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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1054 matches for " Pravat Nalini Sahoo "
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High viremia and low level of transmitted drug resistance in anti-retroviral therapy-na ve perinatally-infected children and adolescents with HIV-1 subtype C infection
Neogi Ujjwal,Sahoo Pravat Nalini,De Costa Ayesha,Shet Anita
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-12-317
Abstract: Background High plasma viremia in HIV-1 infection is associated with rapid CD4 cell decline and faster disease progression. Children with HIV infection have high viral loads, particularly in early childhood. In this study we sought to understand the relationship between duration of HIV-1 infection and viral dynamics among perinatally-infected children and adolescents in India along with transmitted drug resistance in this population. Methods During 2007–2011, cross-sectional samples were collected from ART-na ve children (n = 105) with perinatally-acquired HIV infection, aged 2–16 years from Bangalore, India. CD4 counts, viral load and in-house genotyping were performed and transmitted drug resistance mutations were identified using the World Health Organization recommendations for Surveillance of Drug Resistance Mutations (SDRM_2009) list. Results Among 105 children studied, 73.3% (77/105) were asymptomatic, but had a median viral load of 5.24 log copies/mL (IQR 4.62-5.66). In the adolescent age group, 54% (21/39) had high levels of viremia (median 5.14 log copies/mL) but were asymptomatic. HIV-1 subtyping identified 98% strains (103/105) as subtype C; one A1 and one unique recombinant form (URF). Transmitted NRTI resistance was 1.9% (2/105); NNRTI resistance was 4.8% (5/105) and overall prevalence of transmitted drug resistance was 5.7% (6/105). Conclusions The high burden of plasma viremia found among untreated asymptomatic adolescents needs to be addressed both from an individual angle to halt disease progression, and from a public health perspective to arrest horizontal transmission. The low level of transmitted drug resistance among perinatally-infected children is reassuring; however with improving ART access globally, regular genotyping surveillance is indicated.
Human APOBEC3G-mediated hypermutation is associated with antiretroviral therapy failure in HIV-1 subtype C-infected individuals
Ujjwal Neogi,Anita Shet,Pravat Nalini Sahoo,Irene Bontell
Journal of the International AIDS Society , 2013, DOI: 10.7448/ias.16.1.18472
Abstract: Introduction: Human APOBEC3G/F (hA3G/F) restricts retroviral replication through G-to-A hypermutations, which can generate drug-resistant progenies in vitro. The clinical relevance is still inconclusive. To bridge this gap, we aim to study the role of these hypermutations in evolution of drug resistance; we characterised hA3G/F-mediated hypermutations in the RT region of the pol gene of patients with or without antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: In 88 HIV-1-positive individuals, drug resistance genotyping was carried out in plasma virus and provirus by population sequencing. Hypermutations were determined by three different approaches using Hypermut 2.0 software, cluster analysis and APOBEC3G-mediated defectives indices. Clinical and demographic characteristics of these individuals were studied in relation to these hypermutations. Results: hA3G/F-mediated hypermutated sequences in proviral DNA, but not in plasma virus, were identified in 11.4% (10/88) subjects. Proviral hypermutations were observed more frequently in patients with ART failure than in ART-na ve individuals (p=0.03). In therapy failure patients, proviral hypermutation were associated with greater intra-compartmental genetic diversity (p<0.001). In therapy-na ve individuals, hypermutated proviral DNA with M184I and M230I mutations due to the editing of hA3G, had stop codons in the open reading frames and the same mutations were absent in the plasma virus. Only a limited concordance was found between the drug resistance mutations in plasma RNA and proviral DNA. Conclusions: hA3G lethal hypermutation was significantly associated with ART failure in Indian HIV-1 subtype C patients. It is unlikely that viral variants, which exhibit hypermutated sequences and M184I and/or M230I, will mature and expand in vivo.
Correlation Associative Rule Induction Algorithm Using ACO  [PDF]
C. Nalini
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.710244
Abstract: Classification and association rule mining are used to take decisions based on relationships between attributes and help decision makers to take correct decisions at right time. Associative classification first generates class based association rules and use that generate rule set which is used to predict the class label for unseen data. The large data sets may have many null-transac- tions. A null-transaction is a transaction that does not contain any of the itemsets being examined. It is important to consider the null invariance property when selecting appropriate interesting measures in the correlation analysis. Real time data set has mixed attributes. Analyze the mixed attribute data set is not easy. Hence, the proposed work uses cosine measure to avoid the influence of null transactions during rule generation. It employs mixed-kernel probability density function (PDF) to handle continuous attributes during data analysis. It has ably to handle both nominal and continuous attributes and generates mixed attribute rule set. To explore the search space efficiently it applies Ant Colony Optimization (ACO). The public data sets are used to analyze the performance of the algorithm. The results illustrate that the support-confidence framework with a correlation measure generates more accurate simple rule set and discover more interesting rules.
Assessment of School Infrastructure at Primary and Upper Primary Level: A Geospatial Analysis  [PDF]
Gouri Sankar Bhunia, Pravat Kumar Shit, Soumen Dubai
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2012.45047
Abstract: With the introduction of powerful and high-speed personal computers, proficient techniques for infrastructure development and management have advanced, of which Geoinformatics technology is of great significance. An attempt has been made for broad mapping and analysis of existing infrastructures in the context of planning scheme in Paschim Medinipur district, and to delineate the development zones of educational infrastructure facilities. The thematic layers considered in this study are infrastructure accessibility, type and condition of classroom and number of classroom allocated for the educational system at primary and upper primary level. Moran’s I statistics was used to estimate the spatial distribution of elementary infrastructure across the district. All these themes and their individual features were then assigned weights according to their relative importance in educational development and corresponding normalized weights were obtained based on the Saaty’s analytical hierarchy process. The thematic layers were finally integrated in GIS software based on multi-criteria approach to yield educational development infrastructure index. Moran’s I statistics shows girl’s toilet, electric and boundary wall facility within the district are clustered in pattern at primary level. At the upper primary level, only electric and computer facilities shows the clustered distribution across the district. However, four different zones have been delineated, namely ‘very good’, ‘good’, ‘moderate’ and ‘poor’. The block covered by very good elementary educational infrastructure facility is Daspur –I and Dantan –II at primary level and Keshiary block at upper primary level in Paschim Medinipur district. Finally, it is concluded that the Geoinformatics technology is very efficient and useful for the identification of infrastructure development.
Developments of Rill Networks: An Experimental Plot Scale Study  [PDF]
Pravat Kumar Shit, Gouri Sankar Bhunia, Ramkrishna Maiti
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.52015

Enumerating the relative proportions of soil losses due to rill erosion processes during monsoon and post-monsoon season is a significant factor in predicting total soil losses and sediment transport and deposition. Present study evaluated the rill network with simulated experiment of treatments on varying slope and rainfall intensity to find out the rill erosion processes and sediment discharge in relation to slope and rainfall intensity. Results showed a significant relationship between the rainfall intensity and sediment yield (r = 0.75). Our results illustrated that due to increase in rainfall intensity represent the development of efficient rill network while, no rill was found with a slope of 20° and a rainfall intensity of 60 mm·h-1. The highest rill length was observed in plot E with 20° slope and 120 mm·h-1 rainfall intensity at 360 minutes. Positive and strong correlation (R2 = 0.734, P < 0.001) was observed between the cumulative rainfall intensity and sediment discharge. A longitudinal profile was delineated and showed that the depth and numbers of depressions amplified with time and were more prominent for escalating rainfall intensity for its steeper slopes. Information derived from the study could be applied to estimate longer-term erosion stirring over larger areas possessing parallel landforms.

Seasonal Variation of the Physicochemical Properties of Water Samples in Mahanadi Estuary, East Coast of India  [PDF]
Pravat Ranjan Dixit, Biswabandita Kar, Partha Chattopadhyay, Chitta Ranjan Panda
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.48098

The two major sources which are contributing to marine pollution are natural processes as well as anthropogenic activities. The natural process includes precipitation, erosion, weathering of crystal material whereas anthropogenic activities are urbanization, industrialization, mining and agricultural activities, etc. Mahanadi is the biggest river source of Odisha which joins the Bay of Bengal at Paradip. Paradip Township is an urbanized well-developed industrial township where various anthropogenic activities are contributing pollution to the water sources. In the present study, an attempt has been made to estimate and monitor the seasonal and spatial variation of physiochemical properties of the Mahanadi estuary, the East Coast coastal belt of India. The result revealed that there is a remarkable variation in the physiochemical parameters such as pH, salinity, TSS, DO, BOD, NO2N, NO3N, NH4N, TN, TP, SIO4 and Chl-a which are attributed to the runoff water getting discharged to the coastal water sources. It is being recommended to treat waste water and materials before discharging them to the marine water medium.

Assessment of Factors Affecting Ephemeral Gully Development in Badland Topography: A Case Study at Garbheta Badland (Pashchim Medinipur,  [PDF]
Pravat Kumar Shit, Gouri Sankar Bhunia, Ramkrishna Maiti
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2013.42043

Gully erosion in the Paschim Medinipur district of West Bengal, Indiahas been an issue of anxiety, formed by the amputation of soil from narrow channels through the accretion of surface runoff. Here, we attempted to investigate the erosion variability of gully in a micro catchment area, and also scrutinized the gully cross-sectional areas as distinct components of gully volumes. Twelve gullies were randomly selected in different slopes. To determine the geometric growth of the gully dimensions and soil loss, the initial length of gully, the width of the gully and depth of respective gullies was monitored in different seasons. Univariate analysis was conducted to measure the association between gully head retreat and vegetation coverage, slope, rainfall volume and runoff contributing area. We found strong and significant relation between the slope of gully head and linear retreat in the pre monsoon (p < 0.008) and post monsoon (p < 0.024) season respectively. Conversely, rainfall volume and gully head retreat showed a strong relationship in the pre monsoon (r = 0.80), monsoon (r = 0.66) and post-monsoon period (r = 0.94); while meager relationship was observed with rainfall intensity (r = 0.06). Results also illustrated that the overall retreat of gully head had very strong and positive relationship with the runoff contributing area (r = 0.89, p < 0.001), and maximum gully erosion was observed in the monsoon period (55.67%). These results indicate that slope, rainfall and runoff contributing area have a strong positive influence on gully erosion in Paschim Medinipur district, since the initiation of the gully.

Iron Nutrition vis-à-vis Aconitase Activity and Ferritin Accumulation in Tropical Indica Rice Cultivars Differing in Grain Iron Concentration  [PDF]
Binay Bhusan Panda, Srigopal Sharma, Pravat Kumar Mohapatra, Avijit Das
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.518299

Effect of Fe nutrition on Fe acquisition, aconitase enzyme activity and assimilation of the element in ferritin protein was studied in two indica rice cultivars viz. Sharbati and Lalat having contrasting grain Fe concentration. Young rice seedlings were grown in hydroponics with different levels of Fe. For comparison, the two cultivars were also grown in the field under natural conditions of rice culture. Iron accumulation, aconitase activity and ferritin level were higher in the high Fe containing cultivar, Sharbati than that in the low Fe containing cultivar, Lalat. While aconitase activity increased consistently with the increase in concentration of Fe in the growing medium, the same was not found to be true for accumulation of ferritin protein. The leaf ferritin level increased up to a certain level of Fe in the growing medium and declined thereafter. Levels of Fe in the growing medium giving maximum ferritin synthesis were found to be different in the two rice cultivars. In both cultivars, aconitase activity attained maximum level after 20 days of panicle emergence (heading). Pattern of Fe accumulation in the leaves in response to increasing Fe level in the nutrient solution paralleled with that of the aconitase activity indicating a positive correlation. It was concluded that accumulation of both ferritin protein and aconitase enzyme were influenced not only by the Fe level in the growing medium but also by the internal Fe concentration of the two cultivars.

Effects of plant root density on the erodibility of lateritic topsoil by simulated flume experiment
Pravat Kumar Shit,Ramkrishna Maiti
International Journal of Forest, Soil and Erosion , 2012,
Abstract: A laboratory facility was built to quantify effects of grass roots on the erodibility of lateritic topsoil by concentrated flow erosion. The design allowed slope gradient and flow rate to be controlled. The hydraulic flume was used to test the concentrated flow erosion from three lateritic topsoils (bare, scatter grass-root-permeated and densely grass-root-permeated) and exposed to two slopes (25 and 35%). The aim of the test was to formulate a model to represent effect of grass roots density on topsoil erosion by concentrated flow for lateritic topsoil of Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal, India. The detachment rates of undisturbed topsoil samples collected from twenty ( three bare soil, eight scatter grass and nine densely grasses) soil monitored through a 1.82 m long, 0.094 m wide hydraulic flume under two different slope condition (25 and 35%). Velocity of flow was set at 0.000492 and 0.00064 m3s-1 and flow shear stresses (τ,) ranged between 3.8 and 17.5 Pa. The results indicated that a significant negative exponential relationship between relative soil detachment (RSD) and roots density (RD) was detected. This study yielded one prediction equation that allowed comparison of their efficiency in assessing soil detachment rate in concentrated flow. The equation including the root density (RD) shows a better correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.73067). It may be concluded that the formula based on root density (RD) has the potential to improve methodology for assessing soil detachment rate in concentrated flow for lateritic topsoils.
Differences in Resource Allocation under Alternative Tenurial Contracts and its Explanations: Evidence from Rural West Bengal, India
Arindam Laha,Pravat Kumar Kuri
Trends in Agricultural Economics , 2012,
Abstract: In the light of the debate on the differences in resource allocation under alternative tenurial contracts, an attempt has been made in the paper to measure the level of allocative efficiency across alternative tenurial contracts in West Bengal agriculture by using Data Envelopment Analysis. Empirical evidences suggest a close association between efficiency in resource allocation and land tenure contracts in the sense that owner cultivation and fixed rent tenancies are used to allocate resources more efficiently in comparison to sharecropping and cost sharecropping tenancy. The difference in allocative efficiency under alternative contractual choices is also observed to be attributable to the differences in cropping pattern and irrigation intensity under alternative contractual arrangements.
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