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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1984 matches for " Pietro Rubino "
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Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation
Pietro Rubino,Antonio Lonigro
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2008, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2008.119
Abstract: Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.
Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation
Pietro Rubino,Antonio Lonigro
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2008.119
Abstract: Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.
Agricultural use of treated municipal wastewaters preserving environmental sustainability
Antonio Lonigro,Maurizia Catalano,Pietro Rubino
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2007, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2007.s2.217
Abstract: In this paper the utility of the treated municipal wastewaters in agriculture, analyzing the chemical, physical and microbiological characteristics and their pollution indicators evaluation are being illustrated. Some methods employed for treating wastewaters are examined, as well as instructions and rules actually in force in different countries of the world, for evaluating the legislative hygienic and sanitary and agronomic problems connected with the treated wastewaters use, are being collected and compared. Successively, in order to provide useful indications for the use of treated municipal wastewaters, results of long-term field researches, carried out in Puglia, regarding two types of waters (treated municipal wastewater and conventional water) and two irrigation methods (drip and capillary sub-irrigation) on vegetable crops grown in succession, are being reported. For each crop cycle, chemical physical and microbiological analyses have been performed on irrigation water, soil and crop samples. The results evidenced that although irrigating with waters having high colimetric values, higher than those indicated by law and with two different irrigation methods, never soil and marketable yield pollutions have been observed. Moreover, the probability to take infection and/or disease for ingestion of fruits coming from crops irrigated with treated wastewaters, calculated by Beta-Poisson method, resulted negligible and equal to 1 person for 100 millions of exposed people. Concentrations of heavy metals in soil and crops were lesser than those admissible by law. The free chlorine, coming from disinfection, found in the wastewaters used for watering, in some cases caused toxicity effects, which determined significant yield decreases. Therefore, municipal wastewaters, if well treated, can be used for irrigation representing a valid alternative to the conventional ones.
Agricultural use of treated municipal wastewaters preserving environmental sustainability
Antonio Lonigro,Maurizia Catalano,Pietro Rubino
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2007.s2.217
Abstract: In this paper the utility of the treated municipal wastewaters in agriculture, analyzing the chemical, physical and microbiological characteristics and their pollution indicators evaluation are being illustrated. Some methods employed for treating wastewaters are examined, as well as instructions and rules actually in force in different countries of the world, for evaluating the legislative hygienic and sanitary and agronomic problems connected with the treated wastewaters use, are being collected and compared. Successively, in order to provide useful indications for the use of treated municipal wastewaters, results of long-term field researches, carried out in Puglia, regarding two types of waters (treated municipal wastewater and conventional water) and two irrigation methods (drip and capillary sub-irrigation) on vegetable crops grown in succession, are being reported. For each crop cycle, chemical physical and microbiological analyses have been performed on irrigation water, soil and crop samples. The results evidenced that although irrigating with waters having high colimetric values, higher than those indicated by law and with two different irrigation methods, never soil and marketable yield pollutions have been observed. Moreover, the probability to take infection and/or disease for ingestion of fruits coming from crops irrigated with treated wastewaters, calculated by Beta-Poisson method, resulted negligible and equal to 1 person for 100 millions of exposed people. Concentrations of heavy metals in soil and crops were lesser than those admissible by law. The free chlorine, coming from disinfection, found in the wastewaters used for watering, in some cases caused toxicity effects, which determined significant yield decreases. Therefore, municipal wastewaters, if well treated, can be used for irrigation representing a valid alternative to the conventional ones.
Yield response and optimal allocation of irrigation water under actual and simulated climate change scenarios in a southern Italy district
Pietro Rubino,Matteo Stelluti,Anna Maria Stellacci,Elena Armenise
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2012.e18
Abstract: The potential effect of climate change on the optimal allocation of irrigation water was investigated for a Southern Italy district. The study was carried out on 5 representative crops (grapevine, olive, sugar beet, processing tomato, asparagus), considering six simulated climate change conditions, corresponding to three 30-year periods (2011-2040; 2041-2070; 2071-2100) for two greenhouse gas emission schemes proposed by IPCC (A2 and B1), plus the current climatic condition. The framework adopted was based on: i) the modeling of crop yield response for increasing levels of water supply, under current and future climatic conditions, through a non-linear regression equation and ii) the definition of the best water allocation by means of a mathematical optimization model written in GAMS. Total irrigation water (TIW) volume was allowed to vary from a low total supply 10000 m3 to 7000000 m3, whilst a fixed surface, corresponding to that currently occupied in the studied district, was assigned to each crop. The economic return was studied in terms of Value of Production less the fixed and variable irrigation costs (VPlic). The TIW volume that maximized the VPlic of the whole district surface under the current climatic condition was 5697861 m3. The total volume was partitioned among the five crops as a function of the surface occupied: grapevine>olive>processing tomato>asparagus>sugar beet. Nevertheless, grapevine and olive received seasonal volumes corresponding only to 59 and 50% of total irrigation water requirements. On the contrary, processing tomato and asparagus received seasonal water volumes close to those fully satisfying irrigation water requirements (100% and 85% ETc). Future climatic conditions slightly differed from the current one for the expected optimal allocation. Under water shortage conditions (160000 m3) the whole irrigation water was allocated to the horticultural crops. Forecasted growing season features varied to a different extent in relation to crop and scenario considered with the more intense changes observed for A2 and olive.
Testing Some Pedo-Transfer Functions (PTFs) in Apulia Region. Evaluation on the Basis of Soil Particle Size Distribution and Organic Matter Content for Estimating Field Capacity and Wilting Point
Floriano Buccigrossi,Angelo Caliandro,Pietro Rubino,Mario Alberto Mastro
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2010.367
Abstract: The knowledge of soil water retention vs. soil water matric potential is applied to study irrigation and drainage scheduling, soil water storage capacity (plant available water), solute movement, plant growth and water stress. To measure field capacity and wilting point is expensive, laborious and is time consuming, so, frequently, matemathic models, called pedo-transfer functions (PTFs) are utilized to estimate field capacity and wilting point through physical-chemical soil characteristics. Six PTFs have been evaluated (Gupta and Larson, 1979; Rawls et al., 1982; De Jong et al., 1983; Rawls and Brakensiek, 1985; Saxton et al., 1986; Vereecken et al., 1989) by comparing measured soil moisture values with estimated ones at soil water matric potential of -33 and -1500 kPa. Soil samples were collected (361) from 185 pedons of Apulian Region (Southern Italy). Accuracy of the soil moisture predictions is quantified with Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) between estimated and measured water retention values. In Apulia Region the tested PTFs give different results on soils grouped on the basis of textural composition and organic matter (O.M.) content both at the Field Capacity (FC) and Wilting Point (WP). At the FC, Gupta and Larson model has given the best performance in Clayey (C), Sandy clay loam (SaCL), Sandy loam (SaL) and Silty (Si) soil, in loamy and tendency silty soils with O.M. content less than 1.9% and in tendency sandy soils with O.M. content less than 1.5% and greater than 2%; the Rawls model in Silty clay (SiC) and Silty loam (SiL) soils, in tendency clayey soils with O.M. less than 2.3% and in loamy and tendency silty soils with O.M. greater than 1.9%; the Rawls and Brakensiek model in tendency sandy soils with O.M. content between 1.5 and 2%; the Saxton model in Silty clay loam (SiCL), Loamy sand (LSa) soils and in tendency clayey soils with O.M. content greater than 2.3% and the Vereecken model in Sandy clay (SaC), Loamy (L), Clay loam (CL) and Sandy (Sa) soils. At the WP, the Gupta and Larson model has resulted the best in SiL, Si soils and, in general, in loamy and tendency silty and in tendency sandy soils with O.M. content greater than 1.9% and 2%, respectively; the Rawls model in Loamy soils and in loamy and tendency silty soils with O.M. between 1.0 and 1.9%; the De Jong model in C soils; the Rawls and Brakensiek model in SiC, SaC, CL, SiCL, SaCL soils and generally in tendency clayey soils with whatever O.M. content and in tendency sandy soils with O.M. content between 0.8 and 2%; the Saxton model in loamy and tendency silty soils with
TESTING SOME PEDO-TRANSFER FUNCTIONS (PTFS) IN APULIA REGION
Floriano Buccigrossi,Angelo Caliandro,Pietro Rubino,Mario Alberto Mastro
Journal of Agricultural Engineering , 2009, DOI: 10.4081/jae.2009.1.19
Abstract: The knowledge of soil water retention vs. soil water matric potential is used to study irrigation and drainage schedules, soil water storage capacity (plant available water), solute movement, plant growth and water stress. The hydraulic soil properties measuring is expensive, laborious and takes too long time, so, frequently, matemathic models, called pedo-transfer functions (PTFs) are utilized to estimate hydraulic soil properties through soil chimical and phisical characteristics. Six pedo-transfer functions have been evaluated (Gupta & Larson, 1979; Rawls et al., 1982; De Jong et al., 1983; Rawls & Brakensiek, 1985; Saxton et al., 1986; Vereecken et al., 1989) by comparing estimated with measured soil moisture values at soil water matric potential of –33 and –1500 kPa of 361 soil samples collected from 185 pedons of Apulia Region (South Italy), having various combinations of particle-size distribution, soil organic matter content and bulk density. Accuracy of the soil moisture predictions have been evaluated by statistic indexes such as Weighted stantard error (WSEE), Mean Deviation (MD), Root Mean Squared Deviation (RMSD) and the determination coefficient (R2) between estimated and measured water retention values. The Rawls PTF model demostrated to have the lowest values of WSEE, MD and RMSD indexes (0.044, -0.007 and 0.059 m3 H2O m-3 soil, respectively) at –33 Kpa soil water matric potential (Field Capacity), while for estimating soil moisture at the Wilting Point (-1500 kPa) Rawls & Brakensiek model is adequate (WSEE, MD and RMSD of 0.034, -0.016 and 0.046 m3 H2O m-3 soil). De Jong, Saxton and Rawls & Brakensiek models, at –33 kPa soil water matric potential and Gupta & Larson and De Jong models at –1500 kPa soil water matric potential, showed the highest statistic errors.
Corpos, cadeiras, colares: Charlotte Perriand e Lina Bo Bardi
Rubino, Silvana;
Cadernos Pagu , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-83332010000100013
Abstract: the article explores the crossroads of the trajectories of two professional women linked to the production of space: the italian architect lina bo bardi, who worked in brazil, and the french designer charlotte perriand. the article begins by comparing two photographs and then investigates the performance of these two well-known professionals, their moments of exclusion, disqualification as well as success throughout their careers. as they both had long and diversified careers, we capture two moments when they produced the emblematic chairs, that they exhibited using their own bodies, albeit in a quite anonymous way, as an ergonometric measure.
Experience with an extended-release opioid formulation designed to reduce abuse liability in a community-based pain management clinic
Rubino D
International Journal of General Medicine , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S23042
Abstract: ience with an extended-release opioid formulation designed to reduce abuse liability in a community-based pain management clinic Review (2819) Total Article Views Authors: Rubino D Published Date September 2011 Volume 2011:4 Pages 617 - 626 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S23042 Daniel Rubino Pain Center of Devon, Devon, PA, USA Context: With the growing public health concern over rising rates of opioid abuse, physicians have a responsibility to incorporate safeguards into their practice to minimize the potential for opioid misuse, abuse, and diversion. Patient-specific treatment regimens should include steps to monitor treatment success with regard to optimal pain management as well as inappropriate use of opioids and other substances. Opioid formulations designed to be less attractive for abuse are also being developed. While future studies are needed to determine the impact of such formulations in addressing the issue of opioid misuse in the community as a whole, the experience of practitioners who have utilized these formulations can highlight the practical steps to incorporate such formulations into the everyday patient-care setting. Purpose: The purpose of this report is to describe experience in managing patients with chronic, moderate-to-severe pain using morphine sulfate and naltrexone hydrochloride extended-release capsules (MS-sNT) (EMBEDA , King Pharmaceuticals Inc, Bristol, TN, which was acquired by Pfizer Inc, New York, in March 2011), a formulation designed with features to deter abuse/misuse, in a community-based pain management clinic. Case presentations: Case reports demonstrating a clinical management plan for assessment, initial interview procedures, explanation/discussion of proposed therapies, patients' treatment goals, conversion to MS-sNT, and titration and treatment outcomes are provided. Results: The management approach yielded successful outcomes including pain relief, improved quality of life, treatment satisfaction, and patient acceptance of a formulation designed to deter abuse/misuse. Discussion: The cases presented demonstrate that the communication accompanying complete pretreatment assessment, goal-setting and expectations, and attention to individual patient needs can enable optimization of pain-related outcomes, resulting in improved quality of life for patients and fostering patient acceptance of formulations designed to help address opioid abuse/misuse issues in the community at large.
Experience with an extended-release opioid formulation designed to reduce abuse liability in a community-based pain management clinic
Rubino D
International Journal of General Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Daniel Rubino Pain Center of Devon, Devon, PA, USA Context: With the growing public health concern over rising rates of opioid abuse, physicians have a responsibility to incorporate safeguards into their practice to minimize the potential for opioid misuse, abuse, and diversion. Patient-specific treatment regimens should include steps to monitor treatment success with regard to optimal pain management as well as inappropriate use of opioids and other substances. Opioid formulations designed to be less attractive for abuse are also being developed. While future studies are needed to determine the impact of such formulations in addressing the issue of opioid misuse in the community as a whole, the experience of practitioners who have utilized these formulations can highlight the practical steps to incorporate such formulations into the everyday patient-care setting. Purpose: The purpose of this report is to describe experience in managing patients with chronic, moderate-to-severe pain using morphine sulfate and naltrexone hydrochloride extended-release capsules (MS-sNT) (EMBEDA , King Pharmaceuticals Inc, Bristol, TN, which was acquired by Pfizer Inc, New York, in March 2011), a formulation designed with features to deter abuse/misuse, in a community-based pain management clinic. Case presentations: Case reports demonstrating a clinical management plan for assessment, initial interview procedures, explanation/discussion of proposed therapies, patients' treatment goals, conversion to MS-sNT, and titration and treatment outcomes are provided. Results: The management approach yielded successful outcomes including pain relief, improved quality of life, treatment satisfaction, and patient acceptance of a formulation designed to deter abuse/misuse. Discussion: The cases presented demonstrate that the communication accompanying complete pretreatment assessment, goal-setting and expectations, and attention to individual patient needs can enable optimization of pain-related outcomes, resulting in improved quality of life for patients and fostering patient acceptance of formulations designed to help address opioid abuse/misuse issues in the community at large. Keywords: morphine abuse, universal precautions, drug abuse
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