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Impact of drug classes and treatment availability on the rate of antiretroviral treatment change in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD)
Preeyaporn Srasuebkul, Alexandra Calmy, Jialun Zhou, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Matthew Law, Poh Lim, The TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database
AIDS Research and Therapy , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1742-6405-4-18
Abstract: Rates of ART changes were examined in patients who started first line triple or more ART combination in TAHOD, and had at least one follow-up visit. Rates of ART changes were summarised per follow-up year, and factors associated with changes assessed using random-effect Poisson regression. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine durations of patients in their first, second and third regimen.A total of 1846 patients initiated an ART combination with at least three drugs. Median follow up time for the first treatment was 3.2 years. The overall rate of ART change was 29 per 100-person-year.In univariate analyses, rate of treatment change was significantly associated with exposure category, the country income category, the drug class combination, calendar year and the number of combinations. In multivariate analysis, compared to d4T/3TC/NVP, starting ART with another NNRTI-containing regimen, with PI only or with a triple NRTI regimen was associated with a higher risk of combination change (relative risk (RR) 1.6 (95% CI 1.64 – 1.96), p < 0.001, RR 3.39 (2.76 – 4.16) p < 0.001, RR 6.37 (4.51 – 9.00), p < 0.001). Being on a second or a third combination regimen was also associated with a decreased rate of ART change, compared with first ART combination (RR 0.82 (0.68 – 0.99), p = 0.035, RR 0.77 (0.61 – 0.97), p = 0.024). Sites with fewer than 12 drugs used had an increased rate of treatment changes (1.31 (1.13 – 1.51), p < 0.001). Injecting drug users, and other/unknown exposure was found to increase rate of treatment change (1.24 (1.00 – 1.54), p = 0.055). Percentages of patients who stopped treatment due to adverse events were 31, 27 and 32 in 1st, 2nd and 3rd treatment combinations, respectively.Our study suggests that drug availability impacts on ART prescription patterns. Our data, reflecting real clinic use in Asia, suggest that around half of all patients require second combination ART by 3 years after treatment initiation.In South and South-East Asia the nu
Effect of Added Garcinia Fruit on Total Phenolic Compound Content, Antioxidant Properties and Quality Changes of the Southern Sour Curry Paste, Keang-hleung, during Storage  [PDF]
Preeyaporn Promjiam, Sunisa Siripongvutikorn, Worapong Usawakesmanee
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.48106

The favorite soup for Thai particularly in the southern part is Southern sour curry or Keang-hleung soup. The ingredients used in the paste are turmeric rhizome, garlic, shallot and chili. However, for making the sour soup, the souring agent such as lime juice, tamarind pod or garcinia, fruit is added. This study aimed to compare quality changes, total phenolic compound and antioxidant properties of the pastes as affected of added garicia fruit during storage. It was found that the total phenolic compound content of basic paste without the garcinia, garcinia Keang-hleung paste and garcinia Keang-hleung paste without salt decreased as increased storage time. Moreover, the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity and the ferric reducing power (FRAP) activity of the basic paste without the garcinia decreased as increased storage time. However, the DPPH radical scavenging activity and the FRAP activity of the garcinia Keang-hleung paste with and without salt increased during 2 months of storage period and then decreased as increased storage time. Total viable count (TVC) of all paste samples were in the range of 102 - 103 cfu/g. Yeast and mold counts of basic and garcinia Keang-hlueng paste were less than 30 cfu/g during storage. While, yeast and mold counts of garcinia Keang-hlueng paste without salt were less than 102 cfu/g during storage. Lactic acid bacteria counts of garcinia Keang-hlueng paste were less than 30 cfu/g during storage. While, lactic acid bacteria counts of the basic and garcinia Keang-hlueng paste without salt were less than 102 cfu/g during storage. However, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacilluus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and coliforms were not detected in all treatments throughout the storage period.

Preparation and Characterization of Poly(divinylbenzene) Microcapsules Containing Octadecane  [PDF]
Preeyaporn Chaiyasat, Amorn Chaiyasat, Waraporn Boontung, Supaporn Promdsorn, Sutanya Thipsit
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2011.28136
Abstract: Poly(divinylbenzene) (PDVB) microcapsules containing octadecane (OD) (PDVB/OD) used as heat storage material were synthesized by suspension polymerization at 70 Microencapsulation, Microcapsule, Heat Storage Material, Octadecane, Suspension Polymerization, Poly(Divinylbenzene)C using benzoyl peroxide and polyvinyl alcohol as initiator and stabilizer, respectively. Thermal properties and stability of PDVB/OD microcapsules were determined using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermogravimetric analyzer. The morphology and structure of microcapsules were characterized by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer. From DSC analysis, the melting temperature of encapsulated OD (28oC) was almost the same as that of bulk OD (30oC) while it was quite different in the case of the solidification temperature (19oC and 25oC for encapsulated and bulk OD, respectively). The latent heats of melting (184.0 J/g-OD) and solidification (183.2 J/g-OD) of encapsulated OD were reduced from those of bulk OD (241.7 and 247.0 J/g, respectively). However, the prepared PDVB/OD microcapsules are able to be used for heat storage applications.
Advances in Carcinogenic Metal Toxicity and Potential Molecular Markers
Preeyaporn Koedrith,Young Rok Seo
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijms12129576
Abstract: Metal compounds such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, mercury, and nickel are classified as carcinogens affecting human health through occupational and environmental exposure. However, the underlying mechanisms involved in tumor formation are not well clarified. Interference of metal homeostasis may result in oxidative stress which represents an imbalance between production of free radicals and the system’s ability to readily detoxify reactive intermediates. This event consequently causes DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, protein modification, and possibly symptomatic effects for various diseases including cancer. This review discusses predominant modes of action and numerous molecular markers. Attention is paid to metal-induced generation of free radicals, the phenomenon of oxidative stress, damage to DNA, lipid, and proteins, responsive signal transduction pathways with major roles in cell growth and development, and roles of antioxidant enzymatic and DNA repair systems. Interaction of non-enzymatic antioxidants (carotenoids, flavonoids, glutathione, selenium, vitamin C, vitamin E, and others) with cellular oxidative stress markers (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase) as well as certain regulatory factors, including AP-1, NF-κB, Ref-1, and p53 is also reviewed. Dysregulation of protective pathways, including cellular antioxidant network against free radicals as well as DNA repair deficiency is related to oncogenic stimulation. These observations provide evidence that emerging oxidative stress-responsive regulatory factors and DNA repair proteins are putative predictive factors for tumor initiation and progression.
Screening of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Chicken Ceca for In vitro Growth Inhibition of Salmonella enteritica Serovar Enteritidis
Preeyaporn Surachon,Peerapol Sukon,Prapansak Chaveerach,Panya Waewdee,Chaiyaporn Soikum
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2011.939.944
Abstract: Salmonellosis in humans caused by consumption of contaminated poultry products with Salmonella enteritica serovar enteritidis (S. enteritidis) is still a public health problem. Many efforts have been developed to eradicate or reduce Salmonella loads in poultry industry. Use of normal microbiota (e.g., Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB)) against the pathogen is an alternative of antibiotics used and is under extensive investigations. Therefore, the objective of this study was to screen and identify the LAB strain showing the greatest growth inhibition against S. enteritidis. LAB were isolated from chicken ceca of five clinically healthy broilers (age, 42-50 days). The bacteria were grown in MRS broth and on the plate with selective media Rogosa agar. For screening of the inhibitory effects of the isolated LAB against S. enteritidis, we used disc diffusion and agar well diffusion methods. In this study, 56 isolates exhibited inhibitory effect against S. enteritidis but only thirteen isolates producing a clear zone as large as 19 mm or greater were selected for acid tolerance test. In this test, three isolates did survive at pH 2.5 for 18 h but only 1 isolate was subjected for evaluation by coculture with S. enteritidis and for 16S rDNA sequencing. This isolate was able to grow in the coculture medium and at the same time, inhibited the growth S. enteritidis. This isolate was identified as Lactobacillus salivarius TP4.2-2.
Effect of a Single Dose of Lactobacillus salivarius on Prevention of Salmonella enteritidis Infection in Young Broilers
Panya Waewdee,Peerapol Sukon,Prapansak Chaveerach,Preeyaporn Surachon,Chaiyaporn Soikum
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2012.955.961
Abstract: Lactobacillus salivarius strain LP 4.2-2 (L. salivarius LP 4.2-2) isolated from chicken cecum can strongly inhibit Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis) in vitro but little is known about its effect on prevention of this pathogen in live chickens. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to determine whether a single dose of L. salivarius LP 4.2-2 given at low or high dose by oral or cloacal route would prevent S. enteritidis infection in young broilers in addition, effects of the experimental treatments on total bacterial count in cecal contents, body weight, organ weight and intestinal length in chicks were determined. In this study, 240 of 1 day old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 6 groups of 40 chicks each. Chicks in each group were housed separately in a cage (size 1.5x1.5 m2). At 1 day of age, each group received none, 104 or 1010 (cfu/chick) of L. salivarius LP 4.2-2 by either oral or cloacal route. At 2 days of age, all chicks except those in one group (a negative control) were challenged orally with 104 (cfu/chick) of S. enteritidis. At 3 days of age, a half number of chicks in each group (n = 20/group) were randomly selected for the detection of S. enteritidis infection in cecal tonsils. Other parameters such as total bacterial count, body weight and intestinal length were also measured. The remaining chicks were allowed to grow until 9 days of age and then the procedures for measuring each parameter were done the same as those described above. The results showed that at 3 days of age, rates of S. enteritidis infection were lower in all groups administered with L. salivarius LP 4.2-2 than in a positive control group (13/20 or 65%-17/20 or 85% versus 19/20 or 95%). However, at 9 days of age, rates of S. enteritidis infection were high in all groups (95-100%), except in a negative control (0%). No significances were seen in total bacterial counts and in body weights between groups either at 3 or 9 days of age. After adjusted for body weight, weights of most internal organs in all groups and total lengths of intestine in most groups did not differ significantly. In conclusion, a single dose of L. salivarius cannot prevent S. enteritidis infection in all chicks but it can reduce rate of the infection in 3 days old chicks. However, the preventive effect is diminished over time.
Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Human Enterovirus Serotype 68 in Thailand, 2006–2011
Piyada Linsuwanon, Jiratchaya Puenpa, Kamol Suwannakarn, Vittawat Auksornkitti, Preeyaporn Vichiwattana, Sumeth Korkong, Apiradee Theamboonlers, Yong Poovorawan
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035190
Abstract: Background Publications worldwide have reported on the re-occurrence of human enterovirus 68 (EV68), a rarely detected pathogen usually causing respiratory illness. However, epidemiological data regarding this virus in particular on the Asian continent has so far been limited. Methodology/Findings We investigated the epidemiology and genetic variability of EV68 infection among Thai children with respiratory illnesses from 2006–2011 (n = 1810). Semi-nested PCR using primer sets for amplification of the 5′-untranslated region through VP2 was performed for rhino-enterovirus detection. Altogether, 25 cases were confirmed as EV68 infection indicating a prevalence of 1.4% in the entire study population. Interestingly, the majority of samples were children aged >5 years (64%). Also, co-infection with other viruses was found in 28%, while pandemic H1N1 influenza/2009 virus was the most common co-infection. Of EV68-positive patients, 36% required hospitalizations with the common clinical presentations of fever, cough, dyspnea, and wheezing. The present study has shown that EV68 was extremely rare until 2009 (0.9%). An increasing annual prevalence was found in 2010 (1.6%) with the highest detection frequency in 2011 (4.3%). Based on analysis of the VP1 gene, the evolutionary rate of EV68 was estimated at 4.93×10?3 substitutions/site/year. Major bifurcation of the currently circulating EV68 strains occurred 66 years ago (1945.31 with (1925.95–1960.46)95% HPD). Among the current lineages, 3 clusters of EV68 were categorized based on the different molecular signatures in the BC and DE loops of VP1 combined with high posterior probability values. Each cluster has branched off from their common ancestor at least 36 years ago (1975.78 with (1946.13–1984.97)95% HPD). Conclusion Differences in epidemiological characteristic and seasonal profile of EV68 have been found in this study. Results from Bayesian phylogenetic investigations also revealed that EV68 should be recognized as a genetically diverse virus with a substitution rate identical to that of enterovirus 71 genotype B (4.2×10?3 s/s/y).
Modulating effects of plasma containing anti-malarial antibodies on in vitro anti-malarial drug susceptibility in Plasmodium falciparum
Preeyaporn Monatrakul, Mathirut Mungthin, Arjen M Dondorp, Srivicha Krudsood, Rachanee Udomsangpetch, Polrat Wilairatana, Nicholas J White, Kesinee Chotivanich
Malaria Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-326
Abstract: Titres of antibodies against blood stage antigens (mainly the ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen [RESA]) were measured in plasma samples obtained from Thai patients with acute falciparum malaria. 'Immune' plasma was selected and its effects on in vitro parasite growth and multiplication of the Thai P. falciparum laboratory strain TM267 were assessed by light microscopy. The in vitro susceptibility to quinine and artesunate was then determined in the presence and absence of 'immune' plasma using the 3H-hypoxanthine uptake inhibition method. Drug susceptibility was expressed as the concentrations causing 50% and 90% inhibition (IC50 and IC90), of 3H-hypoxanthine uptake.Incubation with 'immune' plasma reduced parasite maturation and decreased parasite multiplication in a dose dependent manner. 3H-hypoxanthine incorporation after incubation with 'immune' plasma was decreased significantly compared to controls (median [range]; 181.5 [0 to 3,269] cpm versus 1,222.5 [388 to 5,932] cpm) (p= 0.001). As a result 'immune' plasma reduced apparent susceptibility to quinine substantially; median (range) IC50 6.4 (0.5 to 23.8) ng/ml versus 221.5 (174.4 to 250.4) ng/ml (p = 0.02), and also had a borderline effect on artesunate susceptibility; IC50 0.2 (0.02 to 0.3) ng/ml versus 0.8 (0.2 to 2.3) ng/ml (p = 0.08). Effects were greatest at low concentrations, changing the shape of the concentration-effect relationship. IC90 values were not significantly affected; median (range) IC90 448.0 (65 to > 500) ng/ml versus 368.8 (261 to 501) ng/ml for quinine (p > 0.05) and 17.0 (0.1 to 29.5) ng/ml versus 7.6 (2.3 to 19.5) ng/ml for artesunate (p = 0.4).'Immune' plasma containing anti-malarial antibodies inhibits parasite development and multiplication and increases apparent in vitro anti-malarial drug susceptibility of P. falciparum. The IC90 was much less affected than the IC50 measurement.Falciparum malaria remains the most important parasite infection in the tropical world. Develop
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