Abstract:
Based on the China Family Panel Study (CFPS) 2014,
this paper studied the relationship between the frequencies of working with the
Internet and the wage income gap between urban and rural areas. The study found
that the frequencies of working with the Internet has a significant effect on
wage income through separate analyses of urban and rural areas; the frequencies
of working with the Internet has no significant effect on the wage income gap
between urban and rural areas; when using quantile regression, the frequencies
of working with the Internet still has no significant impact on the wage income
gap between urban and rural areas except at the 75^{th} quantile. These
conclusions are different from the conclusions of direct comparison of
regression coefficients. The FGLS method was used to solve the problem of
heteroscedasticity in the urban subsample.

Abstract:
We obtain a large deviation principle for the stochastic differential equations on the sphere associated with the critical Sobolev Brownian vector fields. 1. Introduction The purpose of our paper is to prove a large deviation principle on the asymptotic behavior of the stochastic differential equations on the sphere associated with a critical Sobolev Brownian vector field which was constructed by Fang and Zhang [1]. Recall that Schilder theorem states that if is the real Brownian motion and is the space of real continuous functions defined on , null at 0, which endowed with the uniform norm, then for any open set and closed set , with This result was then generalized by Freidlin and Wentzell in their famous paper [2] by considering the It equation They proved a large deviation principle for the above equation under usual Lipschitz conditions. Recently, Ren and Zhang in [3] proved a large deviation principle for flows associated with differential equations with non-Lipschitz coefficients by using the weak convergence approach which is systematically developed in [4], and as an application, they established a Schilder Theorem for Brownian motion on the group of diffeomorphisms of the circle. In this paper, we consider the large deviation principle of the critical Sobolev isotropic Brownian flows on the sphere which is defined by the following SDE: where are eigenvector fields of Laplace operator on the sphere with respect to the metric . , , , and are the eigenspaces of eigenvalues and , respectively. The authors in [1] consider the stochastic differential equations on Let , and there exists a real-valued Brownian motion such that therefore, the coefficients of SDEs which defined the Brownian motion on with respect to the metric are non-Lipschitz (see Lemma 4.2 or page 582–585 [1] and Theorem？？2.3 in [1]). Because of the complex structure of this equation, it seems hard to prove the large deviation principle for the small perturbation of the equation by using its recursive approximating system as Ren and Zhang did in [3]. We will adopt a different approach which is similar to those of Fang and Zhang [1] and Liang [5]. We first work with the solution of (5.1) (below) driven by finitely many Brownian motions, and this equation has smooth coefficients, so the large deviation principle for this equation is well known. Next, we show that is exponentially fast, which together with the special relation of rate functions guaranties that the large deviation estimate of can be transferred to , where is the solution of the small perturbed system (3.1). The rest of

Abstract:
Wireless sensor network (WSN) has emerged as a promising technology thanks to the recent advances in electronics, networking, and information technologies. However, there is still a great deal of additional research required before it finally becomes a mature technology. This article concentrates on three factors which are holding back the development of WSNs. Firstly, there is a lack of traffic analysis & modeling for WSNs. Secondly, network optimization for WSNs needs more investigation. Thirdly, the development of anomaly detection techniques for WSNs remains a seldom touched area. Among these three factors, the understanding regarding the traffic dynamics within WSNs provide a basis for further works on network optimization and anomaly detection for WSNs.

Pattern search algorithms is one of
most frequently used methods which were designed to solve the derivative-free optimization
problems. Such methods get growing need with the development of science,
engineering, economy and so on. Inspired by the idea of Hooke and Jeeves, we
introduced an integer m in the algorithm which controls the number of steps
of iteration update. We mean along the descent direction to allow the algorithm to go ahead m steps at most to explore whether we can get
better solution further. The experiment proved the strategy’s efficiency.

Abstract:
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as critical regulators of gene expression by modulating numerous target mRNAs expression at posttranscriptional level. Extensive studies have shown that miRNAs are critical in various important biological processes, including cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, development, and apoptosis. In terms of their importance, miRNA dysfunction has been associated with a broad range of diseases. Increased number of studies have shown that miRNAs can functionally interact with a wide spectrum of environmental factors (EFs) including drugs, industrial materials, virus and bacterial pathogens, cigarette smoking, alcohol, nutrition, sleep, exercise, stress, and radiation. More importantly, the interactions between miRNAs and EFs have been shown to play critical roles in determining abnormal phenotypes and diseases. In this paper, we propose an outline of the current knowledge about specific roles of miRNAs in their interactions with various EFs and analyze the literatures detailing miRNAs-EFs interactions in the context of various of diseases. 1. Introduction MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulatory RNAs that are 20–30 nucleotides long that bind the 3′-untranslated regions of target mRNAs [1–3]. miRNAs have emerged as critical regulators of gene expression by modulating the expression of numerous target mRNAs mainly at the posttranscriptional level [4]. Since partial or imperfect complementarity of an miRNA to a target mRNA can lead to translational repression, a single miRNA has the ability of regulating a large number of genes [5]. miRNAs have been shown to play a role in regulating a wide range of biological processes, such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, development, and apoptosis [6]. In terms of their importance, dysfunction of miRNAs has been associated with various diseases [7–9]. In contrast to the wealth of publications about their biological effects, the information about specific regulations of miRNAs has comparatively lagged behind. The phenotype of an organism is determined by the complex interactions between genetic factors (GFs) and environmental factors (EFs). EFs have been shown to contribute tremendously to the formation and development of many diseases, especially complex diseases [10–12]. The interactions between GFs and EFs, often hypothesized to be mediated by epigenetic mechanisms, modulate the reproductive fitness of an organism, its response to external stimuli and health [13]. Similar to other GFs, miRNAs have complex interactions with a wide spectrum of EFs [14]. Recently, increased number

Abstract:
In the application of fuzzy reasoning, researchers usually choose the membership function optionally in some degree. Even though the membership functions may be different for the same concept, they can generally get the same (or approximate) results. The robustness of the membership function optionally chosen has brought many researchers' attention. At present, many researchers pay attention to the structural interpretation (definition) of a fuzzy concept, and find that a hierarchical quotient space structure may be a better tool than a fuzzy set for characterizing the essential of fuzzy concept in some degree. In this paper, first the uncertainty of a hierarchical quotient space structure is defined, the information entropy sequence of a hierarchical quotient space structure is proposed, the concept of isomorphism between two hierarchical quotient space structures is defined, and the sufficient condition of isomorphism between two hierarchical quotient space structures is discovered and proved also. Then, the relationships among information entropy sequence, hierarchical quotient space structure, fuzzy equivalence relation, and fuzzy similarity relation are analyzed. Finally, a fast method for constructing a hierarchical quotient space structure is presented.

Abstract:
Excessive loss of pancreatic β-cell mass, mainly due to apoptosis, is a major cause in the development of diabetic hyperglycemia in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus [1]. β-cell apoptosis is initiated by a variety of stimuli such as inflammatory cytokines, chronic hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia [2,3] and downstream effects such as endoplasmic reticulum stress [4] and mitochondrial dysfunction [5]. Oxidative stress plays a permissive role in the process of apoptosis leading to cell destruction in many types of cell lineages [6,7]. Particularly the β-cells are more susceptible to oxidative stress due to the fact that they express major antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase at low levels [1,8,9]. In the pancreatic islets, superoxide dismutase expression is 30-40% compared with that of the liver, glutathione peroxidase expression is 15%, and catalase expression cannot be detected [10].At the cellular level, oxidative stress-mediated β-cell apoptosis can result from an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and its clearance by antioxidants [9]. It has been demonstrated that proinflammatory cytokines induced β-cell apoptosis is mediated through elevation of ROS in the mitochondria via altered electron transport chain action [11], and increased nitric oxide (NO) production via activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) [12]. The process is known to be involved with activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK/SAPK) or the FAS-FAS ligand pathways [13]. Induction of ROS is found to be multilateral. Long chain saturated non-esterized fatty acids (NEFA) such as palmitic acid (PA) induces ROS production in the mitochondria through the electron transport chain [11,14]. The long chain saturated NEFAs could also directly interact with respiratory chain proteins and increase the oxygen radicals [15]. Streptozotocin (STZ) is a toxic agent that causes β-cell death via

Abstract:
Carboxylic
acid-functionalized nano-sized magnetic composite polymers (COOH-NMPs) were synthesized
and used for the preparation of the modified glassy carbon electrode, i.e., COOH-NMPs/GCE and DNA/COOH-NMPs/GCE. The electrochemical behaviors of melamine (MM) were investigated
on COOH-NMPs/GCE by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in both cases of DNA in the
solution and immobilized on the electrode surface. The electron transfer coefficient
(a) and the rate constant (k_{s}) kept
unchanged in the absence and presence of DNA. Based on the electrochemical
properties of the interaction of MM on the surface of the DNA/COOH-NMPs/GCE, a
direct method for the determination of MM in liquid milk was established. The
detection limit of this method was 2.0 ng·L^{﹣}^{1}, with average recoveries at 95.9% - 104.2% and RSD at 4.5% - 8.2%. The
proposed method was provided to have a good accuracy, high stability and good
reproducibility with a simple and environmental friendly process. 10 kinds of liquid milk samples bought from the market randomly were
tested, and only 1 of them was found at relatively low level of MM residue with
the amount of 0.12 ug·L^{﹣}^{1}.

Abstract:
We study the strongly damped wave equations with critical nonlinearities. By choosing suitable state spaces, we prove sectorial property of the operator matrix ？together with its adjoint operator, investigate the associated interpolation and extrapolation spaces, analysis the criticality of the nonlinearity with critical growth, and study the higher spatial regularity of the Y-regular solution by bootstrapping.