Abstract:
This paper is a summary of the interview-workshop to Aleandro Nisati (12 December 2012, SEMM-Service Enseignement et Multimédia) co-organized by UFR Physique, University of Lille 1, France (Raffaele Pisano, Remi Franckowiak, Bernard Maitte and Lisa Rougetet), ATLAS Experiment Team (CERN, Genève, Switzerland), in persons of the cited Italian scientist—already Physics coordinator at ATLAS—and his colleague, Steven Goldfarb (CERN-University of Michigan, USA). The latter kindly answered to the questions on the ATLAS detector, LHC machine and CERN-ATLAS laboratories proposed by the participants. Distinguished lectures by historians of science at University of Lille 1 (Bernard Maitte, Bernard Pourprix and Robert Locqueneux) specialist on history of physics opened the workshop session.

Abstract:
This paper presents a review of a Ph.D. Thesis by Renata Bilbokaite, Natural Science Education Research Centre, Siauliai University, Lithuania.

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Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) is perhaps overrated for his contributions to physical science, since his technical approach. Nevertheless important components concerning practical problems of mechanics with great technical ability were abounded. He brought alive again the Nemorarius’ (fl. 12th - 13th century) tradition and his speculations on mechanics, if immature made known how difficult and elusive were the conceptual streams of the foundations of science for practitioners-artisans. Leonardo also had an interesting and intense relationship with mathematics but merely unhappy insights in his time. The meeting with Luca Bartolomeo de Pacioli (1445-1517) was very important for da Vinci since proposing stimulating speculations were implemented, but they were not definitive theoretical results. In this paper historical reflections notes on mechanics and mathematics in da Vinci and his relationships with Pacioli are presented.

Abstract:
The paper try to provide a contribution to the scientific—historiographic debate concerning the relations between experiments, metaphysics and mathematics in Descartes’ physics. The three works on which the analysis is focused are the Principia philosophiae and the two physical essays: La Dioptrique and Les Météores. The authors will highlight the profound methodological and epistemological differences characterizing, from one side, the Principia and, from the other side, the physical essays. Three significant examples will be dealt with: 1) the collision rules in the Principia philosophiae; 2) the refraction law in La Dioptrique; 3) the rainbow in Les Météores. In the final remarks these differences will be interpreted as depending upon the different role Descartes ascribed to the three books inside his whole work. The concepts of intensity and gradation of the physical quantities used by Descartes will provide an important interpretative means. In this paper, we compare the aprioristic approach to physics typical for Descartes’ Principia with the experimental and mathematical one characterizing Descartes’ Essays.

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In this research, we present the most important characteristics of the so called and so much explored Jesuit Edition of Newton’s Philosophi? Naturalis Principia Mathematica edited by Thomas Le Seur and Fran?ois Jacquier in the 1739-1742. The edition, densely annotated by the commentators (the notes and the comments are longer than Newton’s text itself) is a very treasure concerning Newton’s ideas and his heritage, e.g., Newton’s geometry and mathematical physics. Conspicuous pieces of information as to history of physics, history of mathematics and epistemology can be drawn from it. This paper opens a series of study concerning Jesuit Edition, whose final scope is to put in evidence all the conceptual aspects of such edition and its role inside the spread of scientific ideas and inside the complex relation science, popularization & society.

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to valuate the role of geometry inside Enriques’ theory of knowledge and epistemology. Our thesis is that such a role is prominent. We offer a particular interpretation of Enriques’ gnoseology, according to which geometry is the cornerstone to fully catch also the way in which he framed his conception of the history of science, of the origin of philosophy and of mathematics’ foundations. Our argumentation is divided into three sections: in the first one, we provide the reader with Enriques’ ideas on the physiological and conceptual bases of geometry. We distinguish between the primary and the secondary intuitions and expound the role Enriques ascribes to history inside the construction of human mind. In the second section, Enriques’ idea that philosophy was born as a rational geometry is expounded. In the third section we see what foundations of mathematics means in Enriques’ speculation. The reader will be in front of a thinker, whose theories are not separated one from the other, rather they are strictly connected. Geometry is the link which ties the various parts of Enriques’ theories and contributions. The Italian mathematician was an important thinker inside the European cultural milieu oriented towards scientific philosophy. In different forms, and with different ideas, mathematicians, philosophers, scientists as Mach, Poincaré, Hilbert, Painlevé—only to mention the most famous ones— were members of such a milieu, which, between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the first world war, hoped to construct a philosophy based on science, whose value should have not been only scientific, but socio-anthropological, as well.

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Introduction to Advances in Historical Studies Special Issue: Exploring Changes in How the Histories of the Exact Sciences Have Been Written: Interpreting the Dynamics of Change in These Sciences and Interrelations amongst Them—Past Problems, Future Cures?

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Perturbative NLO and NNLO QCD evolutions of parton distributions are studied, in particular in the (very) small-x region, where they are in very good agreement with all recent precision measurements of F_2^p(x,Q^2). These predictions turn out to be also rather insensitive to the specific choice of the factorization scheme (MS or DIS). A characteristic feature of perturbative QCD evolutions is a positive curvature of F_2^p which increases as x decreases. This perturbatively stable prediction provides a sensitive test of the range of validity of perturbative QCD.

Abstract:
Recent measurements for F_2(x,Q^2) have been analyzed in terms of the `dynamical' and `standard' parton model approach at NLO and NNLO of perturbative QCD. Having fixed the relevant NLO and NNLO parton distributions, the implications and predictions for the longitudinal structure function F_L(x,Q^2) are presented. It is shown that the previously noted extreme perturbative NNLO/NLO instability of F_L(x,Q^2) is an artifact of the commonly utilized `standard' gluon distributions. In particular it is demonstrated that using the appropriate -- dynamically generated -- parton distributions at NLO and NNLO, F_L(x,Q^2) turns out to be perturbatively rather stable already for Q^2 \geq O(2-3 GeV^2).