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The Effect of Different Wavelength of Light for Microbial Fuel Cell with an Anode of Rhodopseudomonas faecalis (PSB-B)  [PDF]
Guang Rong, Qingping Hu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103389
Abstract:
A microbial fuel cell (MFC) with an algae-assisted cathode is a low-cost and sustainable way to provide the oxygen for the oxygen reduction reaction. The anode was with anaerobic microorganism, a kind of photosynthetic bacteria (PSB-B). An algae bioreactor was connected to cathode microbial fuel cells to increase power generation by supplying more oxygen to cathode electrode. In this study, we used red, blue and white LED light as the light source, and the anode and cathode were under irradiation respectively. The result showed that white LED light was an effective factor for the anode, the cell voltage was built up from 34 mv to 60 mv, power density increased up to 2.5 mW/m2, the red and blue light had positive impact on the voltage. At cathode, the voltage was almost on steady stage conditions, and it was fluctuated around 35 mv by oxygen bubbles that were produced by algae. This relatively simple method increased the oxygen reduction rate at a low cost and could be applied to improve the performance of MFC.
Optimization Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Carotenoids from Rhodopseudomonas faecalis PSB-B  [PDF]
Qingping Hu, Yan Wang
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105045
Abstract:
The content and species of carotenoids are significantly affected by different carotenoids extraction methods. The comparison of the three methods ultrasonic assisting, grinding and HCl assisting on carotenoids extraction yield from Rhodopseudomonas faecalis PSB-B was carried out. Data ANOVA showed that ultrasound can greatly replace the conventional extraction. And then, based on ultrasonic assisting extraction method, the effect of ultrasonic time, solvent-solid ratio and ultrasonic power on the yield of carotenoids extracted from Rhodopseudomonas faecalis PSB-B was investigated using single factor and Box-Behnken experimental design. Under the extraction of temperature 20?C, N-hexane:Methanol (5:1), the optimal conditions for Ultrasonic assisted extraction of carotenoids found to be: Ultrasonic time 4.5 min, Solvent-solid ratio (mg/ml) (10:10), extraction power of 187 W. The yield of carotenoids could reach to 16.11 mg/L.
Chemical Composition, Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil from Roots of Radix aucklandiae against Selected Food-Borne Pathogens  [PDF]
Jinxiu Liu, Defeng Huang, Donglin Hao, Qingping Hu
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2014.513119
Abstract: Radix aucklandiae from Yunnan Province in China is a significant medicinal plant. In the present study, the essential oil composition from Radix aucklandiae roots was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 23 compounds representing 57.95% of the essential oil were tentatively identified. The main constituents were eremanthin (12.74%), d-Guaiene (6.26%), ζ-Himachalene (6.16%) and l-Caryophyllene (4.84%). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the essential oil from R. aucklandiae were evaluated against three Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albus and Bacillus subtilis) three Gram-negative bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli and Shigella dysenteriae). Results revealed that the essential oil exhibited significant in vitro antimicrobial property. Among all the tested microorganisms, the essential oil showed
Mitigative Effect of Bacillus subtilis QM3 on Root Morphology and Resistance Enzyme Activity of Wheat Root under Lead Stress  [PDF]
Yang Hao, Haitao Wu, Yanfang Liu, Qingping Hu
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2015.56048
Abstract: Lead (Pb) is an environmental pollutant extremely toxic to plants and other living organisms including humans. In order to research the relieve effect of Bacillus subtilis QM3 on wheat roots (Triticum aestivum L.), after wheat seeds germination for two days, wheat root caused, the experimental materials were divided into four large groups and each large group was placed in 6 petri dishes as six small groups, and then four large groups respectively cultivated with sterile water (CK), 108 CFU/ml B. subtilis QM3 (B1), 107 CFU/ml B. subtilis QM3 (B2) and 106 CFU/ml B. subtilis QM3 (B3) for 2 days, after that stressed with lead nitrate, Pb (NO)2, Pb2+ concentration calculation at five concentrations (50, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 mg/L), sterile water and different Pb2+ concentration liquid respectively cultivated the 6 small groups in each large group measuring root morpholog and assaying changes of antioxidant enzyme activity. The results showed that: with the increase of the Pb2+ concentration, root morphology index and the activity of antioxidant enzyme increased first and then decreased. Root morphology index reached the maximum in 50 mg/L Pb2+ concentration. B. subtilis QM3 clearly promoted the growth of the root and the
Effects of Bacillus subtilis QM3 on Germination and Antioxidant Enzymes Activities of Wheat Seeds under Salt Stress  [PDF]
Qingping Hu, Rongxia Liu, Jinxiu Liu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105218
Abstract:
Salt is an important environmental factor that affects wheat growth and development and restricts crop production. Bacillus subtilis QM3 is a strain of antagonistic strains which have biological control function. In this paper, the effects of wheat seed, and soaked treatment by B. subtilis QM3, on germination and antioxidant enzyme activities under salt stress were studied. The results showed that under salt stress, B. subtilis QM3 soaking could increase the germination percentage (GP), germination potential (GT), and germination index (GI) of wheat, and significantly increase the activity of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p < 0.05). And high salt concentration had an adverse effect on wheat seed germination. When NaCl concentration were 100, 150, 200 mmol/L, GP, GT, GI decreased to 58.0%, 41%, 61 a/dy, and SOD, POD, CAT decreased to 133.12 g·min, 106.62 g·min, 6.68 g·min. However, the B. subtilis QM3 influenced the variables evaluated. After soaking with B. subtilis QM3, the morphological index GP, GT, GI was significantly increased by 12.99%, 41.18%, and 38.81% at NaCl concentration of 150 mmol/L. Under salt stress (50 mmol/L), B. subtilis QM3 treatment maximized the relative growth rate of CAT activity, which was 87.25%. Similarly, when the NaCl concentration was 150 mol/L, the relative growth rate of SOD activity and POD activity was the greatest, which were 35.81% and 36.57%. It was concluded that B. subtilis QM3 treatment on wheat seeds may be a good option to improve seed germination under salt stress.
Response Surface Methodology for the Optimization of Chlorpyrifos-Degrading Conditions by Pseudomonas stutzeri ZH-1  [PDF]
Feng He, Mimi Zhang, Lihong Zhang, Qingping Hu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104405
Abstract:
The removal of pesticides in the environment mainly depends on natural degradation, especially on microbial degradation. Biodegradation has many advantages, such as complete degradation, no secondary pollution, quick effect and wide spectrum. Based on the single-factor experiments and Box-Benhnken design, the effect of four factors on the degradation of chlorpyrifos by P. stutzeri ZH-1 was investigated. The four factors, including temperature (℃), oscillator speed (rpm), inoculum concentration (%) and pH, and their interactions on the degradation of chlorpyrifos were studied through the use of response surface analysis. The optimal conditions of chlorpyrifos-degrading were as follows: Temperature 36.7℃, oscillator speed 130.00 rpm, inoculum concentration 7%, pH 7. Under these conditions, the degradation rate of chlorpyrifos was 96.48%. Moreover, P. stutzeri ZH-1 could be used efficiently for remediation of contaminated soils.
Chronic Toxicity Study in Rats Orally Exposed to Mulberry Sea-Buckthorn Beverage Concentrate  [PDF]
Qingping Sun, Zhimin Xu
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.59102
Abstract:

Objective: This study is designed to observe the chronic toxicity after the administration of mulberry sea-buckthorn beverage concentrate for 3 months on rats and to predict the possible adverse effect and the potential toxicity target organs. Method: The rats (SPF level) were randomly divided into high-dose (20 mL/kg BW), middle-dose (10 mL/kg BW), low-dose (5 mL/kg BW) groups and negative control group (20 mL/kg BW of purified water) with 30 rats in each group. Each group was orally given mulberry sea-buckthorn beverage concentrate for 3 months and recovered by stop feeding samples for 2 weeks for a recovery observation. The rats’ general condition, the organ coefficient, the indexes of hematology and blood biochemistry and the histological changes of the main organs were determined. Result: The appearance and behavior of activity in rats showed no anomalies in all these groups and all the rats put on weight during this period. Comparing to the negative control group, no obvious differences were observed in the weekly weight and organ coefficient of each dose group. After 3 months of administration, HGB in both mulberry sea-buckthorn beverage concentrate low-dose group and high-dose group were increased. No significant differences were observed in the indexes of hematology after 2 weeks of recovery. CREA in low-dose, middle-dose and high-dose groups were significantly increased after 3 months of administration and it remained in the high level in middle-dose and high-dose group even after 2 weeks of recovery. No drug-related lesions were observed in the histological changes of major organs. Conclusion: The results show that long term use of mulberry concentrated sea-buckthorn beverage can lead to increased CREA, which suggested kidney toxicity. Although no obvious pathological change was found in kidney, we should pay attention to chronic kidney damage in the further research.

Protein Expressions and Their Immunogenicity from Riemerella anatipestifer Cultured in Iron Restriction Medium
Yifei Yang, Changqin Gu, Yonghong Liao, Qingping Luo, Xueying Hu, Wanpo Zhang, Huabin Shao, Guofu Cheng
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065901
Abstract: Riemerella anatipestifer was cultured in both iron restriction media and normal media. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis identified 23 proteins that significantly increased in the iron restriction media. Of them 12 proteins were analyzed with mass spectrography. Nine of 12 proteins belong to 6 different protein families: fibronectin type iii domain protein, secreted subtilase family protein, phosphoglycerate kinase, translation elongation factor, leucine-rich repeat-containing protein, and Galactose-binding domain-like protein. Other 3 proteins were novel with unknown function. Two novel proteins (Riean_1750 and Riean_1752) were expressed in prokaryotic expression systems. The specificities of these 2 novel proteins to R. anatipestifer were confirmed by western-blotting analysis. The ducks immunized with either protein had low mortality challenged by R. anatipestifer, 33.3% and 16.7%, respectively. The ducks developed 100% immunity when immunized with combined Riean_1750 and Riean_1752 proteins. The data suggested 2 novel proteins play important roles in the bacterial survival in the iron restricted environment. They could be used as subunit vaccines of R. anatipestifer.
Isolation and Identification of Alkali-Resistant 1,3-Propanediol Producing Strain  [PDF]
Zhifang Zhao, Caifang Wen, Guang Rong, Ruiqing Liu, Jianguo Xu, Qingping Hu
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2016.612086
Abstract: 1,3-Propanediol is a promising renewable resource produced by microbial production. It is mainly used in many synthetic reactions, particularly applied to the polymer synthesis and cosmetics industry. We described here the isolation of strain ZH-1, which has the ability of high production with 1,3-propanediol, from Fenhe River in China. It was classified as a member of K. pneumoniae after the study of phenotypic, physio-logical, biochemical and phylogenetic (16S rDNA). The initial glycerol concentration, fermentation time and pH value of strain ZH-1 were determined to be 50 g·L-1, 36 h and 8.0. Under these conditions, the practical yield of 1,3-PD was 18.53 g·L-1 and a molar yield (mol1,3-PD molGlycerol-1 of 1,3-propanediol to glycerol of 0.497. In addition, we found that for the strain ZH-1, the optimum grown pH was 9.0, so we can deter-mine that it is a new member of alkali-resistant strains.
Enhancing the NaCl Tolerance Potential of Wheat on Root Morphology and Osmoregulation Substance by Exogenous Application of Bacillus subtilis QM3  [PDF]
Ruiqing Liu, Caifang Wen, Zhifang Zhao, Guang Rong, Jianguo Xu, Qingping Hu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103072
Abstract:
Bacillus subtilis QM3 is a strain of antagonistic strains which have biological control function. Salinity is the most important limiting plant factor for agriculture development and growth changes in wheat. The present study was carried out to test tolerance involved in salt stress alleviation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) through the root application of B. subtilis QM3. Experiment was performed after germinating for two days. Wheat root was first grown under B. subtilis QM3 with four levels (108 CFU/ml B. sutilis QM3 (M1), 107 CFU/ml B. subtilis QM3 (M2), 106 CFU/ml B. subtilis QM3 (M3) and 105 CFU/ml B. subtilis QM3 (M4)), then poured with saline regime of NaCl of six concentrations (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 mmol/L) compared along with control. The results of present study showed that B. subtilis QM3 clearly promoted the growth of the root morphology and the content of osmoregulation substance (p < 0.05), and 106 CFU/ml B. subtilis QM3 (M3) was found to be very effective in mitigation of NaCl stress by promoting the growth of the wheat root and adjusting the content of osmoregulation substance in wheat root.
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