Abstract:
Scanning electron and light microscopy were used to examine the antennae ultrastructures of adult female An. gambiae s.s. and An. quadriannulatus. Sensory structures, called sensilla, were categorized and counted; their distributions are reported here as well as densities calculated for each species.Both An. gambiae s.s. and An. quadriannulatus bear five classes of sensilla on their antennae: chaetica (bristles), trichodea (hairs), basiconica (pegs), coeloconica (pitted pegs), and ampullacea (pegs in tubes). Female An. quadriannulatus antennae have approximately one-third more sensilla, and a proportionally larger surface area, than female An. gambiae s.s. antennae.The same types of sensilla are found on the antennae of both species. While An. quadriannulatus has greater numbers of each sensilla type, sensilla densities are very similar for each species, suggesting that other factors may be more important to such olfactory-driven behaviours as host preference.Odors are the principle sensory signals that direct female mosquitoes to their preferred blood meal hosts [1,2]. Antennae of adult mosquitoes bear numerous sensory structures called sensilla, which are the physical sites of chemical detection. Within sensilla, olfactory signal transduction relies on odorant receptor proteins localized on the dendritic membranes of olfactory receptor neurons to initiate the events that ultimately lead to the perception of both the quality and the quantity of odors. Behavioural responses to volatile cues, including host finding by female mosquitoes, are critical components of vectorial capacity, the ability of an insect to transmit disease [2]. Two closely related mosquito sibling species, An. gambiae s.s. and An. quadriannulatus, display very different patterns of blood meal host preference. An. gambiae s.s. exhibits a high degree of anthropophily, while An. quadriannulatus exhibits strong zoophily [2]. Indeed, the strong preference for human blood meals by An. gambiae s.s. fema

Abstract:
Anopheles gambiae is the principal Afrotropical vector for human malaria, in which olfaction mediates a wide range of both adult and larval behaviors. Indeed, mosquitoes depend on the ability to respond to chemical cues for feeding, host preference, and mate location/selection. Building upon previous work that has characterized a large family of An. gambiae odorant receptors (AgORs), we now use behavioral analyses and gene silencing to examine directly the role of AgORs, as well as a newly identified family of candidate chemosensory genes, the An. gambiae variant ionotropic receptors (AgIRs), in the larval olfactory system. Our results validate previous studies that directly implicate specific AgORs in behavioral responses to DEET as well as other odorants and reveal the existence of at least two distinct olfactory signaling pathways that are active in An. gambiae. One system depends directly on AgORs; the other is AgOR-independent and requires the expression and activity of AgIRs. In addition to clarifying the mechanistic basis for olfaction in this system, these advances may ultimately enhance the development of vector control strategies, targeting olfactory pathways in mosquitoes to reduce the catastrophic effects of malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases.

Abstract:
Anopheles gambiae is the principal Afrotropical vector for human malaria, in which olfaction mediates a wide range of both adult and larval behaviors. Indeed, mosquitoes depend on the ability to respond to chemical cues for feeding, host preference, and mate location/selection. Building upon previous work that has characterized a large family of An. gambiae odorant receptors (AgORs), we now use behavioral analyses and gene silencing to examine directly the role of AgORs, as well as a newly identified family of candidate chemosensory genes, the An. gambiae variant ionotropic receptors (AgIRs), in the larval olfactory system. Our results validate previous studies that directly implicate specific AgORs in behavioral responses to DEET as well as other odorants and reveal the existence of at least two distinct olfactory signaling pathways that are active in An. gambiae. One system depends directly on AgORs; the other is AgOR-independent and requires the expression and activity of AgIRs. In addition to clarifying the mechanistic basis for olfaction in this system, these advances may ultimately enhance the development of vector control strategies, targeting olfactory pathways in mosquitoes to reduce the catastrophic effects of malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases.

Abstract:
We combine the notion of norming algebra introduced by Pop, Sinclair and Smith with a result of Pisier to show that if A_1 and A_2 are operator algebras, then any bounded epimorphism of A_1 onto A_2 is completely bounded provided that A_2 contains a norming C*-subalgebra. We use this result to give some insights into Kadison's Similarity Problem: we show that every faithful bounded homomorphism of a C*-algebra on a Hilbert space has completely bounded inverse, and show that a bounded representation of a C*-algebra is similar to a *-representation precisely when the image operator algebra \lambda-norms itself. We give two applications to isometric isomorphisms of certain operator algebras. The first is an extension of a result of Davidson and Power on isometric isomorphisms of CSL algebras. Secondly, we show that an isometric isomorphism between subalgebras A_i of C*-diagonals (C_i,D_i) (i=1,2) satisfying D_i \subseteq A_i \subseteq C_i extends uniquely to a *-isomorphism of the C*-algebras generated by A_1 and A_2; this generalizes results of Muhly-Qiu-Solel and Donsig-Pitts.

Abstract:
We study pairs (C,D) of unital C*-algebras where D is a regular abelian C*-subalgebra of C. When D is a MASA in C, we prove the existence and uniqueness of a completely positive unital map E of C into the injective envelope I(D) of D whose restriction to D is the identity on D. We show that the left kernel of E, L(C,D), is the unique closed two-sided ideal of C maximal with respect to having trivial intersection with D. When L(C,D)=0, we show the MASA D norms C. We apply these results to extend existing results in the literature on isometric isomorphisms of norm-closed subalgebras which lie between D and C. The map E can be used as a substitute for a conditional expectation in the construction of coordinates for C relative to D. Coordinate constructions of Kumjian and Renault may partially be extended to settings where no conditional expectation exists. As an example, we consider the situation in which C is the reduced crossed product of a unital abelian C*-algebra D by an arbitrary discrete group acting as automorphisms of D. We characterize when the relative commutant, D', of D in C is abelian in terms of the dynamics of the action of the group and show that when D' is abelian, L(C,D')=0. This setting produces examples where no conditional expectation of C onto D' exists. When C is separable, and D is a regular MASA in C, we show the set of pure states on D with unique state extensions to C is dense in D. We introduce a new class of well behaved state extensions, the compatible states; we identify compatible states when D is a MASA in C in terms of groups constructed from local dynamics near a pure state on D. A particularly nice class of regular inclusions is the class of C*-diagonals. We show that the pair (C,D) regularly embeds into a C*-diagonal precisely when the intersection of the left kernels of the compatible states is trivial.

Abstract:
Given an inclusion D $\subseteq$ C of unital C*-algebras, a unital completely positive linear map $\Phi$ of C into the injective envelope I(D) of D which extends the inclusion of D into I(D) is a pseudo-expectation. The set PsExp(C,D) of all pseudo-expectations is a convex set, and for abelian D, we prove a Krein-Milman type theorem showing that PsExp(C,D) can be recovered from its extreme points. When C is abelian, the extreme pseudo-expectations coincide with the homomorphisms of C into I(D) which extend the inclusion of D into I(D), and these are in bijective correspondence with the ideals of C which are maximal with respect to having trivial intersection with D. Natural classes of inclusions have a unique pseudo-expectation (e.g., when D is a regular MASA in C). Uniqueness of the pseudo-expectation implies interesting structural properties for the inclusion. For example, when D $\subseteq$ C $\subseteq$ B(H) are W*-algebras, uniqueness of the pseudo-expectation implies that D' $\cap$ C is the center of D; moreover, when H is separable and D is abelian, we characterize which W*-inclusions have the unique pseudo-expectation property. For general inclusions of C*-algebras with D abelian, we characterize the unique pseudo-expectation property in terms of order structure; and when C is abelian, we are able to give a topological description of the unique pseudo-expectation property. Applications include: a) if an inclusion D $\subseteq$ C has a unique pseudo-expectation $\Phi$ which is also faithful, then the C*-envelope of any operator space X with D $\subseteq$ X $\subseteq$ C is the C*-subalgebra of C generated by X; b) for many interesting classes of C*-inclusions, having a faithful unique pseudo-expectation implies that D norms C. We give examples to illustrate the theory, and conclude with several unresolved questions.

Abstract:
For i=1,2, let (M_i,D_i) be pairs consisting of a Cartan MASA D_i in a von Neumann algebra M_i, let atom(D_i) be the set of atoms of D_i, and let S_i be the lattice of Bures-closed D_i bimodules in M_i. We show that when M_i have separable preduals, there is a lattice isomorphism between S_1 and S_2 if and only if the sets {(Q_1, Q_2) \in atom(D_i) x atom(D_i): Q_1 M_i Q_2 \neq (0)} have the same cardinality. In particular, when D_i is non-atomic, S_i is isomorphic to the lattice of projections in L^\infty([0,1],m) where m is Lebesgue measure, regardless of the isomorphism classes of M_1 and M_2.

Abstract:
Kadison's transitivity theorem implies that, for irreducible representations of C*-algebras, every invariant linear manifold is closed. It is known that CSL algebras have this propery if, and only if, the lattice is hyperatomic (every projection is generated by a finite number of atoms). We show several other conditions are equivalent, including the conditon that every invariant linear manifold is singly generated. We show that two families of norm closed operator algebras have this property. First, let L be a CSL and suppose A is a norm closed algebra which is weakly dense in Alg L and is a bimodule over the (not necessarily closed) algebra generated by the atoms of L. If L is hyperatomic and the compression of A to each atom of L is a C*-algebra, then every linear manifold invariant under A is closed. Secondly, if A is the image of a strongly maximal triangular AF algebra under a multiplicity free nest representation, where the nest has order type -N, then every linear manifold invariant under A is closed and is singly generated.

Abstract:
For a Banach D-bimodule M over an abelian unital C*-algebra D, we define E(M) as the collection of norm-one eigenvectors for the dual action of D on the Banach space dual of M. Equip E(M) with the weak-* topology. We develop general properties of E(M). It is properly viewed as a coordinate system for M when M is a subset of C, where C is a unital C*-algebra containing D as a regular MASA with the extension property; moreover, E(C) coincides with Kumjian's twist in the context of C*-diagonals. We identify the C*-envelope of a subalgebra A of a C*-diagonal which contains D. For triangular subalgebras, each containing the MASA, a bounded isomorphism induces an algebraic isomorphism of the coordinate systems which can be shown to be continuous in certain cases. For subalgebras, each containing the MASA, a bounded isomorphism that maps one MASA to the other MASA induces an isomorphism of the coordinate systems. We show that the weak operator closure of the image of a triangular algebra in an appropriate representation is a CSL algebra and that bounded isomorphism of triangular algebras extends to an isomorphism of these CSL algebras. We prove that for triangular algebras in our context, any bounded isomorphism is completely bounded. Our methods simplify and extend various known results; for example, isometric isomorphisms of the triangular algebras extend to isometric isomorphisms of the C*-envelopes, and the conditional expectation E of C onto D is multiplicative when restricted to a triangular subalgebra. Also, we use our methods to prove that the inductive limit of C*-diagonals with regular connecting maps is again a C*-diagonal.

Abstract:
In a 1991 paper, R. Mercer asserted that a Cartan bimodule isomorphism between Cartan bimodule algebras A_1 and A_2 extends uniquely to a normal *-isomorphism of the von Neumann algebras generated by A_1 and A_2 [13, Corollary 4.3]. Mercer's argument relied upon the Spectral Theorem for Bimodules of Muhly, Saito and Solel [15, Theorem 2.5]. Unfortunately, the arguments in the literature supporting [15, Theorem 2.5] contain gaps, and hence Mercer's proof is incomplete. In this paper, we use the outline in [16, Remark 2.17] to give a proof of Mercer's Theorem under the additional hypothesis that the given Cartan bimodule isomorphism is weak-* continuous. Unlike the arguments contained in [13, 15], we avoid the use of the Feldman-Moore machinery from [8]; as a consequence, our proof does not require the von Neumann algebras generated by the algebras A_i to have separable preduals. This point of view also yields some insights on the von Neumann subalgebras of a Cartan pair (M,D), for instance, a strengthening of a result of Aoi [1]. We also examine the relationship between various topologies on a von Neumann algebra M with a Cartan MASA D. This provides the necessary tools to parametrize the family of Bures-closed bimodules over a Cartan MASA in terms of projections in a certain abelian von Neumann algebra; this result may be viewed as a weaker form of the Spectral Theorem for Bimodules, and is a key ingredient in the proof of our version of Mercer's theorem. Our results lead to a notion of spectral synthesis for weak-* closed bimodules appropriate to our context, and we show that any von Neumann subalgebra of M which contains D is synthetic. We observe that a result of Sinclair and Smith shows that any Cartan MASA in a von Neumann algebra is norming in the sense of Pop, Sinclair and Smith.