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FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ONCE DAILY SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLET OF ACECLOFENAC USING NATURAL GUMS
Prajapati SK,,Richhaiya R,Singh VK,Singh AK
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics , 2012,
Abstract: In present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the effect of natural gums on the release profile of drug from matrix system for once daily sustained release tablets formulations. Aceclofenac NSAIDs was used as a model drug to evaluate it release characteristics from different matrices. Matrix tablets of Aceclofenac were prepared by direct compression process using natural gums (xanthan gum and karaya gum) in different ratios drug: gum ratios of FX, FK and FXK (FX and FK in 1:1 ratios). The tablets were evaluated for physical characteristic like hardness, weight variation, friability, swelling index and drug content, in-vitro release of drug was performed in Phosphate buffer pH 7.4 for 24 hours. All the physical characteristic of fabricated tablet was within acceptable limits. The release of Aceclofenac from a gelatinous swollen mass, which controls the diffusion of drug molecules through the polymeric materials in to aqueous medium. The FXK matrices show prices controlled release than FX and FK matrices because of burst effect and fast release in case of FX and FK matrices respectively and there was no chemical interaction between drug and polymers in FXK formulation as confirmed by FTIR studies.The release mechanism was explained with zero order, first order, higuchi and korsmeyer equations via swelling and non fickian diffusion mechanism. The FXK matrices leads to more prices result than FX and FK alone by utilization of synergistic interaction between two biopolymers and uniformity in the hydration layer in dissolution media
PRONIOSOMAL GEL OF FLURBIPROFEN: FORMULATION AND EVALUATION
Prajapati SK,Kumar S,Sahu VK,Prakash G
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics , 2012,
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to design proniosomal gel drug delivery system of flurbiprofen in a trial to overcome the adverse effects associated with oral administration of the drug. This can be overcome by the use of vesicular drug delivery system. Encapsulation of a drug in vesicular structure can be predicted to prolong the existence of the drug in the systemic circulation and thus enhance penetration into target tissue and reduce toxicity. Due to the limited solvent system present, the proniosomes formed were the mixture of many phases of liquid crystal, viz. lamellar, hexagonal and cubic phase liquid crystals. The potential of proniosomes as a transdermal drug delivery system of flurbiprofen was investigated by encapsulating the drug in various formulations of proniosomal gel composed of various ratios of sorbitan fatty acid esters, cholesterol, prepared by coacervation-phase separation method. The formulated systems were characterized in vitro for size, vesicle count, drug entrapment, drug release profiles and vesicular stability at different storage conditions. Stability studies for proniosomal gel were carried out for 4 weeks. The method of proniosome loading resulted in an encapsulation yield of 30.6 – 75.4%. Invitro studies showed prolonged release of entrapped flurbiprofen. At refrigerated conditions, higher drug retention was observed. It is evident from this study that proniosomes are a promising prolonged delivery system for flurbiprofen and have reasonably good stability characteristics.
Synthesis, Kinetics and Mechanism of Terpolymerization of Styrene, Vinyl Acetate with Acrylonitrile Initiated by P-Nitrobenzyl Triphenyl Phosphonium Ylide  [PDF]
Kiran Prajapati, Anuradha Varshney
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2011.12010
Abstract: Synthesis of terpolymers consisting of two electron-donating monomers, viz. styrene and vinyl acetate with one electron-accepting monomer, i.e. acrylonitrile, initiated by p-nitrobenzyl triphenyl phosphonim ylide in dioxane as diluent at 65°C for 150 min has been studied. The kinetic expression is Rpα[I]0.8[Sty] 1.2[VA] 1.4 [AN]1.2. The terpolymer composition was determined by the Kelen-Tüdos method. The values of reactivity ratios using r1 (Sty + VA) = 0.1 and r2 (AN) = 0.005. The overall activation energy is 46 kJ●mol●L–1. The formation of terpolymer is confirmed by the FTIR spectra showing bands at 3030 cm–1, 1598 cm–1, and 2362 cm–1, confirming the presence of phenyl, acetoxy and nitrile group respectively. The terpolymer has been characterized by 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, 13C-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The Differential Scanning Calorimetric curve shows the Tg of the polymer as 149.5°C. A scanning electron microscope confirms the polymer to be phosphorus free. Electron.Spin.Resonance spectra confirms phenyl radical responsible for initiation.
Sports Psychology For Promoting Exceptional Athletic Performance
Vikas Prajapati
Indian Streams Research Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Modern competitive sports of today demands more emphasis on the training ofpsychological aspects of sports. The high level performance seen in competitive sports isnothing but a perfect optimum harmonious relationship between one's psychologicalpreparedness and technical preparation
DIAGNOSTIC PITFALLS IN A CHILD WITH FEVER
Baldev Prajapati
NHL Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Fever is the most common symptom in pediatric practice. 30% of all office visits is due to fever. Those who provide health care for children do receive innumerable phone calls daily for fever. Majority of fever cases get better even without proper diagnosis. Some of them develop complications due to pitfalls in diagnosis and irrational management. Appropriate diagnosis is the prerequisite for rational management. A detailed history and thorough clinical examination are mandatory for reaching the diagnosis. Sound analysis and interpretation of history, physical examination and basic investigations is the key of diagnosis in most cases of fever. Pitfalls in any of these steps may lead to disaster. Common diagnostic pitfalls in a case of fever observed in daily practice are discussed here.
A MICROWAVE SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME QUINOLINE DERIVATIVES AND TESTED THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY
Ajaypal Prajapati
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development , 2011,
Abstract: In the present research work there are synthesis some quinoline derivations by using microwave techniques. The synthesis of 6- methoxy acetanilide (1) by reaction of 6-methoxy aniline with acetic anhydride under microwave irradiation. This acetanilide (2) treated withPOCl3 and DMF under microwave irradiation to form 2-chloro -3- formyl-6- methoxy quinoline (3). the synthesis of 2- chloro-6-methoxy 3- substituted amine by condensing with 2-chloro -3- formyl-6- methoxy quinoline(3) and substituted aromatic amine in presence of catalytic amount of glacial acetic acid under microwave irradiation and get final products(4) which displays valuable pharmaceutical activities such as antifungal, antibacterial, anticancer and anti inflammatory activities. The structural characterization of the synthesized compound by I R. and 1HNMR spectral data reported in table No 1.The synthesized quinoline derivatives were tested their antimicrobial activity with different strain of gram-positive and gram- negative bacteria and fungi the chloro and bromo moiety derivatives of the synthesized compounds show good activity against S-aurous and B-subtilis and nitro group containing compounds showed moderate activity against gram- negative stain of micro organisms.
Formulation and Evaluation of Fast DisintegrationTablets of Clonazepam
Prajapati Amit Prajapati Hinal,Ghose Bijaya,Prajapati Jaivisha,Prajapati Hinal
International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Science , 2011,
Abstract: Recent development in Fast disintegration tablets have brought convenience in dosing to elderly and children who have trouble in swallowing tablets. The objective of the present study was to prepare the Fast disintegration tablets of clonazepam, an antiepileptic drug. As precision of dosing and patient compliance become an important prerequisite for a long term antiepileptic treatment, there is a need to develop a formulation for this drug which overcomes problems such as difficulty in swallowing, inconvenience in administration while travelling and patient's acceptability. Hence, the present work was undertaken with a view to develop a fast disintegration tablet of clonazepam which offers a new range of product having desired characteristics and intended benefits. Various techniques like spray drying, direct compression and sublimation technique were used to formulate Fast disintegration tablets of clonazepam. In direct compression method the effect of addition of spray dried excipients was studied, crospovidone was selected as superdisintegrant in all the techniques. A 22 factorial design was employed in all the approaches to study the effect of variables. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, wetting time, disintegration time and uniformity of content. Optimized formulations were evaluated for in-vitro dissolution test. Amongst all the techniques sublimation technique was found to be most successful and tablets prepared by this technique (F13) had disintegration time of 4±0.8 sec. and %CR 65.2±1.52 after 5 min. But the results of this technique was almost similar to that of direct compression by using spray dried lactose (F10) which showed disintegration time of 4±0.5 sec. and %CR 64.1±0.14 after 5 min. Hence it was conclude that direct compression using spray dried excipients was simple and economic technique which can be used for formulation of Fast disintegration tablets of clonazepam.
Decomposition of Generalized Mittag-Leffler Function and Its Properties  [PDF]
Jyotindra C. Prajapati, Ajay Kumar Shukla
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2012.21003
Abstract: The principal aim of the paper is devoted to the study of some special properties of the Eα,βγ,q(Z) function for α =1/n . Authors defined the decomposition of the function Eα,βγ,q(Z) in the form of truncated power series as Equations (1.7), (1.8) and their various properties including Integral representation, Derivative, Inequalities and their several special cases are obtained. Some new results are also established for the function Eα,βγ,q(Z).
Some Switching Invariant Prime Graphs  [PDF]
S. K. Vaidya, U. M. Prajapati
Open Journal of Discrete Mathematics (OJDM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojdm.2012.21004
Abstract: We investigate prime labeling for some graphs resulted from switching of a vertex. We discuss switching invariance of some prime graphs and prove that the graphs obtained by switching of a vertex in Pn and K1,n admit prime labeling. Moreover we discuss prime labeling for the graph obtained by switching of vertex in wheel Wn.
Some New Results on Prime Graphs  [PDF]
Samir K. Vaidya, Udayan M. Prajapati
Open Journal of Discrete Mathematics (OJDM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojdm.2012.23019
Abstract: We investigate prime labeling for some graphs resulted by identifying any two vertices of some graphs. We also introduce the concept of strongly prime graph and prove that the graphs Cn, Pn, and K1,n are strongly prime graphs. Moreover we prove that Wn is a strongly prime graph for every even integer n ≥ 4.
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