Abstract:
We study the set $\partition{\nb}$ of all possible Jordan canonical forms of nilpotent matrices commuting with a given nilpotent matrix $B$. We describe $\partition{\nb}$ in the special case when $B$ has only one Jordan block. In the general case, we find the maximal possible index of nilpotency in the set of all nilpotent matrices commuting with a given nilpotent matrix. We consider several examples.

Abstract:
In this paper we completely characterize all possible pairs of Jordan canonical forms for mutually annihilating nilpotent pairs, i.e. pairs $(A,B)$ of nilpotent matrices such that $AB=BA=0$.

Abstract:
We study the structure of the nilpotent commutator $\nb$ of a nilpotent matrix $B$. We show that $\nb$ intersects all nilpotent orbits for conjugation if and only if $B$ is a square--zero matrix. We describe nonempty intersections of $\nb$ with nilpotent orbits in the case the $n \times n$ matrix $B$ has rank $n-2$. Moreover, we give some results on the maximal nilpotent orbit that $\nb$ intersects nontrivially.

Abstract:
In this paper we study zero--divisor graphs of rings and semirings. We show that all zero--divisor graphs of (possibly noncommutative) semirings are connected and have diameter less than or equal to 3. We characterize all acyclic zero-divisor graphs of semirings and prove that in the case zero-divisor graphs are cyclic, their girths are less than or equal to 4. We find all possible cyclic zero-divisor graphs over commutative semirings having at most one 3-cycle, and characterize all complete $k$-partite and regular zero-divisor graphs. Moreover, we characterize all additively cancellative commutative semirings and all commutative rings such that their zero--divisor graph has exactly one 3-cycle.

Abstract:
In this paper we characterize invertible matrices over an arbitrary commutative antiring S and find the structure of GL_n (S). We find the number of nilpotent matrices over an entire commutative finite antiring. We prove that every nilpotent $n \times n$ matrix over an entire antiring can be written as a sum of $\lceil \log_2 n \rceil$ square-zero matrices and also find the necessary number of square-zero summands for an arbitrary trace-zero matrix to be expressible as their sum.

Abstract:
Let $G$ be an undirected graph on $n$ vertices and let $S(G)$ be the set of all $n \times n$ real symmetric matrices whose nonzero off-diagonal entries occur in exactly the positions corresponding to the edges of $G$. The inverse eigenvalue problem for a graph $G$ is a problem of determining all possible lists that can occur as the lists of eigenvalues of matrices in $S(G).$ This question is, in general, hard to answer and several variations were studied, most notably the minimum rank problem. In this paper we introduce the problem of determining for which graphs $G$ there exists a matrix in $S(G)$ whose characteristic polynomial is a square, i.e. the multiplicities of all its eigenvalues are even. We solve this question for several families of graphs.

Abstract:
In this paper we extend the study of total graphs $\tau(R)$ to non-commutative finite rings $R$. We prove that $\tau(R)$ is connected if and only if $R$ is not local and we see that in that case $\tau(R)$ is always Hamiltonian. We also find an upper bound for the domination number of $\tau(R)$ for all finite rings $R$.

Abstract:
Let $B$ be a nilpotent matrix and suppose that its Jordan canonical form is determined by a partition $\lambda$. Then it is known that its nilpotent commutator $N_B$ is an irreducible variety and that there is a unique partition $\mu$ such that the intersection of the orbit of nilpotent matrices corresponding to $\mu$ with $N_B$ is dense in $N_B$. We prove that map $D$ given by $D(\lambda)=\mu$ is an idempotent map. This answers a question of Basili and Iarrobino and gives a partial answer to a question of Panyushev. In the proof, we use the fact that for a generic matrix $A \in N_B$ the algebra generated by $A$ and $B$ is a Gorenstein algebra. Thus, a generic pair of commuting nilpotent matrices generates a Gorenstein algebra. We also describe $D(\lambda)$ in terms of $\lambda$ if $D(\lambda)$ has at most two parts.

Abstract:
We study maximal distances in the commuting graphs of matrix algebras defined over algebraically closed fields. In particular, we show that the maximal distance can be attained only between two nonderogatory matrices. We also describe rank-one and semisimple matrices using the distances in the commuting graph.

Abstract:
We calculate the diameters of commuting graphs of matrices over the binary Boolean semiring, the tropical semiring and an arbitrary nonentire commutative semiring. We also find the lower bound for the diameter of the commuting graph of the semiring of matrices over an arbitrary commutative entire antinegative semiring.