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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 232391 matches for " R Theodore Smith "
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PPARs in Alveolar Macrophage Biology
Monica R. Smith,Theodore J. Standiford,Raju C. Reddy
PPAR Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1155/2007/23812
Abstract: PPARs, most notably PPAR-γ, play a crucial role in regulating the activation of alveolar macrophages, which in turn occupy a pivotal place in the immune response to pathogens and particulates drawn in with inspired air. In this review, we describe the dual role of the alveolar macrophage as both a first-line defender through its phagocytotic activity and a regulator of the immune response. Depending on its state of activation, the alveolar macrophage may either enhance or suppress different aspects of immune function in the lung. We then review the role of PPAR-γ and its ligands in deactivating alveolar macrophages—thus limiting the inflammatory response that, if unchecked, could threaten the essential respiratory function of the alveolus—while upregulating the cell's phagocytotic activity. Finally, we examine the role that inadequate or inappropriate PPAR-γ responses play in specific lung diseases.
A Method of Drusen Measurement Based on the Geometry of Fundus Reflectance
R Theodore Smith, Takayuki Nagasaki, Janet R Sparrow, Irene Barbazetto, Caroline CW Klaver, Jackie K Chan
BioMedical Engineering OnLine , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1475-925x-2-10
Abstract: An interactive semi-automated procedure was developed to level the macular background reflectance for the purpose of morphometric analysis of drusen. 12 color fundus photographs of patients with age-related macular degeneration and drusen were analyzed. After digitizing the photographs, the underlying background pattern in the green channel was leveled by an algorithm based on the elliptically concentric geometry of the reflectance in the normal macula: the gray scale values of all structures within defined elliptical boundaries were raised sequentially until a uniform background was obtained. Segmentation of drusen and area measurements in the central and middle subfields (1000 μm and 3000 μm diameters) were performed by uniform thresholds. Two observers using this interactive semi-automated software measured each image digitally. The mean digital measurements were compared to independent stereo fundus gradings by two expert graders (stereo Grader 1 estimated the drusen percentage in each of the 24 regions as falling into one of four standard broad ranges; stereo Grader 2 estimated drusen percentages in 1% to 5% intervals).The mean digital area measurements had a median standard deviation of 1.9%. The mean digital area measurements agreed with stereo Grader 1 in 22/24 cases. The 95% limits of agreement between the mean digital area measurements and the more precise stereo gradings of Grader 2 were -6.4 % to +6.8 % in the central subfield and -6.0 % to +4.5 % in the middle subfield. The mean absolute differences between the digital and stereo gradings 2 were 2.8 +/- 3.4% in the central subfield and 2.2 +/- 2.7% in the middle subfield.Semi-automated, supervised drusen measurements may be done reproducibly and accurately with adaptations of commercial software. This technique for macular image analysis has potential for use in clinical research.Color fundus photographs have been routinely employed for diagnostic purposes for many years, and fundus photo gradings are c
What Are My Children Watching? Analyzing the Scientific & Mathematical Questions of Preschool Television Shows Using Process Skills  [PDF]
Donna Farland-Smith, Theodore Chao
Creative Education (CE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2017.86061
Abstract: In an effort to compare what process skills preschoolers were exposed to during an average episode of Sid the Science Kid and an average episode of Team Umizoomi 35 episodes of each were compared using T-test statistical analysis. The goal of this study was to analyze evidence of process skills in each episode: observing, inferring, classifying, measuring, predicting, and communicating and compare each math and science show and determine their differences in their use of inquiry to presentation science and mathematics content. Results demonstrated a significant difference between the two shows with preschoolers being exposed to observing and communicating when watching Sid the Science Kid and preschoolers being exposed to classifying and measuring while watching Team Umizoomi. In addition, it is worth mentioning that young children watching Team Umizoomi are experiencing more questions when compared with Sid the Science Kid.
Latitude-dependent effects in the stellar wind of Eta Carinae
Nathan Smith,Kris Davidson,Theodore R. Gull,Kazunori Ishibashi,John Hillier
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/367641
Abstract: The Homunculus reflection nebula around eta Carinae provides a rare opportunity to observe the spectrum of a star from multiple latitudes. We present STIS spectra of several positions in the Homunculus, showing directly that eta Car has an aspherical stellar wind. P Cygni absorption in Balmer lines depends on latitude, with high velocities and strong absorption near the poles. Stronger absorption at high latitudes is surprising, and it suggests higher mass flux toward the poles, perhaps resulting from radiative driving with equatorial gravity darkening on a rotating star. Reflected profiles of He I lines are more puzzling, offering clues to the wind geometry and ionization structure. During eta Car's high-excitation state in March 2000, the wind was fast and dense at the poles, with higher ionization at low latitudes. Older STIS data obtained since 1998 reveal that this global stellar-wind geometry changes during eta Car's 5.5 year cycle, and may suggest that this star's spectroscopic events are shell ejections. Whether or not a companion star triggers these outbursts remains ambiguous. The most dramatic changes in the wind occur at low latitudes, while the dense polar wind remains relatively undisturbed during an event. The apparent stability of the polar wind also supports the inferred bipolar geometry. The wind geometry and its variability have critical implications for understanding the 5.5 year cycle and long-term variability, but do not provide a clear alternative to the binary hypothesis for generating eta Car's X-rays.
Pioglitazone is as effective as dexamethasone in a cockroach allergen-induced murine model of asthma
Venkata R Narala, Rajesh Ranga, Monica R Smith, Aaron A Berlin, Theodore J Standiford, Nicholas W Lukacs, Raju C Reddy
Respiratory Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-8-90
Abstract: We compared the effectiveness of the PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone (PIO) to the established effectiveness of a glucocorticoid receptor agonist, dexamethasone (DEX), in a murine model of asthma induced by cockroach allergen (CRA). After sensitization to CRA and airway localization by intranasal instillation of the allergen, Balb/c mice were challenged twice at 48-h intervals with intratracheal CRA. Either PIO (25 mg/kg/d), DEX (1 mg/kg/d), or vehicle was administered throughout the period of airway CRA exposure.PIO and DEX demonstrated similar abilities to reduce airway hyperresponsiveness, pulmonary recruitment of inflammatory cells, serum IgE, and lung levels of IL-4, IL-5, TNF-α, TGF-β, RANTES, eotaxin, MIP3-α, Gob-5, and Muc5-ac. Likewise, intratracheal administration of an adenovirus containing a constitutively active PPAR-γ expression construct blocked CRA induction of Gob-5 and Muc5-ac.Given the potent effectiveness shown by PIO, we conclude that PPAR-γ agonists deserve investigation as potential therapies for human asthma.Asthma incidence and morbidity continues to rise worldwide. Prominent characteristics of allergic asthma include reduced airflow, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), accumulation of eosinophils, mast cells, and other inflammatory cells in peribronchiolar regions, and hyperplasia of goblet cells with excessive mucus secretion [1,2]. These effects are accompanied, in part, by the overproduction of a variety of cytokines and chemokines that attract inflammatory cells and stimulate a TH2- and IgE-dominated immune response.Glucocorticoids, inhaled or oral, are currently the most effective treatments for asthma [3]. Side effects remain a significant problem, however, especially since individuals may begin using these medications in childhood and continue them for life. Furthermore, some patients, especially those with severe disease, may respond poorly to steroids or not at all [4]. Consequently, the need remains for medications that are safer and equ
Fifty-One Competencies for Online Instruction
Theodore C. Smith
Journal of Educators Online , 2005,
Abstract: The effectiveness of distance learning must be measured in results—quality learning. Learner-center programs and competent instructors are two oft-cited keys to success in higher education. Teaching online requires specific skill sets (competencies). This paper identifies and describes 51 competencies needed by online instructors and outlines an instructor-training program that satisfies 3 of the 24 benchmarks for excellence recommended by the Institute for Higher Education Policy.
Far Ultraviolet Imagery of the Edge-On Spiral Galaxy NGC 4631
Andrew M. Smith,Nicholas R. Collins,William H. Waller,Morton S. Roberts,Denise A. Smith,Ralph C. Bohlin,K. P. Cheng,Michael N. Fanelli,Susan G. Neff,Robert W. O'Connell,Ronald A. Parise,Eric P. Smith,Theodore P. Stecher
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/318273
Abstract: Far ultraviolet FUV imagery of the edge-on, Sc/SBd galaxy, NGC 4631 reveals very strong FUV emission, resulting from active star formation, uniformly distributed along the galactic mid- plane. Multi-band imagery, HI and HII position-velocity curves and extinction considerations all imply that the emission is from the outer edges of the visible galaxy. The overall FUV morphology of this edge-on disk system is remarkably similar to those of the so-called "chain galaxies" evident at high redshift, thus suggesting a similar interpretation for at least some of those distant objects. FUV, U, B and V magnitudes, measured for 48 star forming regions, along with corresponding H-alpha and H-beta measurements are used to construct diagnostic color-color diagrams. Although there are significant exceptions, most of the star forming regions are less massive and older than 30 Doradus. Comparison with the expectations from two star formation models yields ages of 2.7 to 10 Myr for the instantaneous burst (IB) model and star formation cut-off ages of 0 to 9 Myr for the continuous star formation (CSF) model. Interpreted in terms of the IB model the photometry implies a total created mass in the 48 star forming regions of 25 million solar-masses. When viewed as resulting from constant star formation the photometry implies a star formation rate of 0.33 solar-masses/yr. These results are compared to those derived from FIR and radio observations. Corrections for FUV emission reprocessed by interstellar grains are estimated.
Ultraviolet Imaging of the z=0.23 Cluster Abell 2246
Robert H. Cornett,Ben Dorman,Eric P. Smith,Michael A. Fanelli,William R. Oegerle,Ralph C. Bohlin,Susan G. Neff,Robert W. O'Connell,Morton S. Roberts,Andrew M. Smith,Theodore P. Stecher
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/300430
Abstract: We present deep ultraviolet observations of a field containing the cluster Abell 2246 (z=0.225) which provide far-ultraviolet (FUV) images of some of the faintest galaxies yet observed in that bandpass. Abell 2246 lies within the field of view of Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) observations of the quasar HS1700+64, which accumulated over 7100 seconds of UIT FUV exposure time during the Astro-2 mission in March 1995. For objects found on both the FUV and ground-based V-band images, we obtain FUV (l ~ 1520 A) photometry and V-band photometry, as well as mid-UV (l ~ 2490 A) photometry from UIT Astro-1 observations and ground-based I-band photometry. We find five objects in the images which are probably galaxies at the distance of Abell 2246, with FUV magnitudes (m(FUV)) between 18.6 and 19.6, and V magnitudes between 18.4 and 19.6. We find that their absolute FUV fluxes and colors imply strongly that they are luminous galaxies with significant current star formation, as well as some relatively recent, but not current, (> 400 Myr ago) star formation. We interpret the colors of these five objects by comparing them with local objects, redshift-corrected template spectra and stellar population models, finding that they are plausibly matched by 10-Gyr-old population models with decaying star formation, with decay time constants in the range 3 Gyr < t < 5 Gyr, with an additional color component from a single burst of moderate ( ~ 400-500 Myr) age. From derived FUV luminosities we compute current star formation rates. We compare the UV properties of Abell 2246 with those of the Coma cluster, finding that Abell 2246 has significantly more recent star formation, consistent with the Butcher-Oemler phenomenon.
Olga Litvak, Conscription and the Search for Modern Russian Jewry, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006, 273 pages.
Theodore R. Weeks
Journal of Power Institutions in Post-Soviet Societies , 2007,
Abstract: Many American Jew are convinced that their ancestors fled the Russian Empire in the 1880s to flee pogroms and forced conscription, even of young Jewish boys. But as historians have long pointed out, forced conscriptions of young Jewish boys had ended decades before mass emigration. And yet in Jewish memory, the khapers (“grabbers”: Jews who captured and handed over Jewish lads to the tsarist recruiters) and conscription continue to loom large among tsarist Russia’s most cruel antisemitic po...
Yohanan Petrovsky-Shtern, Jews in the Russian Army, 1827-1917: Drafted into Modernity
Theodore R. Weeks
Journal of Power Institutions in Post-Soviet Societies , 2009,
Abstract: For some time now historians of the Jewish experience in Eastern Europe and especially in Russia have been demonstrating that the “lachrymose history” that still lives on in popular memory is one-sided, distorted, and more akin to myth than to “objective history” (if one may use such a reactionary term). Yohanan Petrovsky-Shtern’s new book which is only in part a translation of his earlier (and considerably longer) Evrei v russkoi armii, 1827-1914 (Moscow: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 2003) ...
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