Abstract:
The aim of this study is to design a software tool for lifetime estimation for Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications simulated using Global Mobile System Simulator (GloMoSim). WSN are emerging because of the developments in wireless communication technology and miniaturization of the hardware. The solutions developed for WSN applications focus more on maximizing the lifetime of the network. The parameters such as number of nodes, data rate, MAC protocols, sampling rate, etc., influence the lifetime of a WSN application. In this paper, a sophisticated GUI based software tool called WECalc: Wireless Energy Calculator is designed to accept user inputs and to invoke GloMoSim. The advantages of WECalc tool are threefold. 1. Easy simulation of WSN applications through this GUI. 2. Flexible changes to various parameters that influence the lifetime and calculation of network lifetime prior to real time deployment. 3. A value addition to GloMoSim for WSN applications. The designed tool was experimented with changes in number of nodes, node position, MAC protocol, routing protocol, traffic pattern, etc., and the network lifetime was calculated which extends the utility of GloMoSim to WSN applications also. From the results obtained using this tool, it is observed that the MAC protocol with RTS-CTS mechanism performs well and routing protocol with ondemand route establishment mechanism increases the lifetime in WSN applications. Also, lifetime of the network depends on number of nodes involved in the path between source to sink and network lifetime is reduced when the sampling rate is increased.

Abstract:
Nowadays, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are emerging because of the technological developments in wireless communication and the advancements in miniaturization of sensor hardware nodes. WSN is an ad hoc network with more number of nodes densely deployed. Sensor nodes cooperatively pass the data through the network to a sink node. The research area of WSNs is growing and testing of new protocols and mechanisms developed for WSN application in real environment is infeasible as the number of nodes in WSN application is more. The use of simulation environments is an alternative to test the performance of an application prior to actual deployment. Global Mobile Information System Simulator (GloMoSim) is a open source network simulation software which simulates wired and wireless networks. GloMoSim uses the OSI reference model by using a layered approach. It supports parallel programming language called Parsec which is used for parallel discrete event simulation. It offers basic functionality to simulate wireless networks and does not support any sensor specific features and protocols for WSN simulation. Hence, without any further efforts in terms of adding protocols with the layers of GloMoSim, no WSNs can be simulated using GloMoSim. In this paper, the design, implementation of WSN routing protocol Sensor Protocol for Information via Negotiation (SPIN) and interfacing in network layer of GloMoSim is proposed. This addition makes GloMoSim suitable for WSN simulations.

Abstract:
Several wireless sensor network applications ought to decide the intrinsic variance between energy efficient communication and the requirement to attain preferred quality of service (QoS) such as packet delivery ratio, delay and to reduce the power consumption of wireless sensor nodes. In order to address this challenge, we propose the Power Aware Routing Protocol (PARP), which attains application-specified communication delays at low energy cost by dynamically adapting transmission power and routing decisions. Extensive simulation results prove that the proposed PARP attains better QoS and reduced power consumption.

Abstract:
Mobile phones and other electronic devices are emitting radiations that will provide harmful effects to the human health. In order to measure the radiation, an innovative low cost measurement system is proposed in this paper. The ideology is to simplify the circuit’s value by converting a voltage detecting circuit to a field detecting circuit by finding an optimum resistance on trial and error basis. The requirement for a trial and error technique is to not allow too high or too low resistance which can be either short or open, resulting provides more damage to the circuit.

Abstract:
This work proposes a novel
nature-inspired algorithm called Ant Lion Optimizer (ALO). The ALO algorithm
mimics the search mechanism of antlions in nature. A time domain based
objective function is established to tune the parameters of the PI controller
based LFC, which is solved by the proposed ALO algorithm to reach the most
convenient solutions. A three-area interconnected power system is investigated
as a test system under various loading conditions to confirm the effectiveness
of the suggested algorithm. Simulation results are given to show the enhanced
performance of the developed ALO algorithm based controllers in comparison with
Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Bat Algorithm (BAT)
and conventional PI controller. These results represent that the proposed BAT
algorithm tuned PI controller offers better performance over other soft computing
algorithms in conditions of settling times and several performance indices.

Abstract:
For the transportation problem, Sharma and Sharma [1] have given a very computationally efficient heuristic (runs in O(c*n^{2}) time) to give very good dual solution to transportation problem. Sharma and Prasad [2] have given an efficient heuristic (complexity O(n^{3}) procedure to give a very good primal solution (that is generally non-basic feasible solution) to transportation problem by using the very good dual solution given by Sharma and Sharma [2]. In this paper we use the solution given by Sharma and Prasad [2] to get a very good Basic Feasible Solution to transportation problem, so that network simplex (worst case complexity (O(n^{3}*(log(n))) can be used to reach the optimal solution to transportation problem. In the second part of this paper, we give a simple heuristic procedure to get a very good BFS to linear programming problem from the solution given by Karmarkar [3] (that generally produces a very good non-basic feasible solution in polynomial time (O(n^{5.5})). We give a procedure to obtain a good BFS for LP by starting from the solution given by Karmarkar [3]. We note that this procedure (given here) is significantly different from the procedure given in [4].

Abstract:
Power consumption of sensor node is analyzed in this paper.
In order to analyze the energy consumption, the node model is simulated using
Proteus Software tool. The proposed sensor node’s power characteristics are measured by using different combinations of microprocessors
and sensors. Using this, the energy consumption of the node is calculated. This
is a cost-effective method and provides appropriate power model for specific applications.

Curcumin is the main biologically active phytochemical compound of turmeric that has been widely used by ancient cultures throughout Asia. However the dissolution rate limited absorption and pre-absorption degradation limits its use as a potential therapeutic. In this study an attempt has been made to overcome the above limitations by curcumin delivery through nanotechnology. Nanocurcumin solid dosage formulations were prepared and studied for its dissolution behaviour. Considerable improvement in the dissolution behavior was observed in the drug nanocrystal-loaded solid dosage forms. This is expected to enhance the bioavailability of poorly soluble medicinal herbs such as turmeric in the body.

Curcumin, a bioactive component of
turmeric, which is a commonly used spice and nutritional supplement, is isolated
from the rhizomes ofCurcuma longa Linn. (Zingiberaceae). In recent years, the potential pharmacological actions
of Curcumin in inflammatory disorders, cardiovascular disease, cancer,
Alzheimer’s disease and neurological disorders have been shown. However, the
clinical application of Curcumin is severely limited by its main drawbacks such
as instability, low
solubility, poor bioavailability and rapid metabolism. Multifarious
nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for Curcumin including liposomes,
polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, micelles, nanogels, nanoemulsions,
complexes and dendrimer/dimer, have been attempted to enhance the oral
bioavailability, biological activity or tissue-targeting ability of Curcumin.
We attempted the nanosuspensions based delivery of curcumin. Nanonisation renders curcumin completely dispersible
in aqueous media. To enhance the
curcumin absorption by oral administration, nanoparticulate solid oral
formulation of curcumin was prepared by us and the resulting capsule was then examined for its efficiency on
bioavailability in Male Wistar rats at a dose of 100 mg curcumin/kg body weight
and the pharmacokinetic parameters were compared to those of normal curcumin
powder and a commercial curcumin capsule CUR-500. The bio-distribution of
curcumin in organs of rat was also studied. Nanoparticulation significantly
raised the curcumin concentration in selective organs in the body. The results
obtained provide promising results for nanoparticulate Curcumin to improve its
biological activities. Enhanced bioavailability of curcumin in the form of nanoparticle
is likely to bring this promising natural product to the forefront of
therapeutic agents for treatment of human disease. The available information
also strongly suggests that nano-formulation of ingredients such as curcumin
may be used as a novel nutrient delivery system too.

The current attempt is aimed to
outline the geometrical framework of a well known statistical problem,
concerning the explicit expression of the arithmetic mean standard deviation
distribution. To this respect, after a short exposition, three steps are
performed as 1)
formulation of the arithmetic mean standard deviation, , as a function of the errors, , which, by themselves, are
statistically independent; 2)
formulation of the arithmetic mean standard deviation distribution, , as a function of the errors, ; 3) formulation of the arithmetic mean
standard deviation distribution, , as a function of the
arithmetic mean standard deviation, , and the arithmetic mean rms
error, . The integration domain can
be expressed in canonical form after a change of reference frame in the n-space, which is recognized as an
infinitely thin n-cylindrical corona
where the symmetry axis coincides with a coordinate axis. Finally, the solution
is presented and a number of (well known) related parameters are inferred for
sake of completeness.