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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 227 matches for " Preena Bhalla "
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Congenital syphilis, still a reality in 21st century: a case report
Monica Chaudhary, Bineeta Kashyap, Preena Bhalla
Journal of Medical Case Reports , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1947-1-90
Abstract: Congenital syphilis is a rare and serious disease that although preventable continues to be a major health care problem [1]. Although the rate of congenital syphilis is declining in developed countries, a significant increase has been observed in the underdeveloped countries [2] in spite of the widespread use of penicillin to treat syphilis since the early 1950s. Late congenital syphilis (recognized 2 or more years after birth) [3] is a very rare clinical entity. We are reporting here a case of late congenital syphilis in order to emphasize that congenital syphilis still exists in 21st century and global antenatal screening is mandatory to prevent this serious, yet largely preventable disease. We report here a case of late congenital syphilis who presented at the age of 13 years with palatal perforation.A 13 year old boy presented to the ENT OPD, at LN Hospital, New Delhi, India, with complaints of a hole in the hard palate which had been slowly enlarging, since its appearance 2–3 months back along with difficulty in eating and nasal speech.Except for the presence of a perforation approximately 1 cm in diameter in the anterior hard palate, the physical examination of the child was otherwise unremarkable (Figure 1).The routine investigations revealed Hemoglobin 12.4%, Total leukocyte count 11700/mm3, Differential leukocyte count – Polymorphs 57% Lymphocytes 30% Eosinophils 13%, and Platelet count 2.94 lac. Other routine biochemical investigations were insignificant. Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) was reactive at 16 dilutions and Treponema pallidum haemagglutination test (TPHA) was positive (TPHA TEST KIT; Plasmatec Laboratory Products Ltd. UK). The X-ray of the chest was normal and Mantoux test was negative. Cerebrospinal fluid examination was normal. Skeletal survey revealed no radiological evidence of periosteal lesions or perichondritis. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen and pelvis showed no abnormality. No other orofacio-dental stigmata of congen
Enteric pathogens in HIV/ AIDS from a tertiary care hospital
Uppal Beena,Kashyap Bineeta,Bhalla Preena
Indian Journal of Community Medicine , 2009,
Abstract: Background: Patterns of enteric infections in HIV in developing countries may differ in several important ways from developed countries, the knowledge of which can often guide therapy when resource limitations hamper the exact diagnosis of the etiological agent in HIV-associated diarrhea. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to define and compare the microbial etiologies of diarrhea in HIV-1 infected and non infected patients and in HIV infected non diarrheal patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted between April 2007 and July 2007 at the Department of Microbiology, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi. Stool samples from 50 HIV seropositive cases with diarrhea (study group), 50 HIV seropositive cases without diarrhea (control group I), and 50 HIV seronegative cases with diarrhea (control group II) were examined. After the diagnosis of HIV infection was made, routine parasitological and bacteriological detection was done. An ELISA was used for the detection of Clostridium difficile toxin and Cryptosporidium antigen in stool samples. Results: The overall prevalence of enteric parasitosis in the study group was 20% and the bacteria identified were Escherischia coli in 24% of the case, Clostridium difficile in 10% of the cases, Salmonella species and Vibrio cholerae in 4% of the cases, and Shigella species in 2% of the cases. Candida species was identified in 36% of the cases. Conclusions: Identification of the etiological agent of diarrhea in a patient with AIDS is very important as it can help in the institution of appropriate therapy and the reduction of morbidity and mortality in these patients.
A five-year survey of onychomycosis in New Delhi, India: Epidemiological and laboratory aspects
Kaur Ravinder,Kashyap Bineeta,Bhalla Preena
Indian Journal of Dermatology , 2007,
Abstract: Context: The worldwide incidence of onychomycosis is increasing and it continues to spread and persist. Knowledge of the epidemiological and mycological characteristics is an important tool for control of this infection. Aims: This study seeks to improve knowledge of onychomycosis epidemiology and mycological features. Settings and Design: Over a period of five years (Jan 2000 - Dec 2005) samples from 400 patients with clinical suspected fungal nail infections, who attended dermatology out patient department at a tertiary care hospital, were obtained. Materials and Methods: 400 nail specimens of suspected onychomycosis were evaluated clinically, KOH examination and fungal culture was done. Results: Onychomycosis was present in 218 (54.5%) by culture and /or direct examination. Fingernails and toenails were infected in 65% and 32% respectively and remaining 3% had both. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that dermatophytes were main agents causing onychomycosis in our region, as well as the importance of performing direct examination and culture in diagnosis of onychomycosis.
Hepatitis B Infection in Microbiology Laboratory Workers: Prevalence, Vaccination, and Immunity Status
Arun Kumar Jha,Sanjim Chadha,Preena Bhalla,Sanjeev Saini
Hepatitis Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/520362
Prevalence and awareness about sexually transmitted infections among males in urban slums of Delhi
Garg Suneela,Singh Meghachandra,Nath Anita,Bhalla Preena
Indian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Background : India is at present facing an emergence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus. Community-based studies on the prevalence of STIs among males are scanty. Aim :(i) To study the prevalence of STIs and (ii) to assess the level of awareness about STIs among males belonging to the reproductive age group residing in an urban slum. Setting and Design :This is a cross-sectional study conducted in selected areas of Delhi, using a camp approach. Materials and Methods : One hundred ninety-six males in the reproductive age group were interviewed regarding their awareness about STIs, past history and present complaints of any symptoms suggestive of an STI. This was followed by a clinical examination. Required samples were also collected for microbiological tests. Statistical Tests : Simple proportions and Chi-square test. Results and Conclusions : As many as 70% of the study participants were unable to mention even one symptom of an STI. About 73.4% of the study participants stated that staying in a monogamous relationship could help prevent STI, while only 39.2% were aware that condoms could afford protection against an STI. As many as 8.7% complained of urethral discharge, while 5.6% complained of itching, 2.5% reported presence of genital ulcer and 1.0% complained of groin swelling. We found a seroprevalence rate of 1.5% for trichomoniasis and 3.6% for syphilis. Thus the overall awareness level about STIs and their prevention was rather low. Poor treatment-seeking behavior was also observed. The actual prevalence rate in the general population might be higher due to the likelihood of presence of an asymptomatic infection. The present study calls for a multipronged approach which also includes targeted interventions and strategies to be adopted in the reproductive health programs for males who have been neglected by the program managers so far.
Seroprevalence of hepatitis viruses in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus
Jain Manisha,Chakravarti Anita,Verma Vikas,Bhalla Preena
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology , 2009,
Abstract: Objective: The co-infection of Hepatitis B and C viruses with HIV accelerates disease progression and also has an effect on the management of patients infected with HIV. The prevalence of HIV co-infection with hepatitis viruses varies widely. This study is planned to evaluate the prevalence of HIV co-infection with Hepatitis B and C viruses in North India. Materials and Methods: A total of 1178 patients enrolled in the ART center were retrospectively analyzed for the presence of HBV and HCV on the basis of the presence of HBsAg and anti-HCV markers. Results: In patients infected with HIV, the prevalence of co-infection with HBV was 9.9% (117/1178), the prevalence of co-infection with HCV was 6.3% (74/1178) and the prevalence co-infection with both HBV and HCV was ~1% (12/1178). Discussion: The prevalence rate of HBV and HCV are increasing in patients infected with HIV. Having acquired the knowledge about the importance of such a co-infection, it is essential that all the patients infected with HIV be screened for HBV and HCV co-infection.
Clinical and Microbiological Profile of HIV/AIDS Cases with Diarrhea in North India
Arun Kumar Jha,Beena Uppal,Sanjim Chadha,Preena Bhalla
Journal of Pathogens , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/971958
Hepatitis B Infection in Microbiology Laboratory Workers: Prevalence, Vaccination, and Immunity Status
Arun Kumar Jha,Sanjim Chadha,Preena Bhalla,Sanjeev Saini
Hepatitis Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/520362
Abstract: The risk of contracting HBV by health care workers (HCW) is four-times greater than that of general adult population. Studies have demonstrated that vaccine-induced protection persists at least 11 years. High risk groups such as HCWs should be monitored and receive a booster vaccination if their anti-HBsAb levels decrease below 10?mIU/mL. In view of the above this study was undertaken to assess the HBV vaccination of the HCWs and their immunological response. Seventy-two HCWs of the Department of Microbiology, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India, were recruited and blood sample was drawn for serological tests (HBSAg, anti-HCV, anti-HBsAb, anti-HBeAb, and anti-HBcAb). Anti-HBs titers of >10?mIU/mL were considered protective. Thirty-four (47.3%) of the participants were completely vaccinated with three doses. 25 (73.5%) of the participants with complete vaccination had protective anti-HBsAb levels as against 8 (53.3%) of those with incomplete vaccination and 9 (39.1%) of those who were not vaccinated at all. One of our participants was acutely infected while 29 participants were susceptible to infection at the time of the study. All HCWs should receive three doses of the vaccine and be monitored for their immune status after every five years. Boosters should be administered to those who become susceptible. 1. Introduction Hepatitis B is a serious infectious disease of the liver which affects millions of people worldwide. More than 2 billion people living today have been infected with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) at some time in their lives and about 350 million people are carriers of the virus [1]. India has intermediate endemicity of Hepatitis B, with Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence between 2% and 7%. The number of HBsAg carriers in India has been estimated to be over 50 millions [2, 3]. Throughout the world, millions of healthcare professionals work in health institutions and it is estimated that 600,000 to 800,000 cut and puncture injuries occur among them per year, of which approximately 50% are not registered [4]. The risk of contracting HBV by health care workers (HCWs) is four-times greater than that of general adult population [5]. The highest rates are seen among dentists, physicians, laboratory workers, dialysis workers, cleaning service employees, and nurses [6]. Blood contains the highest HBV titers of all body fluids and is the most important vehicle of transmission in the health care setting. Avoiding occupational blood exposure is the primary preventive means for the transmission of HBV. Immunization and after exposure
Rapid Tests versus ELISA for Screening of HIV Infection: Our Experience from a Voluntary Counselling and Testing Facility of a Tertiary Care Centre in North India
Bhanu Mehra,Sonali Bhattar,Preena Bhalla,Deepti Rawat
ISRN AIDS , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/296840
Abstract: Early and accurate diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is essential for timely identification of patients needing antiretroviral therapy and for instituting HIV prevention strategies. The primary methodology for HIV testing has shifted from enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in recent years, especially in resource limited settings. However, the diagnostic performance of RDTs is a matter of concern. In the present study the performance of an RDT being used as the initial test in serial testing based algorithm for HIV diagnosis was compared with ELISA. Seven hundred and eighty-seven sera, tested at the voluntary counselling and testing facility employing a serial testing algorithm (based on SD Bioline HIV-1/2 3.0 as the first test), were subsequently tested with Microlisa-HIV for anti-HIV antibodies. The first test missed 9 HIV reactive samples and also registered 5 false positives. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values of the first test were 77.5%, 99.3%, and 98.8% and 86.1%, respectively, taking ELISA as the standard test. Our study highlights that RDTs fare poorly compared to ELISA as screening assays and that reactive results by RDTs need to be confirmed by western blot for a positive serodiagnosis of HIV infection. 1. Introduction Approximately 35.3 million people across the world are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) [1]. Early and accurate knowledge of HIV serostatus of an individual is the cornerstone of HIV prevention and therapeutic intervention. In addition to allowing timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy of the HIV infection, early diagnosis also provides an opportunity to limit the spread of HIV from the infected individuals to the naive population. Detection of anti-HIV antibodies as a marker of HIV exposure is the most widely used approach for serodiagnosis of this infection. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been a preferred screening procedure in this regard [2]. However the labour intensive and time consuming format of the assay as well as the requirement of instrumentation and technical expertise has resulted in a shift from an ELISA based approach to rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), particularly in resource constrained settings. While some studies have reported the performance of RDTs and ELISA to be comparable [3], results from others have raised concerns regarding sensitivity and specificity of the rapid assays [4–6]. With regard to HIV testing, two testing algorithms are commonly described: parallel and
Molecular Typing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates by Opa-Typing and Ribotyping in New Delhi, India
Pejvak Khaki,Preena Bhalla,Ahmad Mir Fayaz,Sohiela Moradi Bidhendi,Majid Esmailzadeh,Pawan Sharma
International Journal of Microbiology , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/934823
Abstract: Control and preventive measures for gonococcal infections are based on precise epidemiological characteristics of N. gonorrhoeae isolates. In the present study the potential utility of opa-typing and ribotyping for molecular epidemiological study of consecutive gonococcal strains was determined. Sixty gonococcal isolates were subjected to ribotyping with two restriction enzymes, AvaII and HincII, and opa-typing with TaqI and HpaII for epidemiological characterization of gonococcal population. Ribotyping with AvaII yielded 6 ribotype patterns while twelve RFLP patterns were observed with HincII. Opa-typing of the 60 isolates revealed a total 54 opa-types, which 48 were unique and 6 formed clusters. Fifty-two opa-types were observed with TaqI-digested PCR product while opa-typing with HpaII demonstrated 54 opa-types. The opa-types from isolates that were epidemiologically unrelated were distinct, whereas those from the sexual contacts were identical. The results showed that opa-typing is highly useful for characterizing gonococcal strains from sexual contacts and has more discriminatory than ribotyping that could differentiate between gonococci of the same ribotype. The technique even with a single restriction enzyme has a high level of discrimination (99.9%) between epidemiologically unrelated isolates. In conclusion, the molecular methods such as opa-typing and ribotyping can be used for epidemiological characterization of gonococcal strains.
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