Abstract:
This paper discussed how to understand the price of a luxury good from BPM perspective. BPM provides us a comprehensive framework to explain the pricing mechanism of luxury goods. Based on BPM, an index (IVDI) was compiled to probe how much the price of a luxury good relies on the utilitarian reinforcement. IVDI also provides profound implications to marketers when they promote different luxury goods. Different parts of BPM are linked together, as a whole they will influence a customer’s entire buying process.

Abstract:
For a Bose-Einstein condensate placed in a rotating trap and confined in the z axis, we set a framework of study for the Gross-Pitaevskii energy in the Thomas Fermi regime. We investigate an asymptotic development of the energy, the critical velocities of nucleation of vortices with respect to a small parameter $\ep$ and the location of vortices. The limit $\ep$ going to zero corresponds to the Thomas Fermi regime. The non-dimensionalized energy is similar to the Ginzburg-Landau energy for superconductors in the high-kappa high-field limit and our estimates rely on techniques developed for this latter problem. We also take the advantage of this similarity to develop a numerical algorithm for computing the Bose-Einstein vortices. Numerical results and energy diagrams are presented.

Abstract:
In this paper, we prove the energy diminishing of a normalized gradient flow which provides a mathematical justification of the imaginary time method used in physical literatures to compute the ground state solution of Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC). We also investigate the energy diminishing property for the discretization of the normalized gradient flow. Two numerical methods are proposed for such discretizations: one is the backward Euler centered finite difference (BEFD), the other one is an explicit time-splitting sine-spectral (TSSP) method. Energy diminishing for BEFD and TSSP for linear case, and monotonicity for BEFD for both linear and nonlinear cases are proven. Comparison between the two methods and existing methods, e.g. Crank-Nicolson finite difference (CNFD) or forward Euler finite difference (FEFD), shows that BEFD and TSSP are much better in terms of preserving energy diminishing property of the normalized gradient flow. Numerical results in 1d, 2d and 3d with magnetic trap confinement potential, as well as a potential of a stirrer corresponding to a far-blue detuned Gaussian laser beam are reported to demonstrate the effectiveness of BEFD and TSSP methods. Furthermore we observe that the normalized gradient flow can also be applied directly to compute the first excited state solution in BEC when the initial data is chosen as an odd function.

Abstract:
In this paper, we provide the different types of bifurcation diagrams for a superconducting cylinder placed in a magnetic field along the direction of the axis of the cylinder. The computation is based on the numerical solutions of the Ginzburg-Landau model by the finite element method. The response of the material depends on the values of the exterior field, the Ginzburg-Landau parameter and the size of the domain. The solution branches in the different regions of the bifurcation diagrams are analyzed and open mathematical problems are mentioned.

Abstract:
In this paper, phase field models are developed for multi-component vesicle membranes with different lipid compositions and membranes with free boundary. These models are used to simulate the deformation of membranes under the elastic bending energy and the line tension energy with prescribed volume and surface area constraints. By comparing our numerical simulations with recent experiments, it is demonstrated that the phase field models can capture the rich phenomena associated with the membrane transformation, thus it offers great functionality in the simulation and modeling of multicomponent membranes.

Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate the structure and representations of the quantum group ${\mathbf{U}(\infty)}=\mathbf U_\upsilon(\frak{gl}_\infty)$. We will present a realization for $\mathbf{U}(\infty)$, following Beilinson--Lusztig--MacPherson (BLM) \cite{BLM}, and show that the natural algebra homomorphism $\zeta_r$ from $\mathbf{U}(\infty)$ to the infinite $q$-Schur algebra ${\boldsymbol{\mathcal S}}(\infty,r)$ is not surjective for any $r\geq 1$. We will give a BLM type realization for the image $\mathbf{U}(\infty,r):=\zeta_r(\mathbf{U}(\infty))$ and discuss its presentation in terms of generators and relations. We further construct a certain completion algebra $\hat{\boldsymbol{\mathcal K}}^\dagger(\infty)$ so that $\zeta_r$ can be extended to an algebra epimorphism $\tilde\zeta_r:\hat{\boldsymbol{\mathcal K}}^\dagger(\infty)\to{\boldsymbol{\mathcal S}}(\infty,r)$. Finally we will investigate the representation theory of ${\bf U}(\infty)$, especially the polynomial representations of ${\bf U}(\infty)$.

Abstract:
We use the Hecke algebras of affine symmetric groups and their associated Schur algebras to construct a new algebra through a basis, and a set of generators and explicit multiplication formulas of basis elements by generators. We prove that this algebra is isomorphic to the quantum enveloping algebra of the loop algebra of $\mathfrak {gl}_n$. Though this construction is motivated by the work \cite{BLM} by Beilinson--Lusztig--MacPherson for quantum $\frak{gl}_n$, our approach is purely algebraic and combinatorial, independent of the geometric method which seems to work only for quantum $\mathfrak{gl}_n$ and quantum affine $\mathfrak{sl}_n$. As an application, we discover a presentation of the Ringel--Hall algebra of a cyclic quiver by semisimple generators and their multiplications by the defining basis elements.

Abstract:
We will construct the Lusztig form for the quantum loop algebra of $\mathfrak{gl}_n$ by proving the conjecture \cite[3.8.6]{DDF} and establish partially the Schur--Weyl duality at the integral level in this case. We will also investigate the integral form of the modified quantum affine $\mathfrak{gl}_n$ by introducing an affine stabilisation property and will lift the canonical bases from affine quantum Schur algebras to a canonical basis for this integral form. As an application of our theory, we will also discuss the integral form of the modified extended quantum affine $\mathfrak{sl}_n$ and construct its canonical basis to verify a conjecture of Lusztig in this case.

Abstract:
When the parameter $q\in\mathbb C^*$ is not a root of unity, simple modules of affine $q$-Schur algebras have been classified in terms of Frenkel--Mukhin's dominant Drinfeld polynomials (\cite[4.6.8]{DDF}). We compute these Drinfeld polynomials associated with the simple modules of an affine $q$-Schur algebra which come from the simple modules of the corresponding $q$-Schur algebra via the evaluation maps.

Abstract:
For solving nonsmooth systems of equations, the Levenberg-Marquardt method and its variants are of particular importance because of their locally fast convergent rates. Finitely many maximum functions systems are very useful in the study of nonlinear complementarity problems, variational inequality problems, Karush-Kuhn-Tucker systems of nonlinear programming problems, and many problems in mechanics and engineering. In this paper, we present a modified Levenberg-Marquardt method for nonsmooth equations with finitely many maximum functions. Under mild assumptions, the present method is shown to be convergent Q-linearly. Some numerical results comparing the proposed method with classical reformulations indicate that the modified Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm works quite well in practice.