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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 225035 matches for " R. Beck "
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Galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields – a concise review
R. Beck
Astrophysics and Space Sciences Transactions (ASTRA) , 2009, DOI: 10.5194/astra-5-43-2009
Abstract: The strength of the total magnetic field in our Milky Way from radio synchrotron measurements is about 6 μG (0.6 nT), averaged over a radius of about 1 kpc around the Sun. Diffuse polarized radio emission and Faraday rotation of the polarized emission from pulsars and background sources show many small-scale magnetic features, but the overall field structure in our Galaxy is still under debate. – In nearby galaxies, radio synchrotron observations reveal dynamically important magnetic fields of 10–30 μG (1–3 nT) total strength in the spiral arms. Fields with random orientations are concentrated in spiral arms, while ordered fields (observed in radio polarization) are strongest in interarm regions and follow the orientation of the adjacent gas spiral arms. Faraday rotation of the diffuse polarized radio emission from the disks of spiral galaxies sometimes reveals large-scale patterns which are signatures of regular fields generated by dynamos, but in most galaxies the field structure is more complicated. – Strong magnetic fields are also observed in radio halos around edge-on galaxies, out to large distances from the plane. The ordered halo fields usually form an X-shaped pattern. Diffuse polarized radio emission in the outer disks and halos is an excellent tracer of galaxy interactions and ram pressure by the intergalactic medium.
Measurements of Cosmic Magnetism with LOFAR and SKA
R. Beck
Advances in Radio Science : Kleinheubacher Berichte , 2007,
Abstract: The origin of magnetic fields in stars, galaxies and clusters is an open problem in astrophysics. The next-generation radio telescopes Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) and Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will revolutionize the study of cosmic magnetism. "The origin and evolution of cosmic magnetism" is a key science project for SKA. The planned all-sky survey of Faraday rotation measures (RM) at 1.4 GHz will be used to model the structure and strength of the magnetic fields in the intergalactic medium, the interstellar medium of intervening galaxies, and in the Milky Way. A complementary survey of selected regions at around 200 MHz is planned as a key project for LOFAR. Spectro-polarimetry applied to the large number of spectral channels available for LOFAR and SKA will allow to separate RM components from distinct foreground and background regions and to perform 3-D Faraday tomography of the interstellar medium of the Milky Way and nearby galaxies. – Deep polarization mapping with LOFAR and SKA will open a new era also in the observation of synchrotron emission from magnetic fields. LOFAR's sensitivity will allow to map the structure of weak, extended magnetic fields in the halos of galaxies, in galaxy clusters, and possibly in the intergalactic medium. Polarization observations with SKA at higher frequencies (1–10 GHz) will show the detailed magnetic field structure within the disks and central regions of galaxies, with much higher angular resolution than present-day radio telescopes.
MAGNETIC VISIONS: MAPPING COSMIC MAGNETISM WITH LOFAR AND SKA
R. Beck
Revista mexicana de astronomía y astrofísica , 2009,
Abstract: The origin of magnetic fields in the Universe is an open problem in astrophysics and fundamental physics. "Cosmic Magnetism" has been accepted as Key Science Project both for the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR, under construction) and the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA). At low frequencies LOFAR and SKA will allow to map the structure of weak magnetic fields in the outer regions and halos of galaxies, in galaxy clusters and in the Milky Way. High-resolution polarization observations at high frequencies with the SKA will trace magnetic fields in the disks and central regions of galaxies in unprecedented detail. All-sky surveys of Faraday rotation measures (RM) towards polarized background sources will be used to model the structure and strength of the magnetic fields in the Milky Way, the interstellar medium of galaxies and the intergalactic medium. The new method of "RM Synthesis", applied to spectro-polarimetric data cubes, will separate RM components from different distances and allow 3-D "Faraday tomography". Magnetic fields in distant galaxies and clusters and in intergalactic filaments will be searched for by deep imaging of weak synchrotron emission and of RM towards background sources. This will open a new era in the observation of cosmic magnetic fields.
Magnetism in Nearby Galaxies, Prospects with the SKA, and Synergies with the E-ELT
R. Beck
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: Radio synchrotron emission, its polarization and its Faraday rotation are powerful tools to study the strength and structure of interstellar magnetic fields. In the Milky Way, Faraday rotation of the polarized emission from pulsars and background sources indicate that the regular field follows the spiral arms and has one reversal inside the solar radius, but the overall field structure in our Galaxy is still unclear. In nearby galaxies, ordered fields with spiral structure exist in grand-design, barred and flocculent galaxies. The strongest ordered fields (10-15 \muG) are found in interarm regions. Faraday rotation of the diffuse polarized radio emission from the disks of spiral galaxies sometimes reveals large-scale patterns, which are signatures of regular fields generated by a mean-field dynamo. - The SKA and its precursor telescopes will open a new era in the observation of cosmic magnetic fields and help to understand their origin. All-sky surveys of Faraday rotation measures (RM) towards a dense grid of polarized background sources with the ASKAP (POSSUM), MeerKAT and the SKA are dedicated to measure fields in intervening galaxies and will be used to model the overall structure and strength of the magnetic fields in the Milky Way and beyond. Examples for joint polarimetric observations between the SKA and the E-ELT are given.
Determination of the E2/M1 Ratio in the γN \to Δ(1232) Transition from a Simultaneous Measurement of p(\vecγ,p)π^0 and p(\vecγ,π^+)n
R. Beck
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.61.035204
Abstract: Tagged linearly polarized photons have been used at the Mainz Microtron MAMI for simultaneous measurements of the p(\vec{\gamma},p)\pi^0 and p(\vec{\gamma},\pi^+)n reaction channels to study the \gamma N \to \Delta(1232) transition. The energy dependence of the magnetic dipole M_{1+}^{3/2} and electric quadrupole E_{1+}^{3/2} amplitudes have been extracted from these data in the photon energy range from 270 to 420 MeV. The E2/M1 ratio for the \gamma N \to \Delta(1232) transition has been determined to be - (2.5+-0.1_{stat}+-0.2_{sys}) % at the resonance position delta_{33}=90^0.
Spectroscopy at the solar limb: I. Average off-limb profiles and Doppler shifts of Ca II H
C. Beck,R. Rezaei
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201014976
Abstract: We present constraints on the structure of the chromosphere from observations of the Ca II H line profile near and off the solar limb. We obtained a data set of the Ca II H line in a field of view extending 20" across the limb. We analyzed the spectra for the properties of off-limb spectra. We used tracers of the Doppler shifts, such as the location of the absorption core, the ratio of the two emission peaks H2V and H2R, and intensity images at a fixed wavelength. The average off-limb profiles show a smooth variation with increasing limb distance. The line width increases up to a height of about 2 Mm above the limb. The profile shape is fairly symmetric with nearly identical H2V and H2R intensities; at a height of 5 Mm, it changes into a single Gaussian without emission peaks. We find that all off-limb spectra show large Doppler shifts that fluctuate on the smallest resolved spatial scales. The variation is more prominent in cuts parallel to the solar limb than on those perpendicular to it. As far as individual structures can be unequivocally identified at our spatial resolution, we find a specific relation between intensity enhancements and Doppler shifts: elongated brightenings are often flanked all along their extension by velocities in opposite directions. The average off-limb spectra of Ca II H present a good opportunity to test static chromospheric atmosphere models because they lack the photospheric contribution that is present in disk-center spectra. We suggest that the observed relation between intensity enhancements and Doppler shifts could be caused by waves propagating along the surfaces of flux tubes: an intrinsic twist of the flux tubes or a wave propagation inclined to the tube axis would cause a helical shape of the Doppler excursion, visible as opposite velocity at the sides of the flux tube.
Chromospheric multi-wavelength observations near the solar limb
C. Beck,R. Rezaei
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: Observations of chromospheric spectral lines near and beyond the solar limb provide information on the solar chromosphere without any photospheric contamination. For ground-based observations near and off the limb with real-time image correction by adaptive optics (AO), some technical requirements have to be met, such as an AO lock point that is independent of the location of the field of view observed by the science instruments, both for 1D and 2D instruments. We show how to obtain simultaneous AO-corrected spectra in Ca II H, Ha, Ca II IR at 854 nm, and He I at 1083 nm with the instrumentation at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope in Izana, Tenerife. We determined the spectral properties of an active-region macrospicule inside the field of view in the four chromospheric lines, including its signature in polarization in He I at 1083 nm. Compared to the line-core intensities, the Doppler shifts of the lines change on a smaller spatial scale in the direction parallel to the limb, suggesting the presence of coherent rotating structures or the passage of upwards propagating helical waves on the surfaces of expanding flux tubes.
Ethical and Scientific Considerations Regarding Animal Testing and Research
Hope R. Ferdowsian, Nancy Beck
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024059
Abstract:
Constraining the $(γ, π)$ amplitudes for E2 $N \to Δ$
R. Beck,H. P. Krahn
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: We reply to the Comment of A.M. Sandorfi et al. [nucl-th/9707028] on the E2/M1 ratio from the Mainz photoproduction data, nucl-th/9707028 v2. We support our published result for the E2/M1 ratio of REM = -(2.5 +- 0.2 +- 0.2)%.
E2/M1 ratio from the Mainz $p(\vecγ, p)π^0$
R. Beck,H. P. Krahn
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: We reply to the Comment of R.L. Workman on the E2/M1 ratio from the Mainz photoproduction data, nucl-th/9702052. We support our published result for the E2/M1 ratio of REM = -(2.5 +- 0.2 +- 0.2)%.
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