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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 223915 matches for " R Gouws "
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Outer texts in bilingual dictionaries
R Gouws
Lexikos , 2004,
Abstract: Dictionaries often display a central list bias with little or no attention to the use of outer texts. This article focuses on dictionaries as text compounds and carriers of different text types. Utilising either a partial or a complete frame structure, a variety of outer text types can be used to enhance the data distribution structure of a dictionary and to ensure a better information retrieval by the intended target user. A distinction is made between primary frame structures and secondary frame structures and attention is drawn to the use of complex outer texts and the need of an extended complex outer text with its own table of contents to guide the user to the relevant texts in the complex outer text. It is emphasised that outer texts need to be planned in a meticulous way and that they should participate in the lexicographic functions of the specific dictionary, both knowledge-orientated and communication-orientated functions, to ensure a transtextual functional approach.
Aspekte van mikrostrukturele ver-skeidenheid en inkonsekwentheid in woordeboeke
R Gouws
Lexikos , 2003,
Abstract: Dit is belangrik in enige woordeboek dat die mikrostrukturele aanbod sistema-ties en konsekwent moet wees. Gemotiveerde afwykings van die verstekstruktuur moet aan die gebruiker verklaar word. In hierdie artikel word aandag gegee aan verskillende tipes mikrostruk-turele modelle wat in die metaleksikografie ontwikkel is, met die klem op die ge ntegreerde en die niege ntegreerde mikrostruktuur. Voorstelle word gedoen vir aanpassings in die niege ntegreerde mikrostruktuur om 'n beter inligtingsoordrag tot gevolg te hê. Aan die hand van voorbeelde uit enkele Afrikaanse woordeboeke word gewys op die gevarieerde en inkonsekwente mikrostruktu-rele aanbod wat gevolg word. Die nadele van gemengde primitiewe mikrostrukture word bespreek en daar word aandag gegee aan die implikasies daarvan vir die adresseringstruktuur van 'n woor-deboek. In hierdie verband word verskillende prosedures van afstandsadressering bespreek. Die teksverdigting wat dit meebring en die probleme wat gebruikers met die ko rdinering van koteks-inskrywings en betekenisparafrases het, word beklemtoon. Aanbevelings word gedoen vir 'n mik-rostruktuur wat groter erkenning gee aan die eise van 'n gebruikersgedrewe leksikografiese proses. Sleutelwoorde: adresseringstruktuur, afstandsadressering, artikel-struktuur, ge ntegreerde mikrostruktuur, gerigte afstandsadressering, implisiete afstandsadressering, konteks, koteks, mikrostruktuur, nie-ge ntegreerde mikrostruktuur, primitiewe mikrostruktuur, rudimentêre mikrostruktuur, semantiese subkommentaar, soeksone
Discipline, dilemmas, decisions and data distribution in the planning and compilation of monolingual dictionaries
R Gouws
Lexikos , 2006,
Abstract: Bilingual dictionaries play an important role in the standardisation of a language and are often the first dictionary type to be compiled for a given speech community. However, this may never lead to an underestimation of the role and importance of monolingual descriptive dictionar-ies in the early lexicographic development of a language. In the planning of first descriptive dic-tionaries the choice of the proper subtype and a consistent application of theoretical principles should be regarded as of extreme importance. Even the compilation of a restricted descriptive dic-tionary should be done according to similar theoretical principles as those applying to comprehen-sive dictionaries. This contribution indicates a number of dilemmas confronting the lexicographer during the compilation of restricted monolingual descriptive dictionaries. Attention is given to the role of lexicographic functions and the choice and presentation of lexicographic data, with special reference to the presentation of certain types of polysemous senses which are subjected to frequen-cy of use restrictions. Emphasis is placed on the value of a heterogeneous article structure and a micro-architecture in the articles of restricted dictionaries.
A Transtextual Approach to Lexicographic Functions
R Gouws
Lexikos , 2007,
Abstract: The development of theoretical lexicography clearly indicates a movement towards a more general recognition of the role of lexicographic functions. A consistent application of lexico-graphic functions has a major influence on the contents of dictionary articles but also on the data distribution and even the typological classification. In the discussion of lexicographic functions, the emphasis has primarily been on the central list of dictionaries. This article proposes an approach where outer texts are also selected and compiled in order to make an active contribution to achieving the lexicographic functions of a given dictionary. A distinction is made between func-tion-adhering and non-function-adhering outer texts. The function-adhering outer texts can further be divided into integrated and non-integrated function-adhering outer texts. With reference to the data distribution programme of a dictionary, it is suggested that in the planning of every diction-ary, provision should be made for a function allocation programme. This will ensure that the iden-tified functions of a given dictionary will be realised in both the central list and the outer texts.
Monolingual and bilingual learners' dictionaries
R Gouws
Lexikos , 2004,
Abstract: When deciding on the best learners' dictionary for a specific user and a specific situation of usage one often has to make a choice between a monolingual and a bilingual learners' dictionary. This article discusses some aspects of the user-driven approach so prevalent in modernday lexicographic thought, focuses broadly on dictionary typology and takes a closer look at monolingual and bilingual learners' dictionaries. Some problems users experience when learning a new language, e.g. language distortion and problems related to the phenomenon of false friends, especially in closely related languages, are mentioned. It is indicated that a typological hybrid dictionary could assist certain users. The importance of an unambiguous identification of the relevant lexicographic functions is emphasised and the notions of function condensation and function merging are introduced. It is shown that the typological choice should be determined by a function-based approach to dictionary usage.
Ge ntegreerde woordeboekgebruik van vakwoordeboeke vir aanleerders
R Gouws
Lexikos , 2009,
Abstract: Na 'n kort bespreking van aanleerderwoordeboeke en vakwoordeboeke word die fokus verskuif na vakwoordeboeke vir aanleerders. Die aanleerders wat hier ter sprake kom, kan aanleerders van 'n taal en/of aanleerders van 'n vakgebied wees. Albei hierdie tipes leerders word bespreek asook daardie vakwoordeboeke wat op aanleerders van sowel 'n taal as die vak gerig is. Met verwysing na die Suid-Afrikaanse leksikografiese omgewing en die opdrag van die nasionale woordeboekeenhede, word aangevoer dat vakwoordeboeke vir aanleerders 'n wesenlike rol kan speel in die vestiging van 'n woordeboekkultuur, maar ook die voorkoming van 'n verdere leksikografies verlore generasie. Die konsep van ge ntegreerde woordeboekgebruik word ingevoer en bespreek, met spesifieke verwysing na vakwoordeboeke vir aanleerders. Die voordeel van mul-tiveldvakwoordeboeke vir aanleerders word aangetoon en aspekte van verskillende strukture van sulke woordeboeke word bespreek. Daar word aangevoer dat vir sulke woordeboeke 'n geamalga-meerde sentrale teks verkieslik is bo 'n geamalgameerde makrostruktuur. Sleutelwoorde: aanleerderwoordeboek, geamalgameerde makrostruk-tuur, geamalgameerde sentrale teks, ge ntegreerde binneteks, ge nte-greerde woordeboekgebruik, kognitiewe funksie, kommunikatiewe funk-sie, laaistruktuur, leksikografies verlore generasie, leksikografiese funk-sies, multiveldvakwoordeboek, sistematiese inleiding, toegangstruktuur, vakwoordeboek, vakwoordeboek vir aanleerders, woordeboekgebruiks-pakket, woordeboekkultuur, woordeboektipologie
Niching as a macrostructural procedure
R Gouws
Lexikos , 2002,
Abstract: Niching is a macrostructural procedure of textual condensation which results in different dictionary articles being clustered into one textblock as subarticles headed by sublemmata. This article offers an identification and critical discussion of different types of niching. Examples from dictionaries are used to examine problems which dictionary users experience as a result of the application of niching. The emphasis is on problems regarding the search route of users via the outer access structure of dictionaries. A distinction is made between single niching and multiple niching. Different aspects of multiple niching receive attention, e.g. the use of remote and exclusively remote multiple niching. The focus is also on an increased degree of textual condensation resulting from these procedures as well as problems in the domain of the access structure. Attention is drawn to the influence of the inclusion of homonym pairs on the application of multiple niching. Problems arising from an inconsistent application of multiple niching are identified and solutions are suggested for these problems in order to enhance the quality of the lexicographic practice. It is shown that a user-driven dictionary would rather opt for the application of procedures of single niching and first level nesting instead of multiple niching.
Oor die verhouding tussen woordeboekstrukture, woordeboek- inhoud en leksikografiese funksies
R Gouws
Lexikos , 2005,
Abstract: Navorsing op die gebied van die metaleksikografie het oor die laaste paar dekades 'n betekenisvolle fokusverbreding ondergaan. Die aanvanklike fokus was veral op die woordeboekinhoud. Mettertyd het die fokus verskillende woordeboekstrukture ingesluit en tans val leksikografiese funksies binne die bestek van metaleksikografiese navorsing. Al drie hierdie komponente van die leksikografie is ter sake vir die beplanning en samestelling van gebruiker-gedrewe woordeboeke. In hierdie artikel word aangetoon dat die vertrekpunt in die beplanning van 'n nuwe woordeboek nie in die eerste plek 'n bestaande woordeboek moet wees nie. Die tei-kengebruiker moet die vertrekpunt van die hele leksikografiese proses uitmaak. Dit moet lei tot die vasstelling van leksikografiese funksies, die keuse van leksikografiese data en die bepaling van die relevante woordeboekstrukture. Hierdie strukture moet die data op so 'n manier aanbied dat die gebruiker in staat is om 'n optimale onttrekking van inligting te bereik. Terselfdertyd moet die leksikografiese funksies van die woordeboek probleemloos vervul kan word. Sleutelwoorde: dataverspreidingstruktuur, gebruikergedrewe benade-ring, gebruikersituasie, gebruikersperspektief, gebruiksituasie, kennisge-rigte funksies, kommunikasiegerigte funksies, leksikograaf, leksikogra-fiese data, leksikografiese funksies, leksikografiese proses, teksproduksie, teksresepsie, toegangstruktuur, woordeboekbeplanning, woordeboekge-bruiker, woordeboekinhoud, woordeboekstrukture
How to do language policy with dictionaries
H Bergenholtz, R Gouws
Lexikos , 2006,
Abstract: The lexicographical presentation of terms from the field of language planning often lacks clear and unambiguous distinction and proper explanation. Too often dictionaries even fail to include these terms in the lemma list, and some central terms have not been treated in any general or special purpose dictionary. This article utilises results from research in the field of language policy to make suggestions for the lexicographical presentation and treatment of a number of relevant terms. The emphasis on a distinction between language policy as applied to the intralingual and the interlingual level and the motivation for the introduction of the notion of a communication policy should help lexicographers to give a more comprehensive account of terms from this field and it will also benefit scholars in the field of language policy. A second aspect of this article is the discussion of ways in which dictionaries participate in the implementation of language policy. It is indicated that lexicographers make ever so many decisions of a language political nature. In this regard the lexicographical influence of issues like linguistic hegemony and language purism are discussed. Suggestions are also made for future lexicographical procedures.
A Functional Approach to the Choice between Descriptive, Prescriptive and Proscriptive Lexicography
H Bergenholtz, R Gouws
Lexikos , 2010,
Abstract: In lexicography the concepts of prescription and description have been employed for a long time without there ever being a clear definition of the terms prescription/prescriptive and description/descriptive. This article gives a brief historical account of some of the early uses of these approaches in linguistics and lexicography and argues that, although they have primarily been interpreted as linguistic terms, there is a need for a separate and clearly defined lexicographic application. Contrary to description and prescription, the concept of proscription does not have a linguistic tradition but it has primarily been introduced in the field of lexicography. Different types of prescription, description and proscription are discussed with specific reference to their potential use in dictionaries with text reception and text production as functions. Preferred approaches for the different functions are indicated. It is shown how an optimal use of a prescriptive, descriptive or proscriptive approach could be impeded by a polyfunctional dictionary. Consequently arguments are given in favour of monofunctional dictionaries.
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