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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 223897 matches for " R Craven "
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Oral Health Promotion in Elderly Population
A Hajizamani,R Craven
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2005,
Abstract: Objectives: The aims of the study were to assess current practice in oral health care among residential homes for the elderly in Manchester, Salford and Stockport and to evaluate the effectiveness of a programme to increase carers’ knowledge in key areas. Methods: The study was part of a randomised control trial, conducted in 56 residential homes, allocated randomly to test and control groups matched using the minimisation method. Managers of participating homes were interviewed to gather baseline data on the homes and oral care provided. A training session in oral health care for the elderly was provided for care staff in the homes. Carers` knowledge was assessed before and after the training session and their perceptions of the training were sought. Results: The survey of mangers revealed common inadequacies: the lack of any training for care staff in oral care; the lack of protocols for oral care (at 68% of homes); the lack of initial oral assessment. After the training session, the oral health knowledge of carers (467 carers) showed a significant improvement (McNemar Test, P< 0.005). Conclusion: Current practice in most homes is inadequate. The training sessions improved the carers’ knowledge in key areas but improvements in the organisation and delivery of care are clearly also required.
Side-Channel Analysis for Detecting Protocol Tunneling  [PDF]
Harakrishnan Bhanu, Jason Schwier, Ryan Craven, Richard R. Brooks, Kathryn Hempstalk, Daniele Gunetti, Christopher Griffin
Advances in Internet of Things (AIT) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ait.2011.12003
Abstract: Protocol tunneling is widely used to add security and/or privacy to Internet applications. Recent research has exposed side channel vulnerabilities that leak information about tunneled protocols. We first discuss the timing side channels that have been found in protocol tunneling tools. We then show how to infer Hidden Markov models (HMMs) of network protocols from timing data and use the HMMs to detect when protocols are active. Unlike previous work, the HMM approach we present requires no a priori knowledge of the protocol. To illustrate the utility of this approach, we detect the use of English or Italian in interactive SSH sessions. For this example application, keystroke-timing data associates inter-packet delays with keystrokes. We first use clustering to extract discrete information from continuous timing data. We use discrete symbols to infer a HMM model, and finally use statistical tests to determine if the observed timing is consistent with the language typing statistics. In our tests, if the correct window size is used, fewer than 2% of data windows are incorrectly identified. Experimental verification shows that on-line detection of language use in interactive encrypted protocol tunnels is reliable. We compare maximum likelihood and statistical hypothesis testing for detecting protocol tunneling. We also discuss how this approach is useful in monitoring mix networks like The Onion Router (Tor).
An Irritable Infant and the Runaway Redback: An Instructive Case
Thomas R. Ward,James A. Falconer,John A. Craven
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/125740
Abstract: The envenomation syndrome of Redback spider bites, lactrodectism, is distinctive. However diagnosis can be difficult due to an atypical presentation. We describe the case of a 1 year old boy with irritability, diaphoresis and reduced oral intake, in whom a diagnosis was made of redback spider bite. Successful resolution of symptoms was achieved following treatment with antivenom. The symptoms and management of redback spider bites is discussed.
Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people
Jenny Craven
Information Research: an international electronic journal , 2003,
Abstract: Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.
Genetic Algorithms for Word Problems in Partially Commutative Groups
Matthew Craven
Mathematics , 2004,
Abstract: We describe an implementation of a genetic algorithm on partially commutative groups and apply it to the double coset search problem on a subclass of groups. This transforms a combinatorial group theory problem to a problem of combinatorial optimisation. We obtain a method applicable to a wide range of problems and give results which indicate good behaviour of the genetic algorithm, hinting at the presence of a new deterministic solution and a framework for further results.
Analysis of secondary organic aerosol formation and aging using positive matrix factorization of high-resolution aerosol mass spectra: application to the dodecane low-NOx system
J. S. Craven,L. D. Yee,N. L. Ng,M. R. Canagaratna
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/acp-12-11795-2012
Abstract: Positive matrix factorization (PMF) of high-resolution laboratory chamber aerosol mass spectra is applied for the first time, the results of which are consistent with molecular level MOVI-HRToF-CIMS aerosol-phase and CIMS gas-phase measurements. Secondary organic aerosol was generated by photooxidation of dodecane under low-NOx conditions in the Caltech environmental chamber. The PMF results exhibit three factors representing a combination of gas-particle partitioning, chemical conversion in the aerosol, and wall deposition. The slope of the measured high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) composition data on a Van Krevelen diagram is consistent with that of other low-NOx alkane systems in the same O : C range. Elemental analysis of the PMF factor mass spectral profiles elucidates the combinations of functionality that contribute to the slope on the Van Krevelen diagram.
Exercise Intensity during Treadmill Walking with Gait-Patterned FES among Patients with Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury: Case Series
Masae Miyatani,Kei Masani,Noritaka Kawashima,B. Cathy Craven,T. Adam Thrasher,Milos R. Popovic
ISRN Rehabilitation , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/251750
Abstract: Purpose. To determine the feasibility of increasing the cardiopulmonary exercise intensity during walking with gait-patterned functional electrical stimulation (GP-FES) among individuals with motor incomplete SCI. Methods. Two men with motor-incomplete SCI (Subjects A and B, age 45 and 50 years; Level of Injury: C4 and T10; AIS score: D and D, resp.) performed a three sequential four-minute continuous walking sessions [(1) regular gait (non-GP-FES-1); (2) gait with GP-FES (GP-FES); (3) regular gait (non-GP-FES-2)]. Oxygen consumption (Vo2) was measured continuously during trials. Results. Vo2 was higher during GP-FES (Subjects A and B; 14.5 and 19.1?mL/kg/min, resp.) as compared to regular gait (Non-GP-FES-1: Subjects A and B; 13.4 and 17.0:?mL/kg/min, resp.; non-GP-FES-2: Subjects A and B; 13.1 and 17.5:?mL/kg/min, resp.). Conclusion. The exercise intensity of GP-FES walking was higher than that of regular walking among individuals with motor incomplete SCI. Further investigations are required to determine the clinical relevance of the exercise. 1. Introduction Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most significant complication and leading cause of mortality after spinal cord injury (SCI) [1–3]. It is most likely that the high CAD risk observed in people with SCI is related to their extreme physical inactivity [4]. Therefore, increasing physical activity may reduce CAD risk factors among people with SCI [5, 6]. Although, in order to maximize the physiological benefits of cardiopulmonary training, exercise at an appropriate intensity is essential [7–9], the motor and autonomic impairments related to SCI often limit exercise intensity. Several exercise interventions using functional electrical stimulation (FES), such as FES arm or leg cycle ergometry training and FES walking, have been applied to enhance physical capacity and reduce CAD risk among persons with SCI [10–12]. FES is a technology that can restore useful movements by electrically stimulating and thereby artificially contracting paralyzed or paretic muscles [13]. Applications of FES can be divided into three classes: ( 1 ) neuroprostheses for use as a permanent assistive device; ( 2 ) facilitation of exercise; ( 3 ) short term as a therapeutic intervention to improve voluntary function [14, 15]. This latter application has been termed “FES therapy” (FET) [14]. Numerous reports over the past 30 years have asserted positive therapeutic effects of FES-assisted walking, including enhanced walking ability, among individuals with incomplete SCI [16–18]. However, there is growing evidence that regular
Describing the population structure of Rhincodon typus occurring in the waters of Oslob– Cebu, Philippines– between March 2012 and June 2013, during the provisioning interaction hours.
Gonzalo Araujo,Alessandro Ponzo,Daniel Geary,Samantha Craven,Sally J Snow,Anna R Lucey
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.70v1
Abstract: Background: Prior to this study, the aggregation of whale sharks in the waters of Oslob had never been described. Provisioning (Orams, 2002) activities started in late 2011, and systematic data collection in March 2012, attracting over 100,000 tourists in the first year, and is currently the most reliable aggregation of R. typus in the Philippines. Methods: Daily in--‐water photographic identification was used as a non--‐invasive means to describe the population throughout the study period. A total of 135 sharks were identified, and IDs were independently matched by three researchers to minimize error. Photogrammetry (Rohner, 2011) was adopted to complement population description. Results: Daily sightings ranged from 2 to 23 different animals in the interaction area (mean=11.14). A total of 109 males, 15 females and 11 R. typus of undetermined sex were described. The size was estimated for 73.3% of the population, with an average of 5.36m ±1.3m. Photogrammetry posed a mean of 5.63m ±0.59m on 14 sharks, 6.75% >than researchers’ estimates. Resighting (>1d) was observed in 66.7% of the population. Five individuals were present for >300d (n=443) in the interaction area, with a maximum of 420d. Nine individuals were successfully matched across regional hotspots including Donsol and Southern Leyte. Conclusion: Despite the presence of animals in Oslob year round and the influence of the provisioning, there appears to be a seasonal influx of animals, with a maximum of 46 different animals present in the month of June 2012 and again in May 2013, contrasting with a monthly average of 28.9. It appears these waters are important to the species and it’s paramount to fully investigate the impact of the provisioning on the population of R. typus in the Philippines.
Dynamic Hardware Development
Stephen Craven,Peter Athanas
International Journal of Reconfigurable Computing , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/901328
Abstract: Applications that leverage the dynamic partial reconfigurability of modern FPGAs are few, owing in large part to the lack of suitable tools and techniques to create them. While the trend in digital design is towards higher levels of design abstractions, forgoing hardware description languages in some cases for high-level languages, the development of a reconfigurable design requires developers to work at a low level and contend with many poorly documented architecture-specific aspects. This paper discusses the creation of a high-level development environment for reconfigurable designs that leverage an existing high-level synthesis tool to enable the design, simulation, and implementation of dynamically reconfigurable hardware solely from a specification written in C. Unlike previous attempts, this approach encompasses the entirety of design and implementation, enables self-re-configuration through an embedded controller, and inherently handles partial reconfiguration. Benchmarking numbers are provided, which validate the productivity enhancements this approach provides.
Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT): questions, answers, and a new paradigm?
Donald E Craven
Critical Care , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/cc6912
Abstract: In this issue of Critical Care, Nseir and coworkers [1] provide interesting data from a randomized trial of antibiotic therapy for ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT). Although ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) has been the major focus of critical care providers, perhaps our focus should also include VAT, which may be a precursor to VAP or overlap with early VAP [1-5]. Understanding VAT may have important implications for the early diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of VAP. In comparison with VAP, VAT is plagued by little clinical data and several questions: How do we define it? How much does it overlap with VAP? What level of bacteria in endotracheal aspirates is diagnostic? When is antibiotic therapy indicated and for how long? [5]Most bacteria enter the lower respiratory tract by leakage of bacteria and oropharyngeal secretions around the endotracheal tube cuff, resulting in colonization, VAT, or VAP [2]. Furthermore, the primary exit route for bacteria out of the lower respiratory tract is impeded by the endotracheal tube, patient sedation, and a reliance on mechanical suctioning rather than spontaneous coughing. The lower respiratory tract in the ventilated patient is a continuous 'battleground' between the numbers, types, and virulence of the incoming bacteria versus the lung's incredible mechanical, cellular, and humoral defenses. The outcome for each patient is either lower airway colonization or shades of grey from VAT to VAP.Diagnoses of both VAT and VAP rely on clinical and systemic signs of infection (fever, leukocytosis, reduced oxygenation) plus purulent sputum with high concentrations of bacteria (≥ 105–6 colony-forming units [cfu]/mL) in the endotracheal aspirate. Diagnoses of VAP rely on distal samples of bacteria obtained from bronchoscopic and non-bronchoalveolar lavage (≥ 104 cfu/mL) [2] or protected specimen brush (PSB) (≥ 103 cfu/mL). Definitions of VAT and VAP have been based on different sampling techniques and microbiologic thr
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