Abstract:
Surgical site infections (SSI) are a preventable cause of hospital acquired infections, which increase morbidity and mortality. This is a retrospective analysis of SSIs in patients undergoing general surgical and gastroenterological operations. The observed incidence was 3.63%. The commonest procedures resulting in SSI were those who underwent laparotomy for bowel resections. The commonest organisms isolated were Enterococcus and Klebsiella species. SSIs can be further reduced by strict adherence to SSI prevention guide-lines.

Abstract:
We study the dynamical behaviour of the collective field of chaotic systems on small world lattices. Coupled neuronal systems as well as coupled logistic maps are investigated. We observe that significant changes in dynamical properties occur only at a reasonably high strength of nonlocal coupling. Further, spectral features, such as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), change monotonically with respect to the fraction of random rewiring, i.e. there is no optimal value of the rewiring fraction for which spectral properties are most pronounced. We also observe that for small rewiring, results are similar to those obtained by adding small noise.

Abstract:
We study the transition to phase synchronization in a model for the spread of infection defined on a small world network. It was shown (Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 86} (2001) 2909) that the transition occurs at a finite degree of disorder $p$, unlike equilibrium models where systems behave as random networks even at infinitesimal $p$ in the infinite size limit. We examine this system under variation of a parameter determining the driving rate, and show that the transition point decreases as we drive the system more slowly. Thus it appears that the transition moves to $p=0$ in the very slow driving limit, just as in the equilibrium case.

Abstract:
We demonstrate the phenomenon of self organized criticality (SOC) in a simple random walk model described by a random walk of a myopic ant. The ant acts on the underlying lattice aiming at uniform digging of the surface but is unaffected by the underlying lattice. In 1-d, 2-d and 3-d we have explored this model and have obtained power laws in the time intervals between consecutive events of `digging'. Being a simple random walk, the power laws in space translate to power laws in time. We also study the finite size scaling of asymptotic scale invariant process as well as dynamic scaling in this system. This model differs qualitatively from the cascade models of SOC.

Abstract:
We demonstrate the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR) for discrete-time dynamical systems. We investigate various systems that are not necessarily bistable, but do have two well defined states, switching between which is aided by external noise which can be additive or multiplicative. Thus we find it to be a fairly generic phenomenon. In these systems, we investigate kinetic aspects like hysteresis which reflect the nonlinear and dissipative nature of the response of the system to the external field. We also explore spatially extended systems with additive or parametric noise and find that they differ qualitatively.

Abstract:
We present a detailed study of prisoner's dilemma game with stochastic modifications on a two-dimensional lattice, in presence of evolutionary dynamics. By very nature of the rules, the cooperators have incentive to cheat and the fear to being cheated in prisoner's dilemma and may cheat even when not dictated by evolutionary dynamics. We consider two variants. In either case, the agents mimic the action (cooperation or defection) in the previous timestep of the most successful agent in the neighborhood. Over and above this, the fraction p of cooperators spontaneously change their strategy to pure defector at every time step in the first variant. In the second variant, there are no pure cooperators. All cooperators keep defecting with probability p at every time-step. In both cases, the system switches from coexistence state to an all-defector state for higher values of p. We show that the transition between these states unambiguously belongs to directed percolation universality class in 2 + 1 dimension. We also study the local persistence and the persistence exponents are higher than ones obtained in previous studies underlining their dependence on details of dynamics

Abstract:
We investigate coupled circle maps in presence of feedback and explore various dynamical phases observed in this system of coupled high dimensional maps. We observe an interesting transition from localized chaos to spatiotemporal chaos. We study this transition as a dynamic phase transition. We observe that persistence acts as an excellent quantifier to describe this transition. Taking the location of the fixed point of circle map (which does not change with feedback) as a reference point, we compute number of sites which have been greater than (less than) the fixed point till time t. Though local dynamics is high-dimensional in this case this definition of persistence which tracks a single variable is an excellent quantifier for this transition. In most cases, we also obtain a well defined persistence exponent at the critical point and observe conventional scaling as seen in second order phase transitions. This indicates that persistence could work as good order parameter for transitions from fully or partially arrested phase. We also give an explanation of gaps in eigenvalue spectrum of the Jacobian of localized state.

Abstract:
We investigate the problem of wealth distribution from the viewpoint of asset exchange. Robust nature of Pareto's law across economies, ideologies and nations suggests that this could be an outcome of trading strategies. However, the simple asset exchange models fail to reproduce this feature. A yardsale(YS) model in which amount put on the bet is a fraction of minimum of the two players leads to condensation of wealth in hands of some agent while theft and fraud(TF) model in which the amount to be exchanged is a fraction of loser's wealth leads to an exponential distribution of wealth. We show that if we allow few agents to follow a different model than others, {\it i.e.} there are some agents following TF model while rest follow YS model, it leads to distribution with power law tails. Similar effect is observed when one carries out transactions for a fraction of one's wealth using TF model and for the rest YS model is used. We also observe a power law tail in wealth distribution if we allow the agents to follow either of the models with some probability.

Abstract:
Pareto law, which states that wealth distribution in societies have a power-law tail, has been a subject of intensive investigations in statistical physics community. Several models have been employed to explain this behavior. However, most of the agent based models assume the conservation of number of agents and wealth. Both these assumptions are unrealistic. In this paper, we study the limiting wealth distribution when one or both of these assumptions are not valid. Given the universality of the law, we have tried to study the wealth distribution from the asset exchange models point of view. We consider models in which a) new agents enter the market at constant rate b) richer agents fragment with higher probability introducing newer agents in the system c) both fragmentation and entry of new agents is taking place. While models a) and c) do not conserve total wealth or number of agents, model b) conserves total wealth. All these models lead to a power-law tail in the wealth distribution pointing to the possibility that more generalized asset exchange models could help us to explain emergence of power-law tail in wealth distribution.

Abstract:
We study coupled maps on a Cayley tree, with local (nearest-neighbor) interactions, and with a variety of boundary conditions. The homogeneous state (where every lattice site has the same value) and the node-synchronized state (where sites of a given generation have the same value) are both shown to occur for particular values of the parameters and coupling constants. We study the stability of these states and their domains of attraction. As the number of sites that become synchronized is much higher compared to that on a regular lattice, control is easier to effect. A general procedure is given to deduce the eigenvalue spectrum for these states. Perturbations of the synchronized state lead to different spatio-temporal structures. We find that a mean-field like treatment is valid on this (effectively infinite dimensional) lattice.