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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5903 matches for " Ponnada Tejeswara Rao "
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Thermal and FT-IR Properties of Semiconducting SnO2-PbO-V2O5 Glass System  [PDF]
Ponnada Tejeswara Rao, Balireddy Vasundhara
New Journal of Glass and Ceramics (NJGC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/njgc.2015.53007
Abstract: Melt quenched “SnO2(50-x)PbO:50V2O5” glass system containing x = 5, 10, 15 in molar ratio has been investigated. Effects of heating rate, glass transition, crystallization, melting temperature and infrared spectra of SnO2 substituted PbO-V2O5 glass system are reported. XRD results show that perfect vitrification has been achieved for all the glass samples after annealing at 150°C. DSC results have indicated that eutectic composition of the lead metavanadate has been maintained for all the glass systems up to 15 mole% of substitution. IR spectra for a SnO2 substitution of 5 mole% V=O stretching frequency occur at 966 cm-1 without appearance of any additional peak. But for 10 mole% and 15 mole% SnO2 substituted samples, additional peaks appear at 1023 and 1005 cm-1 indicating the effect of SnO2 in the vanadate crystalline matrix such that there is an elongation of V=O bond. Since the crystalline matrix is affected, we can expect similar effect in the glass matrix also.
Electrical and Spectroscopic Studies of the CdO Substituted Lead Vanadate Glass System vs Crystalline Form  [PDF]
Ponnada Tejeswara Rao, Kocharlakota V. Ramesh, Devulapalli L. Sastry
New Journal of Glass and Ceramics (NJGC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/njgc.2012.21006
Abstract: Results of the direct current (DC) Electrical Conductivity, thermoelectric power and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) of CdO substituted PbO-V2O5 glass system are reported. Conduction in these glasses is found to be electronic and the hoping of polaron seems to be the dominant process in the transport mechanism. There is a remarkable decrease in the activation energy for conduction in the annealed and devitrified samples when compared to their amorphous counter parts. It is observed that there is remarkable improvement in the conductivity of the crystalline samples when compared to their amorphous counter parts. The thermoelectric power measurements indicates that the amorphous samples are n-type at room temperature where as the crystalline samples are p-type at room temperature. In crystalline samples the hyperfine structure is nearly smeared out and a relatively broad line with an isotropic g value characterizes the spectra.
Effect of explant age, hormones on somatic embryogenesis and production of multiple shoot from cotyledonary leaf explants of Solanum trilobatum L.
VNC Dhavala, RD Tejeswara, VR Yechuri, K Prabavathi
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: The present study examines the effect of explant age and various concentrations of kinetin and BAP on somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis in Solanum trilobatum L. MS medium fortified with 11.1 ìM BAP + 13.95 ìM KN produced highest frequency of embryogenesis (97.3%) and average number of multiple shoots (48.4 ± 1.33) from cotyledonary leaf explants at two opened leaves stage. The presence of BAP and/or KN was critical in increasing embryos and multiple shoots per explant with its increasing concentrations which was also supported from significant positive corrilation (p < 0.05). It was also observed that embryogenic and organogenic response was significantly affected by explant type in all concentrations of BAP and KN alone as well as in combinations (P < 0.01). Rooting of shoots occurred on half strength MS medium supplemented with 7.35 and 9.8 ìM IBA respectively. The rooted plantlets were well accomplished with a survival frequency of 86.5 ± 5%. Moreover, there were no phenotypic differences observed between the in vitro regenerated and in vivo plantlets.
Structural prediction and comparative docking studies of psychrophilic - Galactosidase with lactose, ONPG and PNPG against its counter parts of mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes
Ponnada Suresh Kumar,KK Pulicherla,Mrinmoy Ghosh,Anmol Kumar
Bioinformation , 2011,
Abstract: Enzymes from psychrophiles catalyze the reactions at low temperatures with higher specific activity. Among all the psychrophilic enzymes produced, cold active -galactosidase from marine psychrophiles revalorizes a new arena in numerous areas at industrial level. The hydrolysis of lactose in to glucose and galactose by cold active -galactosidase offers a new promising approach in removal of lactose from milk to overcome the problem of lactose intolerance. Herein we propose, a 3D structure of cold active -galactosidase enzyme sourced from Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis by using Modeler 9v8 and best model was developed having 88% of favourable region in ramachandran plot. Modelling was followed by docking studies with the help of Auto dock 4.0 against the three substrates lactose, ONPG and PNPG. In addition, comparative docking studies were also performed for the 3D model of psychrophilic -galactosidase with mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes. Docking studies revealed that binding affinity of enzyme towards the three different substrates is more for psychrophilic enzyme when compared with mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes. It indicates that the enzyme has high specific activity at low temperature when compared with mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes.
Clinical Efficacy of Allergen Specific Immunotherapy (ASIT) in Allergic Rhinitis  [PDF]
Rao Sukhesh
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2011.24066
Abstract: Though efficacy of Allergen Specific Immunotherapy (ASIT) has been proved in many studies, reports about success in clinical practice and under field conditions in alleviating the suffering or decreasing the morbidity in patients of Allergic Rhinitis are few. 260 patients of Allergic Rhinitis without coexisting diseases were included. Skin prick test was done on all patients. ASIT was initiated with common inhalant indoor allergens as per standard protocol and patients were assessed at the start and at 2 m, 6 m and 18 months of ASIT. ASIT was able to significantly reduce the symptom score in all the three groups namely sneezing, rhinorrhoea and nasal itching (p < 0.001). Concurrently it was also able to produce a significant reduction in the usage of concomitant drug intake (p < 0.001) thereby implying a decrease in morbidity. When assessed regarding clinical efficacy, ASIT was found to be satisfactory or highly effective in more than 75% patients. ASIT has got a role in clinical practice in polysensitized patients in field conditions. This is based on the evidence that besides decrease in hypersensitivity/symptoms, it also has an effect on minimizing the necessity of taking drugs to relieve the symptoms, which has strong implications of economics and toxicity, while treating patients.
Going beyond Computation and Its Limits: Injecting Cognition into Computing  [PDF]
Rao Mikkilineni
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.331248
Abstract: Cognition is the ability to process information, apply knowledge, and change the circumstance. Cognition is associated with intent and its accomplishment through various processes that monitor and control a system and its environment. Cognition is associated with a sense of “self” (the observer) and the systems with which it interacts (the environment or the “observed”). Cognition extensively uses time and history in executing and regulating tasks that constitute a cognitive process. Whether cognition is computation in the strict sense of adhering to Turing-Church thesis or needs additional constructs is a very relevant question for addressing the design of self-managing (autonomous) distributed computing systems. In this paper we argue that cognition requires more than mere book-keeping provided by the Turing machines and certain aspects of cognition such as self-identity, self-description, self-monitoring and self-management can be implemented using parallel extensions to current serial von-Neumann stored program control (SPC) Turing machine implementations. We argue that the new DIME (Distributed Intelligent Computing Element) computing model, recently introduced as the building block of the DIME network architecture, is an analogue of Turing’s O-machine and extends it to implement a recursive managed distributed computing network, which can be viewed as an interconnected group of such specialized Oracle machines, referred to as a DIME network. The DIME network architecture provides the architectural resiliency, which is often associated with cellular organisms, through auto-failover; auto-scaling; live-migration; and end-to-end transaction security assurance in a distributed system. We argue that the self-identity and self-management processes of a DIME network inject the elements of cognition into Turing machine based computing as is demonstrated by two prototypes eliminating the complexity introduced by hypervisors, virtual machines and other layers of ad-hoc management software in today’s distributed computing environments.
Comprehensive Brain MRI Segmentation in High Risk Preterm Newborns
Xintian Yu,Yanjie Zhang,Robert E. Lasky,Sushmita Datta,Nehal A. Parikh,Ponnada A. Narayana
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013874
Abstract: Most extremely preterm newborns exhibit cerebral atrophy/growth disturbances and white matter signal abnormalities on MRI at term-equivalent age. MRI brain volumes could serve as biomarkers for evaluating the effects of neonatal intensive care and predicting neurodevelopmental outcomes. This requires detailed, accurate, and reliable brain MRI segmentation methods. We describe our efforts to develop such methods in high risk newborns using a combination of manual and automated segmentation tools. After intensive efforts to accurately define structural boundaries, two trained raters independently performed manual segmentation of nine subcortical structures using axial T2-weighted MRI scans from 20 randomly selected extremely preterm infants. All scans were re-segmented by both raters to assess reliability. High intra-rater reliability was achieved, as assessed by repeatability and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC range: 0.97 to 0.99) for all manually segmented regions. Inter-rater reliability was slightly lower (ICC range: 0.93 to 0.99). A semi-automated segmentation approach was developed that combined the parametric strengths of the Hidden Markov Random Field Expectation Maximization algorithm with non-parametric Parzen window classifier resulting in accurate white matter, gray matter, and CSF segmentation. Final manual correction of misclassification errors improved accuracy (similarity index range: 0.87 to 0.89) and facilitated objective quantification of white matter signal abnormalities. The semi-automated and manual methods were seamlessly integrated to generate full brain segmentation within two hours. This comprehensive approach can facilitate the evaluation of large cohorts to rigorously evaluate the utility of regional brain volumes as biomarkers of neonatal care and surrogate endpoints for neurodevelopmental outcomes.
Effect of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors on Global and Regional Cortical Thickness
Koushik A. Govindarajan, Leorah Freeman, Chunyan Cai, Mohammad H. Rahbar, Ponnada A. Narayana
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096429
Abstract: Global and regional cortical thicknesses based on T1-weighted magnetic resonance images acquired at 1.5 T and 3 T were measured on a relatively large cohort of 295 subjects using FreeSurfer software. Multivariate regression analysis was performed using Pillai's trace test to determine significant differences in cortical thicknesses measured at these two field strengths. Our results indicate that global cortical thickness is not affected by the field strength or gender. In contrast, the regional cortical thickness was observed to be field dependent. Specifically, the cortical thickness in regions such as parahippocampal, superior temporal, precentral and posterior cingulate is thicker at 3 T than at 1.5 T. In contrast regions such as cuneus and pericalcarine showed higher cortical thickness at 1.5 T than at 3 T. These differences appear to be age-dependent. The differences in regional cortical thickness between field strengths were similar in both genders. Further, male vs. female differences in regional cortical thickness were observed only at 1.5 T and not at 3 T. Our results indicate that magnetic field strength has a significant effect on the estimation of regional, but not global, cortical thickness. In addition, the pulse sequence, scanner type, and spatial resolution do not appear to have significant effect on the measured cortical thickness.
Increased oxidative stress and altered antioxidants status in patients with chronic allergic rhinitis  [PDF]
Shiefa Sequeira, Ashalatha V. Rao, Anjali Rao
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2012.327117
Abstract: Background: Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory disorder of the upper airways. Although several oxidants and antioxidants are likely to be involved, alterations in only limited parameters have been studied. Objective: In this study an attempt has been made to study the oxidant-antioxidant imbalance by investigating changes in a wide range of oxidants and antioxidants in the blood. Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 39 chronic allergic rhinitis patients (males 24, females 15), aged 20-70 (mean age 36.33 ± 2.03) years and 53 individuals (36 males, 17 females); aged 24 to 64 (mean age 45.42 ± 1.36) years. Duration of allergic rhinitis was 1.77 ± 0.237 years. In the study group, nasal symptoms were scored and the results were recorded. The patients were classified as having perennial Allergic rhinitis (PAR) if they had had at least 2 rhinitis symptoms (sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction, itching) for at least 6 months a year in the previous 2 years and if they had a positive skin prick test response to at least 1 clinically significant perennial allergen (e.g., house dust mites, molds, cockroach, cockroach excrement grass and tree pollen, cat and dog epithelia and molds, or animal dander). They had no other allergic diseases except persistent allergic rhinitis diagnosed by the physical and history examination. Erythrocyte lipid peroxidation, erythrocyte antioxidants viz., glutathione, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and plasma antioxidants viz., ceruloplasmin, glutathione-S-transferase, vitamin C, total antioxidant activity were estimated in the above two groups. Results: Erythrocyte lipid peroxidation (0 hour, p < 0.01) and superoxide dismutase (p < 0.01) were significantly higher, whereas plasma vitamin C (p < 0.001), ceruloplasmin (p < 0.05) and total antioxidant activity (p < 0.001) were significantly lower in chronic allergic rhinitis patients when compared to controls. Plasma Glutathione S transferase and erythrocyte catalase, glutathione, and glutathione reductase remained unchanged from normal subjects. Conclusion: The changes in different parameters indicate an imbalance in the oxidant and antioxidant status in chronic allergic rhinitis patients. Further studies are required to investigate the potential for antioxidant supplements to be used as routine therapy in chronic allergic rhinitis patients. Capsule summery: The study shows that the body is trying to cope for the oxidative stress by altering the enzyme levels. But external supplement may also be required as the total antioxidant levels are
A Validated Stability-Indicating UHPLC Method for Determination of Naproxen and Its Related Compounds in Bulk Drug Samples  [PDF]
K. Tirumala Rao, L. Vaikunta Rao
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2013.46036
Abstract:

A simple, rapid, precise, accurate, rugged and robust stability-indicating ultra-fast high performance liquid chromatographic (UHPLC) method has been developed for the estimation of related compounds (imp-A, imp-B, imp-C, imp-D and imp-E) in Naproxen and also the assay of Naproxen from bulk drug samples. The stability indicating capability of the method was proven by subjecting the samples to stress conditions such as acid, base, oxidation, photolysis and thermal degradation. The efficient chromatographic separation was achieved using mobile phase solution A prepared as buffer solution 10 mM monobasic potassium phosphate pH 4.0 ± 0.05 adjusted with diluted ortho phosphoric acid solution and solution B acetonitrile with linear gradient elution on poroshell 120 EC-C18 shot column (50 mm × 4.6 mm, 2.7 μm) and UV detection at 235 nm at a flow rate 1.0 mL/min, column oven temperature was set to 25?C. The above are all known impurities and degradation impurities are well resolved with Naproxen peak and these are eluted within a 10 min runtime of HPLC. The photo diode array detector was used for peak homogeneity testing during stress study experiments and the overall mass balance was found to be 99.2% to 100.2% in all stress conditions. The linear calibration range was found to be 0.05 μg/mL to 0.75 μg/mL for related compounds and 50 μg/mL to 150 μg/mL for Naproxen and the accuracy of the method was found to be 91.5% to 98.5% recovery for the related substance method and 95.4% to 97.4% recovery for the assay method. The Naproxen and related compounds were found to be stable up to 48 hours and the method validation data show excellent results for precision, linearity, specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and robustness. The present method can be successfully used for routine QC and stability studies and it will help to

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