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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 233977 matches for " Pierre R. Blanquet "
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Advances InInterdisciplinary Researches to Construct a Theory of Consciousness  [PDF]
Pierre R. Blanquet
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2011.14031
Abstract: The interdisciplinary researches for a scientific explanation of consciousness constitute one of the most exciting challenges of contemporary science. However, although considerable progress has been made in the neurophysiology of states of consciousness such as sleep/waking cycles, investigation of subjective and objective nature of consciousness contents raises still serious difficulties. Based on a wide range of analysis and experimental studies, approaches to modeling consciousness actually focus on both philosophical, non-neural and neural approaches. Philosophical and non-neural approaches include the naturalistic dualism model of Chalmers, the multiple draft cognitive model of Dennett, the phenomenological theory of Varela and Maturana, and the physics-based hypothesis of Hameroff and Penrose. The neurobiological approaches include the neurodynamical model of Freeman, the visual system-based theories of Lamme, Zeki, Milner and Goodale, the phenomenal/access hypothesis of Block, the emotive somatosensory theory of Damasio, the synchronized cortical model of Llinas and of Crick and Koch, and the global neurophysiological brain model of Changeux and Edelman. There have been also many efforts in recent years to study the artificial intelligence systems such as neurorobots and some supercomputer programs, based on laws of computational machines and on laws of processing capabilities of biological systems. This approach has proven to be a fertile physical enterprise to check some hypothesis about the functioning of brain architecture. Until now, however, no machine has been capable of reproducing an artificial consciousness.
New Issue to Modeling Intentionality in the Field of Consciousness  [PDF]
Pierre R. Blanquet
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2015.59035
Abstract: Brentano in 1870s was the first to introduce intentionality to mean “conscious of”. At the end of the 1960s, a version of this view was developed by analytic American philosophy to construct a theory of meaningful language. That led Dennett to claim that intentionality was mainly a feature of sentence, not mental states. In contrast, Searle in 1990s rejected the Brentanian thesis and explained intentionality by a biological naturalism. Thereafter, radical eliminativists such as Churchland claimed that all philosophical arguments merited replacement by neuroscientific knowledge. Unfortunately, very few neurophysiological studies attempted to scientifically tackle the problem raised by intentionality. The issue now emerging is a new conception of intentionality based on phenomenological, neurobiological and quantum theories, such as: 1) the notion of “intentional arc” proposed in the philosophy of Merleau-Ponty; 2) the neurobiological and quantum model of Freeman, in which self-organizing pathways are accompanied by quantum transitions in controlling intentionality in brain; 3) the recent hypothesis that some visuo-motor neurons would be involved in controlling these self-organized pathways; 4) the quantum models of Vitiello and Globus, in which a thermofield (dissipative) system governs the dynamic dialog of dual quantum modes between environment and brain. Based on this conception of mind-world interactions, it implicitly appears that intentionality might be a fundamental force which draws us irreversibly towards the future. An alternative hypothesis based on this promising proposal is argued.
Towards a Possible Entropy-Driven Process of Consciousness  [PDF]
Pierre R. Blanquet
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2018.812041
Abstract: In the present article, we argue that consciousness and body are not to be separate to explain the intentional consciousness of the human being facing to environment. 1) The most neurobiologist and neurocognitivist studies suggest that the emerging consciousness appears to be a generic recurring process which subsumes under it the various results of scientist approaches. When analyzed with the cybernetic transductive method of Simondon, this process can be viewed as a noetico-neuronal unit which the sui generis activity can be boiled down to concept of intentional consciousness. 2) Homeostasis can be also metaphorically described as a generic recurring process which subsumes under it the myriad molecular feedback loops of organism. This self-regulating dynamic process could be governed by the cosmologic (Earth + Universe) production of entropy, which would keep high activity and dissipating energy and low internal entropy to maintain an ordering in the organic structure. 3) Based on numerous arguments and data, the cerebral noetico-neuronal process and the self-regulating homeostasic process may be viewed as an entire physiological (brain + body) system. We suggest that the whole (brain + body) has an intentional embodied consciousness that could be driven by the cosmologic production of entropy.
Interactions with M Cells and Macrophages as Key Steps in the Pathogenesis of Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli Infections
Lucie Etienne-Mesmin, Benoit Chassaing, Pierre Sauvanet,rémy Denizot, Stéphanie Blanquet-Diot, Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud, Nathalie Pradel, Valérie Livrelli
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023594
Abstract: Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are food-borne pathogens that can cause serious infections ranging from diarrhea to hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Translocation of Shiga-toxins (Stx) from the gut lumen to underlying tissues is a decisive step in the development of the infection, but the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Many bacterial pathogens target the follicle-associated epithelium, which overlies Peyer's patches (PPs), cross the intestinal barrier through M cells and are captured by mucosal macrophages. Here, translocation across M cells, as well as survival and proliferation of EHEC strains within THP-1 macrophages were investigated using EHEC O157:H7 reference strains, isogenic mutants, and 15 EHEC strains isolated from HC/HUS patients. We showed for the first time that E. coli O157:H7 strains are able to interact in vivo with murine PPs, to translocate ex vivo through murine ileal mucosa with PPs and across an in vitro human M cell model. EHEC strains are also able to survive and to produce Stx in macrophages, which induce cell apoptosis and Stx release. In conclusion, our results suggest that the uptake of EHEC by M cells and underlying macrophages in the PP may be a critical step in Stx translocation and release in vivo. A new model for EHEC infection in humans is proposed that could help in a fuller understanding of EHEC-associated diseases.
Neutralization by Metal Ions of the Toxicity of Sodium Selenide
Marc Dauplais, Myriam Lazard, Sylvain Blanquet, Pierre Plateau
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054353
Abstract: Inert metal-selenide colloids are found in animals. They are believed to afford cross-protection against the toxicities of both metals and selenocompounds. Here, the toxicities of metal salt and sodium selenide mixtures were systematically studied using the death rate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells as an indicator. In parallel, the abilities of these mixtures to produce colloids were assessed. Studied metal cations could be classified in three groups: (i) metal ions that protect cells against selenium toxicity and form insoluble colloids with selenide (Ag+, Cd2+, Cu2+, Hg2+, Pb2+ and Zn2+), (ii) metal ions which protect cells by producing insoluble metal-selenide complexes and by catalyzing hydrogen selenide oxidation in the presence of dioxygen (Co2+ and Ni2+) and, finally, (iii) metal ions which do not afford protection and do not interact (Ca2+, Mg2+, Mn2+) or weakly interact (Fe2+) with selenide under the assayed conditions. When occurring, the insoluble complexes formed from divalent metal ions and selenide contained equimolar amounts of metal and selenium atoms. With the monovalent silver ion, the complex contained two silver atoms per selenium atom. Next, because selenides are compounds prone to oxidation, the stabilities of the above colloids were evaluated under oxidizing conditions. 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB), the reduction of which can be optically followed, was used to promote selenide oxidation. Complexes with cadmium, copper, lead, mercury or silver resisted dissolution by DTNB treatment over several hours. With nickel and cobalt, partial oxidation by DTNB occurred. On the other hand, when starting from ZnSe or FeSe complexes, full decompositions were obtained within a few tens of minutes. The above properties possibly explain why ZnSe and FeSe nanoparticles were not detected in animals exposed to selenocompounds.
Physiotherapy in Treating Sexual Pain Disorders in Women: A Systematic Review  [PDF]
Mercedes Blanquet Rochera
Advances in Sexual Medicine (ASM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/asm.2016.63004
Abstract: Importance: A lot of women suffer from sexual disfunctions, which most of the times cause pain and discomfort. Many genito-pelvic pain disorders appear in the form of contractions or pelvic floor muscle tension, which makes any type of penetration (sexual, tampons, gynaecological examination tools) impossible. In this condition, a woman cannot control these muscle contractions and experiences moderate to intense pain. Objectives: To summarise published evidence on efficacy of physiotherapy for treating female sexual pain disorders, ways to evaluate the condition of a patient and to find the correct treatment. Evidence review: A literature search of Cochrane, PubMed, Journal of Sexual Medicine and Urogynecology Journal databases, SciELO, Google Scholar, Wiley Online Library and University of Barcelona Library was conducted. Findings: Physiotherapy techniques are used to strengthen pelvic floor muscles and relieve pain. Kegel exercises improve the symptoms of sexual pain disorders as they deal with weakened muscles. Vaginal cones exercises are used to strengthen the muscles by means of introduction of gradually increasing weights in the vagina. Biofeedback helps to increase muscle awareness and auto-evaluation of performed exercises. Thermotherapy relaxes muscles and increases elasticity of tissues which helps to reduce pain. Electro-stimulation improves the functionality of muscles. Myofascial therapy consists mainly in manual therapy and in liberating painful trigger points. Conclusions: The role of pelvic physiotherapy is to solve the problems related to sexual pain, recovering the pelvic floor by increasing muscle awareness and proprioception, improving muscle relaxation, toning the muscles and increasing the elasticity of the tissues in order to eliminate or reduce pain. Different exercise techniques, biofeedback, manual therapy and insertion techniques, as well as electro-stimulation and thermotherapy are used to achieve positive results.
Les effets de la violence chez l'enfant et ses tentatives de traitement dans l'apres coup
Brigitte, Blanquet;
Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-37722011000300011
Abstract: in this article the author argues that the effects of violence against children are often noticed only years later, especially during adolescence. adolescence is an opportunity that allows to regain and treat the many injuries that have affected the psyche of the child. by means of the process of repetition-creation, the teenager can act out traces of old traumatic experiences which were not assimilated and try to treat them. to demonstrate this assumption, the author uses a clinical situation, extracted from two years of psychotherapeutic treatement. this example makes it possible to account for the phenomenon of recovery, acting out and the effects of psychotherapeutic treatment years afterwards the traumatic experience.
Sodium Selenide Toxicity Is Mediated by O2-Dependent DNA Breaks
Gérald Peyroche, Cosmin Saveanu, Marc Dauplais, Myriam Lazard, Fran?ois Beuneu, Laurence Decourty, Christophe Malabat, Alain Jacquier, Sylvain Blanquet, Pierre Plateau
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036343
Abstract: Hydrogen selenide is a recurrent metabolite of selenium compounds. However, few experiments studied the direct link between this toxic agent and cell death. To address this question, we first screened a systematic collection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid knockout strains for sensitivity to sodium selenide, a donor for hydrogen selenide (H2Se/HSe?/Se2?). Among the genes whose deletion caused hypresensitivity, homologous recombination and DNA damage checkpoint genes were over-represented, suggesting that DNA double-strand breaks are a dominant cause of hydrogen selenide toxicity. Consistent with this hypothesis, treatment of S. cerevisiae cells with sodium selenide triggered G2/M checkpoint activation and induced in vivo chromosome fragmentation. In vitro, sodium selenide directly induced DNA phosphodiester-bond breaks via an O2-dependent reaction. The reaction was inhibited by mannitol, a hydroxyl radical quencher, but not by superoxide dismutase or catalase, strongly suggesting the involvement of hydroxyl radicals and ruling out participations of superoxide anions or hydrogen peroxide. The ?OH signature could indeed be detected by electron spin resonance upon exposure of a solution of sodium selenide to O2. Finally we showed that, in vivo, toxicity strictly depended on the presence of O2. Therefore, by combining genome-wide and biochemical approaches, we demonstrated that, in yeast cells, hydrogen selenide induces toxic DNA breaks through an O2-dependent radical-based mechanism.
El Canto Popular Religioso y la Reforma Litúrgica en Espa?a (1850-1915)
Virgili Blanquet,María Antonia;
Aisthesis , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-71812010000100012
Abstract: abstract the study focuses on the way in which sacred and secular vocal music and people's participation was treated by the reform movement of catholic liturgy in spain during the xixth century. the essay analyses both documentary sources and repertoire editions which aim was to facilitate congregation's singing in latin as well as in vernacular language. all this allows us to conclude that xixth reform stimulated an innovative trend developed by vatican council ii: the active participation of people in the liturgy. these results show a different approach in contrast with current opinions that consider the liturgical reform movement as a simple old-fashioned and retrograde historicism just focused on gregorian and religious polyphony as historical models for new sacred musical compositions.
El Canto Popular Religioso y la Reforma Litúrgica en Espa a (1850-1915) Sacred and Secular Vocals and Liturgical Reform in Spain (1850-1915)
María Antonia Virgili Blanquet
Aisthesis , 2010,
Abstract: El objeto de estudio es el tratamiento que recibe el Canto popular religioso y la participación del pueblo en el movimiento de reforma de la liturgia católica del siglo XIX en Espa a. Se revisan tanto fuentes documentales como ediciones de repertorios idóneos para facilitar el canto del pueblo en latín y en lengua vernácula. Todo ello permite llegar a la consideración del movimiento reformista decimonónico como impulsor de una tendencia innovadora que el Concilio Vaticano II desarrollará: la participación activa de los fieles en la liturgia. Esta visión matiza las posturas que consideran esta reforma como un simple historicismo trasnochado y retrógrado, centrado en la recuperación del gregoriano y la polifonía religiosa como modelos de la nueva composición religiosa. Abstract The study focuses on the way in which Sacred and Secular vocal music and people's participation was treated by the Reform Movement of Catholic Liturgy in Spain during the XIXth century. The essay analyses both documentary sources and repertoire editions which aim was to facilitate congregation's singing in Latin as well as in vernacular language. All this allows us to conclude that XIXth Reform stimulated an innovative trend developed by Vatican Council II: the active participation of people in the Liturgy. These results show a different approach in contrast with current opinions that consider the Liturgical Reform Movement as a simple old-fashioned and retrograde historicism just focused on Gregorian and religious polyphony as historical models for new sacred musical compositions.
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