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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 232266 matches for " R Machado "
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Colecta de Jatropha curcas y su comportamiento en fase de vivero y de establecimiento (Nota técnica)
Machado,R;
Pastos y Forrajes , 2011,
Abstract: the objective of this work was to collect j. curcas material with adequate morphological characteristics for seed production, as well as to determine its performance in the nursery and establishment stages. in nursery variation was observed in the necessary days for the rooting of the propagules (14 to 35 days) and in seedling emergence (7 to 28 days). the propagule survival fluctuated between 73 and 100%; while starting from seed it was between 26,6 and 85,0%. the survival in the field stage varied between 45,4 and 93,3% in the provenances transferred by propagules, but in most it turned out to be lower than the one detected in the nursery. in the provenances directly sown variation was also detected in survival, but the number of plants emerged after 56 days was high. under these conditions a similar variation pattern was maintained in the percentage of rooted plants and survival, but the effect of the stress caused by the transfer was evident. it is concluded that the age of the plants and the parts selected in the donor material, as well as seed quality, could have influenced the variation of the necessary days for rooting or emergence and the survival percentage. using the procedure described for the collection of j. curcas is recommended, emphasizing the vegetative way, in order to have access to provenances with adequate characteristics for seed production and with it maintain the genotype of the collected materials.
Caracterización morfológica y productiva de procedencias de Jatropha curcas L.
Machado,R;
Pastos y Forrajes , 2011,
Abstract: the objective of this work was to characterize the morphological and productive variability of jatropha curcas provenances. for that purpose the following indicators were measured or estimated: height; diameter of primary branches and stem; height of the first branch; diseases; number of primary, secondary and tertiary branches; fruit number and weight; seed yield; weight of 100 seeds; seed size and oil content. in order to interpret the results pca and cluster analysis were used. height was the most variable indicator, followed by diameter of primary branches, number of secondary and primary branches and stem diameter, which accounted for 57,7% of the variability. based on these indicators six groups were formed. the highest values, in all morphological indicators, were found in group i (sscs-3), and the lowest ones in group iv (sscs-7 and sscs-6). only six from the ten seeded provenances produced fruits; while the planted ones did it in all cases. among the seeded ones the following stood out: san miguel, d-1 and sscs-3, with estimated yields of 2 325; 243 and 169 kg of seed/ha; and in the planted ones: cabo verde, ssce-10 and ssce-7 with 814; 327 and 93,2 kg of seed/ha, respectively. in ssce-10 and cabo verde the oil percentage reached 32,8 and 35,0%, respectively. the results allowed identifying the outstanding provenances, in the morphological (sscs-3) as well as the productive indicators (cabo verde, ssce-10 and san miguel).
Cambios en la estructura, la población y la composición de 19 accesiones de Panicum maximum sometidas a pastoreo CIAT-184 Changes in the structure, population and composition of 19 Panicum maximum accessions under grazing conditions
R Machado
Pastos y Forrajes , 2012,
Abstract: Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo caracterizar los cambios y la tendencia de indicadores relacionados con la estructura, la población y la composición en 19 accesiones de Panicum maximum cuando fueron sometidas a condiciones de pastoreo simulado. Las rotaciones se hicieron cada 32-40 días en el periodo lluvioso y 60-70 días en el poco lluvioso, con intensidad de pastoreo de 80-135 UGM/ha/día (los dos primeros a os) y 120-160 UGM/ha/día (tercer a o). Se utilizó un dise o de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones. Aunque en todos los tratamientos disminuyó la relación vástagos vivos/vástagos muertos, este cociente fue superior a uno, por lo que el ritmo de sustitución de vástagos fue favorable. En el 84,2% de los tratamientos se incrementó el número de macollas con relación a el estatus inicial. El porcentaje de arvenses aumentó con las rotaciones, pero ninguno de los tratamientos alcanzó un estado de deterioro avanzado. En este indicador se destacaron los tipos gigantes CIH-13, SIH-697, CIH-3, CC-1146 y SIH-10, con valores que variaron entre 4,6 y 14,1%, así como los tipos medianos CIH-15 y Tardío peque o, con 10 y 12,3%, respectivamente. Se concluye que el germoplasma evaluado mostró valores adecuados, en función de los indicadores relacionados con la estructura de la macolla, la población y el porcentaje de invasión de las especies arvenses, aunque se identificó un alto contraste entre los tipos gigantes y medianos y dentro de estos grupos. Se sugiere analizar el resto de los indicadores productivos y con ello determinar los tipos más sobresalientes, sobre la base de los resultados en todos los indicadores incluidos. The objective of this work was to characterize the changes and trend of indicators related to the structure, population and composition in 19 Panicum maximum accessions under simulated grazing conditions. The rotations took place every 32-40 days in the rainy season and 60-70 days in the dry season, with grazing intensity of 80-135 animals/ha/day (the first two years) and 120-160 animals/ha/year (third year). A randomized block design was used with three repetitions. Although in all treatments the live shoots/dead shoots ratio decreased, this quotient was higher than one, for which the substitution rate of the shoots was favorable. In 84,2% of the treatments, the number of tufts increased as compared to the initial status. The weed percentage increased with the rotations, but none of the treatments reached an advanced deterioration status. In this indicator the giant types CIH-13, SIH-697, CIH-3, CC-1146 and SIH-10 stood out, with values that
Caracterización morfológica y productiva de procedencias de Jatropha curcas L. Morphological and productive characterization of Jatropha curcas L. provenances
R Machado
Pastos y Forrajes , 2011,
Abstract: El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar la variabilidad morfológica y productiva de procedencias de Jatropha curcas. Para ello se midió o estimó: la altura; el grosor de las ramas primarias y del tallo; la altura de la primera rama; las enfermedades; el número de ramas primarias, secundarias y terciarias; el número y el peso de los frutos; el rendimiento de semillas; el peso de 100 semillas; las dimensiones de la semilla y el contenido de aceite. Para interpretar los resultados se utilizó ACP y análisis de conglomerados. La altura fue el indicador más variable, seguido por el grosor de las ramas primarias, el número de ramas secundarias y primarias, y el grosor del tallo, los cuales explicaron el 57,7% de la variabilidad. Sobre la base de estos indicadores se formaron seis grupos. Los valores extremos superiores, en todos los indicadores morfológicos, se encontraron en el grupo I (SSCS-3), y los inferiores en el grupo IV (SSCS-7 y SSCS-6). Solo seis de las diez procedencias sembradas produjeron frutos; mientras que las plantadas lo hicieron en todos los casos. De las sembradas sobresalieron: San Miguel, D-1 y SSCS-3, con rendimientos estimados de 2 325; 243 y 169 kg de semilla/ha; y de las plantadas: Cabo Verde, SSCE-10 y SSCE-7 con 814; 327 y 93,2 kg de semilla/ha, respectivamente. En la SSCE-10 y en la Cabo Verde el porcentaje de aceite alcanzó un 32,8 y 35,0%, respectivamente. Los resultados permitieron identificar las procedencias sobresalientes, tanto en los indicadores morfológicos (SSCS-3) como en los productivos (Cabo Verde, SSCE-10 y San Miguel). The objective of this work was to characterize the morphological and productive variability of Jatropha curcas provenances. For that purpose the following indicators were measured or estimated: height; diameter of primary branches and stem; height of the first branch; diseases; number of primary, secondary and tertiary branches; fruit number and weight; seed yield; weight of 100 seeds; seed size and oil content. In order to interpret the results PCA and cluster analysis were used. Height was the most variable indicator, followed by diameter of primary branches, number of secondary and primary branches and stem diameter, which accounted for 57,7% of the variability. Based on these indicators six groups were formed. The highest values, in all morphological indicators, were found in group I (SSCS-3), and the lowest ones in group IV (SSCS-7 and SSCS-6). Only six from the ten seeded provenances produced fruits; while the planted ones did it in all cases. Among the seeded ones the following stood out: S
Colecta de Jatropha curcas y su comportamiento en fase de vivero y de establecimiento (Nota técnica) Collection of Jatropha curcas and its performance in nursery and establishment stages (Technical note)
R Machado
Pastos y Forrajes , 2011,
Abstract: El objetivo de este trabajo fue colectar material de J. curcas con características morfológicas adecuadas para la producción de semilla, así como determinar su comportamiento en la fase de vivero y la de establecimiento. En el vivero se observó variación en los días necesarios para el arraigamiento de los propágulos (14 a 35 días) y en la emergencia de las plántulas (7 a 28 días). La supervivencia de los propágulos fluctuó entre 73 y 100%; mientras que a partir de semilla estuvo entre 26,6 y 85,0%. La supervivencia en la fase de campo varió entre 45,4 y 93,3% en las procedencias trasladadas por propágulos, pero en la mayoría resultó inferior a la que se detectó en el vivero. En las procedencias sembradas directamente también se detectó variación en la supervivencia, pero el número de plantas emergidas a los 56 días fue alto. En estas condiciones se mantuvo un patrón de variación similar en el porcentaje de plantas arraigadas y de supervivencia, pero fue evidente el efecto del estrés causado por el traslado. Se concluye que la edad de las plantas y de las partes elegidas en el material donante, así como la calidad de la semilla, pudieron influir en la variación de los días necesarios para el arraigamiento o la emergencia y en el porcentaje de supervivencia. Se recomienda utilizar el procedimiento descrito para la colecta de J. curcas, enfatizando en la vía vegetativa, con el fin de acceder a procedencias con características adecuadas para la producción de semilla y con ello mantener el genotipo de los materiales colectados. The objective of this work was to collect J. curcas material with adequate morphological characteristics for seed production, as well as to determine its performance in the nursery and establishment stages. In nursery variation was observed in the necessary days for the rooting of the propagules (14 to 35 days) and in seedling emergence (7 to 28 days). The propagule survival fluctuated between 73 and 100%; while starting from seed it was between 26,6 and 85,0%. The survival in the field stage varied between 45,4 and 93,3% in the provenances transferred by propagules, but in most it turned out to be lower than the one detected in the nursery. In the provenances directly sown variation was also detected in survival, but the number of plants emerged after 56 days was high. Under these conditions a similar variation pattern was maintained in the percentage of rooted plants and survival, but the effect of the stress caused by the transfer was evident. It is concluded that the age of the plants and the parts selected in the donor material,
Fish oil and sepsis: we still need more trials
Flavia R Machado
Critical Care , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/cc10431
Abstract: First, I did not find an adequate sample size calculation and we should know whether a type I error could have occurred.Another major concern is the inclusion imbalance among sites, which is not mentioned in the results or as a study limitation. The authors recognized that only five sites included patients among the initial 12 selected sites. As the principal investigator of one of these centers without inclusion, I believe it would be important to mention that the first author's site included the vast majority of patients. Although this is undoubtedly a multicenter study, readers should analyze the results considering exactly how many patients were included from each site and how many were excluded thereafter.It is not necessary to state the number of patients per site in large, multicenter studies without imbalance. When an imbalance is too high, however, it is advisable to provide possible reasons and to assume that it is a limitation. The authors recognized a limitation only in the highly selected population: patients without organ dysfunction already in the ICU and under enteral nutrition. It is well known that Brazil has a shortage of ICU beds, mostly in public hospitals, so patients without organ dysfunction are not likely to be admitted.The patients' baseline characteristics also draw attention, with high Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, high Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score and hyperlactatemia. Organ dysfunction was one of the exclusion criteria, with quite similar definitions to the SOFA score. The authors should therefore have provided a possible explanation for this finding. The development of organ dysfunction within the 48-hour window to the start of enteral feeding is a possibility. However, this could compromise the results, as organ dysfunction would be already present by the time the intervention took place.The strong criticism regarding the not yet published EDEN Omega trial is also unusual [2]. This trial will be the strongest ev
Líquido cefalorraqueano e neurocisticercose: aspectos evolutivos da resposta inflamatória celular
Machado, L. R.;
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria , 1987, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-282X1987000400001
Abstract: in order to evaluate the cellular component of the inflammatory chronic response, 357 cerebrospinal fluid (csf) samples from 40 patients with neurocysticercosis (inc) were studied. all patients were treated with usual doses of praziquantel (50mg/kg/day during 21 days) associated with dexamethasone (12mg/day). nc diagnosis has been performed considering three basic criteria: the clinical evaluation, the csf examination, the computed tomography findings. a total of 13 samples from each case for a follow-up period of two years was scheduled. total cell count, cytomorphologic profile, b and t cells, and t-active, t-sensitized and t-avid subpopulations were considered. t-cell receptor was studied by rosette-forming capacity with sheep red blood cells; normal values were previously characterized in a normal control group. normal values were demonstrated for b and t-cell levels in the first csf sample for all cases; no significant alterations occured during two years evolution. neutrophil cells, although influenced by previous csf shunts, could show qualitative indication of improvement six mounths after treatment. t-active (median: 29,7; range: 8,1 to 59,8) and t-sensitized (median: 44,4; range: 16,0 to 67,0) lymphocyte subpopulations could show effective qualitative and quantitative indications of inflammatory improvement 12 to 15 months after treatment. regression study as well as kendall concordance tests were not significative for all components in all samples. this can demonstrate a particular significance and information content for each cellular component of inflammatory response in neurocysticercosis.
Caracterización morfológica de una colección de Teramnus spp.
Machado,R; Olivera,Yuseika;
Pastos y Forrajes , 2008,
Abstract: the objective of this work was to characterize a collection of teramnus spp. formed by 50 accessions from the ciat, colombia. for that international descriptors for forage legumes and other descriptors of interest (32 in total, quantitative and qualitative) were taken into consideration. the seed of each accession, was planted in 12 niches in simple 3 x 1 m plots and a stake was placed to allow them their highest growth and development. the measurements and observations were carried out when the plants reached the phenohase of green to ripe seed. the application of the main component analysis allowed to prove the existence of a relatively high variability for all the characters, because the total only reached 67,7% in the first eight components; the quantitative descriptors stood out, with 51,8% in the first five components. the grouping of the accessions based on the foliar dimensions and number of seeds, through a cluster analysis, allowed the formation of five contrasting groups; two accessions of t. labialis (ciat-927 and ciat-9007) were distinguished, in which these characters were maximized with regards to the others of these species; while 62,0% of this collection was represented by phenotypes with short leaves, short and narrow folioles, short petioles and a number of seeds per pod that did not exceed a mean higher than 8. it is concluded that the characterization allowed to prove the relative variability of its components, although it is widened with regards to the existing germplasm in the country for species of this genus and, on the other hand, it increases the germplasm considerably. the evaluation of the agroproductive potentials of interest, with selective objectives, is recommended.
Diversidad y cuantía de la flora en un pastizal disturbado y pastoreado de forma racional
Machado,R; Milera,Milagros;
Pastos y Forrajes , 2009,
Abstract: with the objective of studying the changes in the diversity and quantity of the flora in a pastureland rationally managed and disturbed by burning, the botanical composition was determined during four years and a half, using a square frame in 20 spots of each paddock. by the end of the experimental period there was a strong hegemony of grasses and perennial legumes with regards to the species from other families with equal cycle, in number (22 vs 1) as well as in covered area (92,7 vs 0,004%). a similar pattern was detected in annual species, independently from the family. the area covered by the grasses increased after burning and in legumes it tended to decrease, as well as their number (7 vs 4). panicum maximum cv. likoni was the prevailing species, increasing form 27,3 to 68,0%; brachiaria decumbens increased slightly (1,0 to 4,6%); while andropogon gayanus decreased (21,4 to 6,0%). adventitious species such as dichanthium annulatum, dichanthium aristatum and indigofera mucronata increased or maintained fluctuating populations; others like dichanthium caricosum and centrosema molle decreased; while acacia farnesiana and alysicarpus vaginalis tended to disappear. it is concluded that under these conditions a cover was created very different from the one produced with a previously applied intensive rational management and the importance of the species composition index to explain the variations produced in grazing was corroborated.
Diversidad y cuantía de la flora en un pastizal disturbado y pastoreado de forma racional Diversity and quantity of the flora in a disturbed and rationally grazed pastureland
R Machado,Milagros Milera
Pastos y Forrajes , 2009,
Abstract: Con el fin de estudiar los cambios en la diversidad y cuantía de la flora en un pastizal manejado de forma racional y disturbado por la quema, se determinó la composición botánica durante cuatro a os y medio, utilizando un marco cuadrado en 20 puntos de cada cuartón. Al concluir el período experimental existió una fuerte hegemonía de las gramíneas y las leguminosas perennes con relación a las especies de otras familias con igual ciclo, tanto en número (22 vs 1) como en área cubierta (92,7 vs 0,004%). Un patrón similar se detectó en las especies anuales, independientemente de la familia. El área cubierta por las gramíneas se incrementó después de la quema y en las leguminosas tendió a disminuir, así como su número (7 vs 4). Panicum maximum cv. Likoni fue la especie predominante, al aumentar de 27,3 a 68,0%; Brachiaria decumbens se incrementó ligeramente (1,0 a 4,6%); mientras que Andropogon gayanus disminuyó (21,4 a 6,0%). Especies adventicias como Dichanthium annulatum, Dichanthium aristatum e Indigofera mucronata incrementaron o mantuvieron poblaciones fluctuantes; otras como Dichanthium caricosum y Centrosema molle disminuyeron; mientras que Acacia farnesiana y Alysicarpus vaginalis tendieron a desaparecer. Se concluye que en estas condiciones se creó una cubierta muy diferente a la que se produjo con un manejo racional intensivo aplicado con anterioridad y se corroboró la importancia del índice de composición de especies para explicar las variaciones que se producen en pastoreo. With the objective of studying the changes in the diversity and quantity of the flora in a pastureland rationally managed and disturbed by burning, the botanical composition was determined during four years and a half, using a square frame in 20 spots of each paddock. By the end of the experimental period there was a strong hegemony of grasses and perennial legumes with regards to the species from other families with equal cycle, in number (22 vs 1) as well as in covered area (92,7 vs 0,004%). A similar pattern was detected in annual species, independently from the family. The area covered by the grasses increased after burning and in legumes it tended to decrease, as well as their number (7 vs 4). Panicum maximum cv. Likoni was the prevailing species, increasing form 27,3 to 68,0%; Brachiaria decumbens increased slightly (1,0 to 4,6%); while Andropogon gayanus decreased (21,4 to 6,0%). Adventitious species such as Dichanthium annulatum, Dichanthium aristatum and Indigofera mucronata increased or maintained fluctuating populations; others like Dichanthium caricosum and Centro
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