Abstract:
Extensions of the split-step Fourier method (SSFM) for Schr\"odinger-type pulse propagation equations for simulating femto-second pulses in single- and two-mode optical communication fibers are developed and tested for Gaussian pulses. The core idea of the proposed numerical methods is to adopt an operator splitting approach, in which the nonlinear sub-operator, consisting of Kerr nonlinearity, the self-steepening and stimulated Raman scattering terms, is reformulated using Madelung transformation into a quasilinear first-order system of signal intensity and phase. A second-order accurate upwind numerical method is derived rigorously for the resulting system in the single-mode case; a straightforward extension of this method is used to approximate the four-dimensional system resulting from the nonlinearities of the chosen two-mode model. Benchmark SSFM computations of prototypical ultra-fast communication pulses in idealized single- and two-mode fibers with homogeneous and alternating dispersion parameters and also high nonlinearity demonstrate the reliable convergence behavior and robustness of the proposed approach.

Abstract:
Presented in this manuscript are conventional electrical engineering tools to model the earth as a rotating electrical machine. Calculations using known parameters of the earth and measured field data has resulted in new understanding of the earth’s electrical system and gyroscopic rotation. The material makeup of the inner earth is better understood based on derived permeability and permittivity constants. The planet has been modeled as simple coils and then as a parallel impedance circuit which has led to fundamental insight into planetary speed control and RLC combination for Schumann Resonance of 7.83 Hz. Torque and Voltage Constants and the inverse Speed Constant are calculated using three methods and all compare favorably with Newton’s Gravitational Constant. A helical resonator is referenced and Schumann’s Resonant ideal frequency is calculated and compared with others idealism. A new theory of gravity based on particle velocity selector at the poles is postulated. Two equations are presented as the needed links between Faraday’s electromagnetism and Newtonian physics. Acceleration and Deceleration of earth is explained as a centripetal governor. A new equation for planetary attraction and the attraction of atomic matter is theorized. Rotation of the earth’s electrical coil is explained in terms of the Richardson effect. Electric power transfer from the sun to the planets is proposed via Flux Transfer Events. The impact of this evolving science of electromagnetic modeling of planets will be magnified as the theory is proven, and found to be useful for future generations of engineers and scientists who seek to discover our world and other planets.

Abstract:
The Sun’s slow periodic flux transfer to the Earth, the low frequency of Schumann Resonance, and the fixed DC voltage of the capacitor direct us toward direct current (DC) machines for electrical modeling purposes. The Earth exhibits dual characteristics of a motor generator set by motoring the mechanical Earth around its axis, while at the same time generating energy for its spherical capacitor. It follows that electrical and mechanical output of the Earth are powered by the magnitude of the flux transfer events, the constant DC voltage supply and any potential nuclear contribution within the core. Like an induction furnace, powerful magnetic flux from the Sun partially melts the outer iron core of the Earth and magnetizes the inner solid iron core. The solid inner magnetic core acts as a rotating armature similar to a DC machine. All electrical machines experience no load and full load power loss while in operation. Speed control of large rotating DC machines is well understood and has been applied in industry for over a century. Speed can be changed either by varying the field resistance and/or the armature resistance. The characteristic of a constant speed DC machine is such that a change in field resistance will cause a compensatory change in armature resistance to maintain velocity. In the case of the earth, a decrease in armature resistance results in an increase in volume of the iron core, which may result in greater seismic and volcanic activity. Climate change may be the direct result of changes in soil and sea water resistance, which we lump together as field resistance.

Abstract:
Planets are interconnected via magnetic field lines, which allow flux transfer events. In this paper, a thought experiment is performed whereby the Sun and planets are visualized as a violin with magnetic field lines analogous to strings of the violin. Frequency calculations for vibrating strings between the Earth and Sun compare favorably with measured satellite data for flux transfer events. Ideal Schumann Resonance was calculated using speed of light, diameter of the Earth and Earth’s gravity for tension. The force of attraction and repulsion of magnets is analogous to tension and compression resulting from tremendously low frequency (TLF) electromechanical waves. Gravity waves are thus theorized as mechanical waves brought about by the tension of electron strings, which also act dually as electromagnetic waves. Future harmonic analysis of flux transfer wave forms for each planet would add credence to the string theory as the theory of everything.

Abstract:
A new universal equation using
planet magnetic pole strength is presented and given reasoning for its assemblage.
Coulomb’s Constant, normally used in calculating electrostatic force is utilized
in a new magnetic dipole equation for the first time, along with specific orbital
energy. Results were generated for five planets that give insight into specific
orbital energy as an energy constant for differing planets based on gravitational
potential at the surface of a planet. Specific energy can be evaluated as both energy
per unit volume (J/kg) and/or specific orbital energy (m^{2}/s^{2}).
Due to a multitude of terms that lead to confusion it is recommended that the IEEE
standards committee review specific orbital energy SI units for m^{2}/s^{2}.
The magic number for cyclonic “lift off”, or anti-gravity, is calculated to be ∈ = 148 m^{2}/s^{2} the value at which a classical law of magnetism appears as F = k_{e} × H.

Abstract:
By representing the Earth as a rotating spherical antenna several historic and scientific breakthroughs are achieved. Visualizing the Sun as a transmitter and the planets as receivers the solar system can be represented as a long wave radio system operating at Tremendously Low Frequency (TLF). Results again confirm that the “near-field” is Tesla’s “dynamic gravity”, better known to engineers as dynamic braking or to physicists as centripetal acceleration, or simply (g). Timewave theory is invented, and the relationship of reflected timewaves and time travel explored. A new law of the Sun is proposed as well as the merging of Einstein’s equation with acoustics and cosmic superstring theory. A new law of cosmic efficiency is also proposed that equates vibratory force and pressure with volume acceleration of the solar system. Lorentz force is broken down into centripetal and gravitational waves. Ten-dimensional cosmic superstring theory is espoused versus the aging three-dimensional Maxwellian model. Spherical antenna patterns for planets are presented and flux transfer frequency is calculated using distance to planets as wavelengths. The galactic grid operates at a Schumann Resonance of 7.83 Hz, which is derived from the science of dark energy and dark matter. The Sun and the planets are tuned to transmit and receive electrical power like resonating Tesla coils. The Earth’s stator winding has been modeled as a toroid tesla coil and the armature as a spherical armature. The equation for everything is born.

Abstract:
This paper describes a mathematical proof that Gauss’s Law for Magnetism can be derived from the Law of Universal Magnetism [1]. A second reciprocal proof also shows that the Law of Universal Magnetism can be derived from Gauss’s Law for Magnetism. These two complimentary proofs confirm that the Law of Universal Magnetism is a valid equation rooted in Gaussian law. The paper also confirms the theoretical existence of the magnetic monopole and calculates its magnetic charge using the ratio of the electromagnetic field and the speed of light. Using the mass-to-charge ratio of an electron, the mass and radius of the magnetic monopole are determined. The monopole is found to have the same radius as the electron and can also be found in the electromagnetic spectrum range known as gamma rays. Lightning is a natural source of gamma rays and could prove fruitful in the search for monopoles.

Abstract:
The velocity of the Earth around the Sun and its corresponding mass are used in a standard centripetal force equation to match what Isaac Newton calculated with the Universal Law of Gravitation in 1687. Electromagnetic calculations are used to prove that electromagnetic forces are an insignificant contributor to the centripetal force or gravity, but do provide the bending force for the planets to maintain a circular orbit around the Sun. It is thus proven using classical physics that the force of gravity is a simple centripetal force with a very small electromagnetic force contribution.

Abstract:
Background Whereas the role played by interleukin (IL)-10 in modulating fever and sickness behavior has been linked to it targeting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the circulation, liver and spleen, it is not known whether it could directly target the local production of pro-inflammatory cytokines within the sensory circumventricular organs (CVOs) situated within the brain, but outside the blood–brain barrier. Using inactivation of IL-10, we, therefore, investigated whether IL-10 could modulate the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines within the sensory CVOs, in particular the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) and area postrema (AP). Findings Primary OVLT and AP microcultures were established from topographically excised rat pup brain tissue. The microcultures were pretreated with either IL-10 antibodies (AB) (10 μl/350 μl medium) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (10 μl/350 μl medium) before being incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (100 μg/ml) or PBS in complete medium for 6 h. Supernatants were removed from the microcultures after 6 h of incubation with LPS and used for the determination of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Pre-treating the OVLT and AP microcultures with IL-10 antibodies significantly enhanced the LPS-induced increase in TNF-α and IL-6 in the supernatant obtained from the microcultures. Conclusions Our results show for the first time that the LPS-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in cells cultured from the AP and OVLT can be modulated in the presence of IL-10 antibodies. Thus, we have identified that the sensory CVOs may have a key role to play in both the initiation and modulation of neuroinflammation.

Abstract:
We study the breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein (SE) and Debye-Stokes-Einstein (DSE) relations for translational and rotational motion in a prototypical model of a network-forming liquid, the ST2 model of water. We find that the emergence of ``fractional'' SE and DSE relations at low temperature is ubiquitous in this system, with exponents that vary little over a range of distinct physical regimes. We also show that the same fractional SE relation is obeyed by both mobile and immobile dynamical heterogeneities of the liquid.