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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 325313 matches for " Prabhakar S "
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Bioadhesive polymeric platforms for transmucosal drug delivery systems – a review
S Roy, B Prabhakar
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2010,
Abstract: Of the various routes of drug delivery, the oral route is often preferred by the patient. However, peroral administration of drugs has disadvantages such as hepatic first-pass metabolism and enzymatic degradation within the gastrointestinal tract which constitutes a hindrance to oral administration of certain classes of drugs, especially peptides and proteins. Consequently, other absorptive mucosae are often considered as potential sites for drug administration. Transmucosal routes of drug delivery (i.e., the mucosal linings of the nasal, rectal, vaginal, ocular, and oral cavity) offer distinct advantages over peroral administration for systemic drug delivery. These advantages include possible bypass of firstpass effect, avoidance of presystemic elimination within the GI tract, and, depending on the particular drug, better enzymatic flora for drug absorption. However, the mucosa surface as a site for drug delivery has limitations as well. Other than the low flux associated with mucosal delivery, a major limitation of the transmucosal route of administration is the lack of dosage form retention at the site of absorption. Consequently, bioadhesive polymers have extensively been employed in transmucosal drug delivery systems. If these materials are then incorporated into pharmaceutical formulations, drug absorption by mucosal cells may be enhanced or the drug may be released at the site for an extended period of time. This review describes various bio/mucoadhesive polymers used in transmucosal drug delivery. Starting with introduction of bioadhesion with theories and mechanism, history, different bioadhesive polymers, characteristics of desired bioadhesive polymers, this article then proceeds to cover the various sites suitable for mucoadhesive drug delivery system followed by the factors affecting bio/ mucoadhesion.
Comparison of sound, exhaust gas temperature and smoke opacity characteristics of methyl esters of vegetable oils blends
S. Prabhakar,K. Annamalai
Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Experimental studies were conducted to evaluate the sound, exhaust gas temperature and smoke opacity characteristics of a single cylinder, four stroke engine fuelled with Vegetable oil methyl ester and its blends with standard diesel. Among different vegetable oils which can be used as alternate fuels, five vegetable oils, i.e., Nerium (Nerium oleander), Jatropha (Jatropha curcas), Pongamia (Pongamia pinnata), Mahua (Madhuca indica) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) oils were selected for analysis. Tests has been conducted using the fuel blends of 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% biodiesel with standard diesel, with an engine speed of 1800 rpm. It has found that the sound, exhaust gas temperature and smoke opacity characteristics of vegetable oil methyl ester and its diesel blends closely followed those of standard diesel.
Diagnosis of Creutzfeldt - Jacob disease.
Prabhakar S,Bhatia R
Neurology India , 2001,
Detection of 1583 bp gene transcript in lymphocytes of muscular dystrophy patients.
Prabhakar S,Anand A
Neurology India , 2002,
Abstract: DMD and BMD are X-lined recessive disorders. RAP-PCR was utilized to investigate differentially expressed gene transcripts in lymphocytes from DMD, BMD and normal individuals as possible diagnostic parameter. A 1583 bp transcript was found to be expressed in both DMD and BMD patients which was unrelated to the known dystrophin gene. This may prove helpful in determining the carrier status of DMD/BMD.
A case of 27 year old male with recurrent neurological deficit.
Banerjee A,Prabhakar S
Neurology India , 1999,
Ischaemic stroke : new frontiers.
Prabhakar S,Das C
Neurology India , 1999,
Abstract: Lot of advancement has taken place, not only in the management but also in the pathophysiology and imaging modalities in patients of stroke. Indolent chronic infections, particularly those due to H. pylori, have been identified as one of the risk factors. The mechanism of inflammation in inducing a precoagulant state has also been worked out. SPECT studies have detected ischaemic areas before appearance of CT abnormalities. CT angiography identifies abnormalities in the ′circle of willis′ in posterior circulation strokes much better, and helps weigh the risk versus benefit of thrombolysis. With experiance in use of r-TPA, the list of contra indications and precautions has become longer than its indications. Newer drugs like lubeluzole and edselen have also been recommended. Various other drugs e.g. aptiganel hydrochloride, MDL 28170, ′basic fibroblast growth factor′ and ′superoxide dismutase′ are at an experimental stage. The concept of a ′stroke cocktail′ may be in vogue soon. Controversies still exit regarding the exact indication of prophylactic anticoagulant and the ′international normalized ratio′ (INR) to be achieved. Guidelines have been laid down for the approach to patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. However, the paramount message in stroke care is dissipation of the concept of ′brain attack′, amongst the primary care medical and para-medical personnel.
Uncommon Headaches
Prabhakar S,Khurana D
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology , 2002,
Abstract: Some headaches are relatively uncommon. They may be either primary of secondary and their recognition is dependent on the characterization of symptoms as well as identification of certain specific situations in which they need to be considered in the differential diagnosis. Primary headache syndromes like the paroxysmal hemicranias, SUNCT (short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache with conjunctival injection and tearing), cough headaches and hypnic headaches are uncommonly encountered in routine clinical practice. They have subtle unique features and specific therapies which differentiate them from the commoner primary headaches. Among the secondary causes, headaches may be an uncommon presenting feature of known clinical disorders, lack of awareness of which may result in significant morbidity. These disorders which may present with headache as the main symptom will be the focus of discussion in this review.
Hypercholesterolemia, Stroke And Statins
Prabhakar S,Modi M
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology , 2005,
Abstract: The link between serum cholesterol levels and the incidence of stroke still remain to be established. There are conflicting reports from a series of observational cohort studies. However, clinical trials with HMG CoA reductase inhibitors (also called statins) have shown that cholesterol lowering therapy used in the primary and secondary prevention of myocardial infarction significantly reduced cardiovascular events including strokes. Meta analysis of trials with statins have shown a relative risk reduction in stroke of 12 to 48% in patients with coronary heart disease after MI. It has been postulated that the clinical action of statins is the result of pleiotropic / antiatherogenic effects rather than simply a reduction in cholesterol. The putative beneficial effect of statins in stroke involve blocking of macrophage and platelet activation, improvement of endothelial cell vasomotor function, enhancement of endothelial fibrinolytic function, immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory action, inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation and particularly enhancement of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS).
Exploitation of heterosis using diverse parental lines in Rabi Sorghum
Prabhakar and M. S. Raut
Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding , 2010,
Abstract: Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is one of the major crops for grain and fodder, widely grown in India under rain fedconditions. Rabi sorghum is grown in an area of 5.5 million hectares mainly in the states of Maharashtra, Karnataka and AndhraPradesh with average productivity of 854 kg/ha. Despite low productivity, Rabi sorghum continues to be an importantcomponent of dry land economy in these states with fairly consistent area over many years. The low yields are mainly due tovarious abiotic and biotic stresses. Hybrid vigour and its commercial exploitation have paid rich dividends in Kharif sorghumleading to quantum jump in sorghum production. However, the progress in Rabi sorghum is limited and there is a need forcritical studies on combining ability and heterosis involving diverse sources of breeding lines. Present study comprised a line xtester analysis involving 2 lines and 7 testers for exploitation of heterosis and assessing best combiners. Combining abilitystudies revealed the presence of significant differences due to lines, testers and line x testers, indicating the presence ofvariability. Considering the general combining ability effects of parents, female SL-19B and males SLR-13, SLR-24 and SLR-30 were good general combiners for grain yield and the female SL-12B and male SLR-10 and SLR-27 were good generalcombiners for earliness. The crosses SL-19B x SLR-13, SL-19B x SLR-17, SL-19B x SLR-30 and SL-19B x SLR-39 wereidentified for improving grain yield and crosses SL-12B x SLR-10, SL-12B x SLR-27 and SL-12B x SLR-39 were selected forbreeding earliness.
Effect of glutaraldehyde and ferric sulfate on shear bond strength of adhesives to primary dentin
Prabhakar A,Bedi S
Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry , 2008,
Abstract: Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of alternative pulpotomy agents such as glutaraldehyde and ferric sulfate on the shear bond strength of self-etch adhesive systems to dentin of primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Eighty human primary molar teeth were sectioned in a mesiodistal direction and divided into experimental and control groups. Lingual dentin specimens in experimental groups were treated with glutaraldehyde and ferric sulfate. Buccal surfaces soaked in water served as control group. Each group was then divided into two groups based on the adhesive system used: Clearfil SE Bond and Adper Prompt L-Pop. A teflon mold was used to build the composite (Filtek Z-250) cylinders on the dentinal surface of all the specimens. Shear bond strength was tested for all the specimens with an Instron Universal Testing Machine. The failure mode analysis was performed with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Results: The results revealed that glutaraldehyde and ferric sulfate significantly reduced the shear bond strength of the tested adhesive systems to primary dentin. Clearfil SE Bond showed much higher shear bond strength than Adper Prompt L Pop to primary dentin. SEM analysis revealed a predominant cohesive failure mode for both adhesive systems. Conclusion: This study revealed that the pulpotomy medicaments glutaraldehyde and ferric sulfate adversely affected the bonding of self-etch adhesive systems to primary dentin.
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