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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 223980 matches for " R Jamshidi Orak "
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Tuberculosis Surveillance Using a Hidden Markov Model
A Rafei,E Pasha,R Jamshidi Orak
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Routinely collected data from tuberculosis surveillance system can be used to investigate and monitor the irregularities and abrupt changes of the disease incidence. We aimed at using a Hidden Markov Model in order to detect the abnormal states of pulmonary tuberculosis in Iran.Methods: Data for this study were the weekly number of newly diagnosed cases with sputum smear-positive pulmonarytuberculosis reported between April 2005 and March 2011 throughout Iran. In order to detect the unusual states of the disease, two Hidden Markov Models were applied to the data with and without seasonal trends as baselines.Consequently, the best model was selected and compared with the results of Serfling epidemic threshold which is typically used in the surveillance of infectious diseases.Results: Both adjusted R-squared and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) reflected better goodness-of-fit for the model with seasonal trends (0.72 and -1336.66, respectively) than the model without seasonality (0.56 and -1386.75).Moreover, according to the Serfling epidemic threshold, higher values of sensitivity and specificity suggest a higher validity for the seasonal model (0.87 and 0.94, respectively) than model without seasonality (0.73 and 0.68, respectively).Conclusion: A two-state Hidden Markov Model along with a seasonal trend as a function of the model parameters provides an effective warning system for the surveillance of tuberculosis.
Modeling the Spread of Infectious Diseases Based the Bayesian Approach
R Jamshidi Orak,K Mohammad,E Pasha,W Sun
Journal of School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research , 2007,
Abstract: Background and Aim: Health surveillance systems are now paying more attention to infectious diseases, largely because of emerging and re-emerging infections. The main objective of this research is presenting a statistical method for modeling infectious disease incidence based on the Bayesian approach.Material and Methods: Since infectious diseases have two phases, namely epidemic and non-epidemic, joint distributions seem preferable for modeling disease incidence. We used a hidden Markov model - suitable for joint distributions- to arrive at a statistical model applicable to infectious diseases. Parameter estimation was done using a Bayesian method. The resulting model was then applied to monthly incidence rates for malaria to test the models applicability to real data.Results: The error sum of squares of the model fitted to monthly incidence rates for malaria was 190.59 and the coefficient of determination between observed and fitted values was 0.84. It appears that the hidden Markov model with a cyclic regression equation has a proper goodness of fit when applied to malaria incidence rates. Conclusion: The hidden Markov model is an efficient statistical tool for modeling infectious disease incidence rates.
Effects of LI4 acupressure on labor pain in the first stage of labor
Azam Hamidzadeh,Farangis shahpourian,Roohangiz Jamshidi Orak
Koomesh , 2011,
Abstract: Introduction: Many pregnant women like to avoid pharmacological or invasive methods of pain management in labor . Acupressure is a non- invasive method that has been suggested for labor pain relief. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of LI4 acupressure on labor pain in the first stage of labor. Materials and Method : This single-blind randomized clinical trial was performed on 100 eligible women who were at the beginning of active phase of labor (3-5 cm dilatation of cervix). The case group (n=50) received LI4 acupressure at the onset active phases for duration of each uterine contraction over a period of 20 minutes, while the control group (n= 50) received a touch at this point without massage. Labor pain was measured several times using a subjective labor pain scale (Visual analogue scale) before intervention, immediately, 20, and 60 minutes after intervention and then each hour until delivery. Finally, severities of pain were compared between the two groups. Results: There were significant differences between the groups in subjective labor pain scores at immediately, 20, 60 and 120 minutes after intervention (P<0.001). Conclusion: These finding showed that LI4 acupressure was effective for decreasing pain in women during labor. LI4 acupressure can be an effective nursing management for women in labor.
Effects of LI4 acupressure on delivery satisfaction
Azam Hamidzadeh,Farangis shahpourian,Roohangiz Jamshidi Orak,Leila Takfallah
Behbood , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Women's dissatisfaction with childbirth experience may have immediate and long-term effects on their health and relationship with infant. There is not enough documented researchs in this area. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of LI4 Acupressure on delivery satisfaction in women referring to Fatemieh hospital in Shahroud. Methods: In this experimental study 100 women in labor referring to delivery room of the hospital in Shahroud were randomly assigned into experimental (n=50) or control group (n=50). The experimental group received LI4 acupressure at the onset active phases for duration of each uterine contraction over a period of 20 minutes and the control group received only LI4 touch. An observation checklist and information forms were used for data collection and content validity method was used for validating of questionnairs. Delivery satisfaction was measured immediately after delivery in both groups. Results: There was significantly different in satisfaction rates between two groups (P=0.017). 86% of experimental group and 68% of control group expressed their satisfaction in highest score (score 6). Conclusion: According to the finding, it seems that LI4 acupressure has some positive effect on delivery satisfaction in women. Therefore using this easy and applicable method in delivery rooms is recommended.
Effects of LI4 Acupressure on length of delivery time, some of physiologic responseEffects of LI4 Acupressure on Length of Delivery Time, Mothers’ Physiologic Physiologic Responses and Newborn’s Apgar Scores s and Apgar scores in women during of labor
azam hamidzade,Farangis Shahpourian,Roohangiz Jamshidi- Orak,Mahbobe Pourheydar
Knowledge & Health Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Introduction: Prolonged labor has been associated with cesarean delivery and low Ph cord blood. Furthermore, hemorrhage and infection, which are strongly associated with long labor, are leading causes of maternal death. Due to the importance of duration of labor, this study investigates the effects of Hego (LI4) acupressure on length of delivery time, mothers’ physiological responses i.e., respiration and pulse rates of mothers, and Apgar scores of newborns. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial study, 100 pregnant women, who were at the beginning of active phase of labor (dilatation 5-3)and had referred to Fatemiye educational and research clinic in Shahroud, were randomly assigned to either the LI4 acupressure (n=50) or LI4 touch control (n=50) group. The experimental group received LI4 acupressure at the onset of the active phase for duration of each uterine contraction over a period of 20 minutes but the control group received only LI4 touch. Length of delivery time was calculated in two stages: from 3-5 cm cervical dilation to full cervical dilation and full cervical dilation to the delivery. Pulse and respiration rates were measured before intervention, immediately after intervention, 20, 60 minutes after intervention and then each hour until delivery. One-minute and five-minute Apgar scores were also registered. Results: There were significant differences between the groups in length of delivery time. The total labor (3-5 dilation to delivery) was significantly shorter in the LI4 acupressure intervention group (P=0.038). Maternal pulse and respiration rates weren’t significantly different between the groups (P=0.711, P=0.108). There were no significant differences between two groups for neonatal Apgar scores at one and five minutes. (P= 0.2, P= 0.3). Conclusion: These finding showed that LI4 acupressure was effective for shortening the length of delivery time and had no side effects on mothers’ pulse and respiration rate or no newborns’ Apgar scores. Therefore, this safe, simple and modern technique which requires no cost and equipment can be used in maternity hospitals.
Knowledge, attitude and behavior regarding osteoporosis among women in three age groups: Shariati hospital, Tehran
Eslamian L.,Jamshidi A.,Kaghaz kanani R.
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2007,
Abstract: Background: Osteoporosis threatens the aged population especially the menopausal women and can lead to life long disability and death. Appropriate knowledge and behavior have an important role in prevention of osteoporosis. In this study the knowledge, attitude and behavior of women regarding osteoporosis is assessed and compared in different age groups.Methods: This cross sectional study includes 390 women in reproductive, premenopausal and menopausal age groups who had come to Shariati hospital clinics and each had answered the designed questionnaire. The questionnaires were scored and analyzed. Women's knowledge, attitude and behavior were assessed and compared by X2 test in the three age groups and P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: 15-30% of women didn't know what osteoporosis is and in 380 of them attitude or behavior was not good. Education had a significant effect on knowledge of women in reproductive and premenopausal ages (P=0.002, 0.04 respectively), but had no effect on their attitude or behavior. Age had a significant effect on knowledge and attitude (P=0.001) but had no effect on behavior. Age had significant effect on the knowledge that exercise can prevent osteoporosis (P=0.014) but not on attitude or behavior. Age had no effect on knowledge, attitude or behavior of daily calcium intake to prevent osteoporosis. (P=0.123, 0.12, 0.153 respectively) 93% to 95% of women thought the risks of osteoporosis are less than cardiovascular disease or breast cancer.Conclusions: 15-30% of women didn't know what osteoporosis is. The total knowledge about osteoporosis was low. Although 22-75% of women younger than 54 years old had knowledge about the predisposing factors but their attitude or behavior was not good.
Trauma mortality in six university hospitals: Tehran, IRAN
Eslamian L.,Jamshidi A.,Kaghaz kanani R.
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2007,
Abstract: Background: Trauma is the most common cause of mortality in the first four decades of life. In our country, cardiovascular diseases and trauma are leading causes of mortality, respectively. By gathering information on trauma mortalities, we can learn more about causes, and that knowledge can lead to prevention. Methods: This is a prospective descriptive study in Tehran during 12 months period (Sep 1999- Sep 2000). Two hundred and forty five trauma deaths in six hospitals were evaluated. The data was collected through a questionnaire, designed in Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center (STSRC) used for the study. The questionnaires were completed by trained physicians visiting trauma patients in emergency room and wards round the clock. Data obtained included patient demographics, level of prehospital care, medical and operative procedures performed in emergency rooms (ER) and wards (according to ICD-10 coding), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and vital signs at time of presentation to emergency rooms, Injury Severity Score (ISS), length of hospital stay and outcome of patients.Results: Twenty and forty five (3%) of 8000 trauma patients was died. Mean age was 40.7 (±23.5) years old and 208 (84.9%) patients were male. The highest mortality rate was seen in the age group of 25 to 30 years. Road Traffic Accident was the main cause of death followed by falling with 174(71%) and 41(16.85), respectively. Among victims of road traffic accident, pedestrians and motorcyclists were prominent with 119 and 28 cases respectively. The majority of cases were dead due to head injuries (69%) and abdominal trauma was the second cause with 19 (7.8%) cases.Conclusions: Based on our findings the mechanism of injury have the positive effect on trauma outcome .Traffic accidents and assault is preventable and must be attended.
Primary Malignant Melanoma of the Ovary: Case Report and Review of the Literature
Nazl? DEM?R G?K,r?at YILDIZ,Ayd?n ?ORAK?I
Türk Patoloji Dergisi , 2011,
Abstract: Ovarian malignant melanomas are extremely rare tumors. Most of them are secondary tumors and disseminated metastases are recognized at the time of diagnosis. Primary tumors are even more rare and usually associated with a teratoma. A 67-year-old female had a pelvic mass that was recognized on ultrasonography (USG) and physical examination. Intraoperative pathological consultation was reported as “pigmented solid ovarian tumor, probably compatible with malignant melanoma”. Paraffin sections, and histochemical (Masson Fontana and Prussia blue) and immunohistochemical examination (S-100 and HMB-45) were also consistent with “malignant melanoma”. This case was accepted as “Probably primary ovarian malignant melanoma” in lack of any other tumor focus on detailed clinical and radiological investigation, skin biopsies or pigmented lesions in medical history. It is reported for being an extremely rare tumor and its distinctive characteristics for differential diagnosis are emphasized.
H. R. Jamshidi,M. Rezayat M. R. Zarrindast
Acta Medica Iranica , 2004,
Abstract: In the present study, the effect of apamin (potassium channel blocker) on tolerance to cocaine-induced locomotor activity in mice has been investigated. Locomotor activity was measured by locomotor activity meter, Animax, type S (LKB, Farrad). Intraperitoneal (IP) injection of different doses of cocaine (2.5, 5, 10 and 15 mg/kg) produced dose-dependent locomotor activity in mice.Animals were treated with a dose of cocaine (60 mg/kg, IP) once daily, for 2, 3 or 4 days in order to produce tolerance to cocaine-induced locomotion. Twenty-four hours after the last dose of cocaine, locomotor activity induced by a test dose of cocaine (10 mg/kg) was assessed. Animals pretreated with apamin (0.1 mg/kg) 30 min before the test dose of cocaine had a decreased cocaine response. However, daily treatment of animals with apamin (0.1 mg/kg), 30 min after cocaine (60 mg/kg) for 3 days (during development of tolerance to cocaine-induced locomotion), did not alter the cocaine effect. Single administration of apamin to mice did not cause any response. It is concluded that, apamin as a potassium channels blocker may decrease tolerance to cocaine-induced locomotion due to blockade of potassium channels.
HLA DR4 subtype relationship with rheumatoid arthritis: a study on Iranian patients
Jamshidi AR,Tehrani Banihashemi SA,Salari AH,Taghipour R
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2009,
Abstract: "nBackground: There are several evidences that genetic factors besides environmental triggers have important role in initiating the rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of rheumatoid arthritis with different subtypes of HLA DR4 in Iranian patients. "nMethods: In an un-matched case control study, 110 rheumatoid arthritis patients (case) and 56 knee osteoarthritis patients (control) of outpatient clinic in Shariati Hospital were entered to the study. After blood sampling from case and control groups, DNA was isolated by using salting-out method and HLA DR4 and its subtypes were detected. Association of HLA DR4 and its subtypes with rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatic factor and clinical manifestations of diseases was evaluated. "nResults: Eighty nine (80.9%) of rheumatoid arthritis patients were female and 21 were male. Thirty four of the RA patients (30.9%) and eleven subjects from the control group (19.6%) were HLA DR4 positive (p=0.12). The most frequent subtype of HLA DR4 in RA patients was 0404 and in control group was 0401 (p=0.03). There were not statistically significant association between HLA DR4 and age of disease onset, family history, morning stiffness and rheumatoid factor. Joint swelling and tenderness had association with HLA DR4 (p=0.04 and p=0.03). "nConclusion: Although there were no statistically significant association between rheumatoid arthritis and HLA DR4, but prevalence of this HLA was higher in patients than control. It is possible that in some ethnics, other HLAs may have role in pathogenesis of disease.
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