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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6406 matches for " Population "
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PERGANTIAN POPULASI BAKTERI HETEROTROF, ALGAE DAN PROTOZOA DI LAGOON BTDC UNIT PENANGANAN LIMBAH NUSA DUA BALI
Ni Made Susun Parwanayoni
Bumi Lestari , 2012,
Abstract: This research was carried out at Nusa Dua Lagoon, Nusa Dua – Bali in the year of 2006. The research was aimed to find out the concentration of heterotrophic bacteria, algae and protozoa, as well as to observe the change of the population in the lagoon. Results of this study showed that the highest concentration of the population of heterotrophic bacteria was on pond 4b (aerated pond 2), algae population was highest at pond 5a (sedimentation pond 1), and the population of protozoa was highest on pond 5b (sedimentation pond 2). The population of heterotrophic bacteria was replaced by algae and then algae was taken over by protozoa.
The Correctional Model of Population Development Equation  [PDF]
Man Liu, Daqing Liao, Qianqian Zhu, Zhengming Wang
Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Material Science (MNSMS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/mnsms.2013.34019
Abstract:

The problem of population development has always been the key problem of restricting the development of our country. In order to increase the prediction accuracy, we analyze the exponential model, logistic model and continuous model. Also, the improved discrete population development model is provided to control the quantity and improve the quality of population.

Maximizing Sampling Efficiency  [PDF]
Harmon S. Jordan
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.411209
Abstract: Background and Goals: Although health care quality improvement has traditionally involved extensive work with paper records, the adoption of health information technology has increased the use of electronic record and administrative systems. Despite these advances, quality improvement practitioners now and for the foreseeable future need guidance in defining populations of individuals for study and in selecting and analyzing sample data from such populations. Statistical data analysis in health care research often involves using samples to make inferences about populations. The investigator needs to consider the goals of the study, whether sampling is to be used, and the type of population being studied. While there are numerous sampling strategies designed to conserve resources and yield accurate results, one of these techniques—use of the finite population correction (FPC)—has received relatively little attention in health care sampling contexts. It is important for health care quality practitioners to be aware of sampling options that may increase accuracy and conserve resources. This article describes common sampling situations in which the issue of the finite population correction decision often arises. Methods: This article describes 3 relevant sampling situations that influence the design and analysis phases of a study and offers guidance for choosing the most effective and efficient design. Situation 1: The study or activity involves taking a sample from a large finite target population for which enumerative inferences are needed. Situation 2: The population is finite and the study is enumerative. A complete enumerative count of “defects” in the process is needed so that remediation can occur. Here, statistical inference is unnecessary. Situation 3: The target population is viewed as infinite; such populations are “conceptual populations” [1] or “processes”. Results: The article shows how savings in resources can be achieved by choosing the correct analytic framework at the conceptualization phase of study design. Choosing the right sampling approach can produce accurate results at lower costs. Several examples are presented and the implications for health services research are discussed. Conclusion: By clearly specifying the objectives of a
Proportionate Target Population Estimates Used by National Immunization Programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa and Comparison with Values from an External Source  [PDF]
David W. Brown, Anthony H. Burton, Marta Gacic Dobo, Richard Mihigo
World Journal of Vaccines (WJV) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjv.2014.43017
Abstract:
Background: In order to effectively plan the delivery of immunization services, manage stock and supply levels and target interventions, national immunization programmes (NIP) must have an estimate of the target population they serve. To overcome challenges with target population estimation, some NIPs apply “rule-of-thumb” conversion factors to total population estimates. We compare these proportionate target population values with those from an external source. Methods: Using data reported by national immunization programmes in sub-Saharan Africa, we computed the proportionate target population as the number of births, surviving infants and children under 5 years of age, respectively, as a proportion of the total population size. We compared these values with those estimates computed from United Nations Population Division (UNPD) data. We then recomputed NIP target population sizes using the proportionate target population values from the UNPD applied to the total population size reported by NIP. Results: Data were available from 47 sub-Saharan Africa countries. Births as a proportion of the total population were greater within reports from NIP (median, 0.0400; IQR: 0.350 - 0.0437) compared to values from UNPD estimates (median, 0.0364; IQR: 0.0332 - 0.0406). Similar patterns were observed for surviving infants (median: NIP, 0.0360; UNPD, 0.0337) and children under 5 years of age (median: NIP, 0.1735; UNPD, 0.1594). The percent difference in proportionate target population ratios between reports from NIPs and the UNPD was >10% in 23 countries for births, in 18 countries for surviving infants, in 15 countries for children under 5 years of age. After re-computing target populations using UNPD proportionate target population values applied to NIP reported total population, recomputed administrative coverage levels for the third dose of DTP containing vaccine were higher in 32 of the 47 countries compared to reported administrative coverage levels. Conclusion: Because childhood immunization-related target populations are among the more difficult ones to accurately estimate and project, immunization programmes in sub-Saharan Africa are encouraged to include a critical assessment of the target population values, in conjunction with their national statistics system, as part of the on-going programme monitoring process.
Difficulties and Strategies in the Process of Population Urbanization: A Case Study in Chongqing of China  [PDF]
Lin Lu, Yin Zhang, Tingting Luo
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.212013
Abstract: The population urbanization is one of the main routes and objectives of current Chinese urbanization. This paper, a case study in Chongqing, China, based on statistical data analysis and the forecasting of population growth trend, combined with the development law of population urbanization and regional reality, mainly discusses major problems facing the development of China’s population urbanization, economic, social and institutional obstacles to the solution of these problems in the development of population urbanization, and effective ways to promote positive interactions between the population urbanization and the economy, society and space. The analysis reveals that in the process of the population urbanization, due to the large population base, large agricultural population, serious population aging problem and low level of education of population, China’s population urbanization development does not match with economic and social development in objective and pattern; there is a glaring contradiction in industrial upgrading, labor supply, the population migration and relocation. It is necessary to take corresponding strategies in the population urbanization, population management system, labor resources and elderly-care policies, human resource development and economic growth, surplus agricultural population migration and the urban-and-rural development, in order to solve these contradictions and find out real effective ways to achieve positive interaction between the population urbanization and the economic and social development.
A Comparison of National Immunization Programme Target Population Estimates with Data from an Independent Source and Differences in Computed Coverage Levels for the Third Dose of DTP Containing Vaccine  [PDF]
David W. Brown, Anthony H. Burton, Marta Gacic-Dobo, Rouslan I. Karimov
World Journal of Vaccines (WJV) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjv.2014.41004
Abstract:
Background: Comparison of target populations for immunization used by national immunization programmes with independent sources can be useful for identifying irregular patterns. Similarly, understanding differences in computed coverage levels that result from changes in target population estimates can be important. Methods: Using data reported annually by national immunization programmes to WHO and UNICEF, we compared the national number of births and surviving infants with estimates reported by the United Nations Population Division (UNPD). We also re-computed and compared coverage levels for the third dose of DTP containing vaccine (DTP3) using the nationally reported number of children vaccinated with DTP3 (the numerator) and the nationally reported number of children in the target population (the denominator) and compared this value with DTP3 coverage computed using the nationally reported number of children vaccinated and the UNPD estimate of the national number of surviving infants as an independent denominator. Results: We observed differences in the number of births and surviving infants reported by national immunization programmes compared with those estimated by the UNPD. Year-to-year changes in the number of births and surviving infants reported by national immunization programmes often exceeded those estimated by the UNPD. The re-computed administrative coverage levels for DTP3 using a nationally reported target population tended to be higher on average than those re-computed using the UNPD target population estimates. Conclusion: Target population estimates are a challenge for immunization programmes, and comparison to independent sources can be useful. There is increasing need to trace and better understand the processes and conditions affecting the enumeration and recording of the number of children in the target population for immunization services and the number of children vaccinated while recognizing that the challenge to do so is greater in some locations than others.
Population Ageing, Urbanization and Housing Demand  [PDF]
Zhangming Wang, Chengzhang Wang, Qian Zhang
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2015.84052
Abstract: Using overlapping generation model, we find that population ageing does restrain housing demand. Then, we use the panel data of China’s 31 provinces between 2002 and 2013 to confirm that ageing restrains housing demand, the process of urbanization does the opposite and maybe offsets the negative effect to some extent. At present, China should continue to focus on developing urbanization rapidly, especially focus on the population urbanization. In the process, the government should change its development ideas and increase the supply of public service for population ageing.
Measurement of Relative Metastable Level Population of Gd Atoms in Hollow Cathode Lamp with LIF Method  [PDF]
Seyed Hassan, Ata Koohian
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2010.11011
Abstract: Relative metastable level population of metal plasma having low-lying metastable states departs from equi-librium value. It needs to be experimentally investigated. This paper reports the use of hollow cathode lamp based Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy technique to measure Relative metastable level popu-lation of metal in a plasma produced by a hollow cathode lamp. The relative population of ground state and 533 cm-1 levels of Gd atoms in hollow cathode lamp is measured with LIF method.
An Investigation into Personality, Stress and Sleep with Reports of Hallucinations in a Normal Population—Hallucinations in Normal Population  [PDF]
Jim Barnes, Lucy Koch, Chloe Wilford, Laura Boubert
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.24058
Abstract: Emotion, especially anxiety, has been implicated in triggering hallucinations. Sleep behaviour has also been reported to have a modest influence on the judgments that lead to hallucinatory experiences. We report an investigation on the prediction of hallucinatory predisposition which explored emotion and associated processes (stress, personality and sleep behaviour) using a questionnaire survey in a student population (N = 127). Findings indicated significant associations between perceived stress levels and sleep, with stress and being a significant predictor of the hallucinatory experience. In addition there was a predictive relationship between the proneness to hallucinate and schizotypal personality traits, characterised by the subscale of cognitive disorganisation and unusual experiences. Stress and anxiety together with personality may need to be considered in the understanding of hallucinatory experience.
Population Pharmacokinetics of Methotrexate in Egyptian Children with Lymphoblastic Leukemia  [PDF]
Ehab Said EL Desoky, Mohamed H. Ghazal, Rajendra P. Singh, Omnia N. Abdelhamid, Hartmut Derendorf
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2013.42020
Abstract: Background: Individualization of high dose regimen of methotrexate (MTX) in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia based on pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters can help in optimization of the dose and better control of the disease. Building up of a pharmacokinetic model can help dose optimization. Objectives: A NONMEM based population (POP) PK model has been subsequently developed to evaluate the effect of demographics as covariates to address variability in pharmacokinetics of MTX. Method: Forty one patients (24 males & 17 females) with ranges of age, body weight and height of 3 - 15 years, 13 - 54 kg and 100 - 177 cm respectively and diagnosed as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were involved in the study. MTX was administered as i.v. infusion at a dose of 2 gm/m2 over a period of two hour and its plasma concentrations were determined primarily at 24 hr post-dose to be utilized in the building-up of PK model.The initial/prior estimates of volumes of central (V1) and peripheral compartments (V2) and clearance (CL) and inter-compartmental clearance (Q2) for MTX were extracted from literature. The inter-subject variability was estimated for V1 &
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