings: The response rate was 29%. In most pharmacies (79%) the robotic dispensing machine was retrofitted. In 59% of the pharmacies additional space was gained for self-service and behind-the-counter display. As a result of using a robotic dispensing machine, personnel costs were reduced by an average of 4.6% during the first 12 months after start-up. Over-the-counter sales increased in the same period by an average of 6.8%. Despite average initial costs of 118,000 euros, total costs within the first 12 months fell in 50% of cases and at least remained the same in 44%. Conclusions: On average, robotic dispensing machines lead to modest savings in personnel costs and slight increases in sales of over-the-counter drugs. Substantial savings can be achieved only if the staffing level is adapted to the changed personnel requirements.
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