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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2980 matches for " Pier-Giorgio Zanone "
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“Biological Geometry Perception”: Visual Discrimination of Eccentricity Is Related to Individual Motor Preferences
Yannick Wamain,Jessica Tallet,Pier-Giorgio Zanone,Marieke Longcamp
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015995
Abstract: In the continuum between a stroke and a circle including all possible ellipses, some eccentricities seem more “biologically preferred” than others by the motor system, probably because they imply less demanding coordination patterns. Based on the idea that biological motion perception relies on knowledge of the laws that govern the motor system, we investigated whether motorically preferential and non-preferential eccentricities are visually discriminated differently. In contrast with previous studies that were interested in the effect of kinematic/time features of movements on their visual perception, we focused on geometric/spatial features, and therefore used a static visual display.
A KINEMATIC STUDY OF FINSWIMMING AT SURFACE
Jimmy Gautier,Laurent Baly,Pier-Giorgio Zanone,Bruno Watier
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2004,
Abstract: Finswimming is a sport of speed practiced on the surface or underwater, in which performance is based on whole-body oscillations. The present study investigated the undulatory motion performed by finswimmers at the surface. This study aiming to analyze the influence of the interaction of gender, practice level, and race distance on selected kinematic parameters. Six elite and six novices finswimmers equipped with joints markers (wrist, elbow, shoulder, hip, knee, and ankle) were recorded in the sagittal plane. The position of these anatomical marks was digitized at 50 Hz. An automated motion analysis software yielded velocity, vertical amplitude, frequency, and angular position. Results showed that stroke frequency decreased whereas the mean amplitude of all joints increased with increasing race distance (p < 0.01). Mean joint amplitude for the upper limbs (wrist, elbow and shoulder) was smaller for experts than for novices. Whereas that of the ankle was larger, so that the oscillation amplitude increased from shoulder to ankle. Elite male finswimmers were pitching more acutely than female. Moreover, elite male finswimmers showed a smaller knee bending than novices and than elite females (p < 0.01). This indicated that elite male finswimmers attempt to reduce drag forces thanks to a weak knee bending and a low upper limbs pitch. To sum up, gender, expertise, and race distance affect the performance and its kinematics in terms frontal drag. Expertise in finswimming requires taking advantage of the mechanical constraints pertaining to hydrodynamic constraints in order to optimize performance
Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Lipid Traits in the Muscle and Perirenal Fat of Growing Rabbits Fed Mixed Diets
Pier Giorgio Peiretti
Animals , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ani2010055
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various raw materials (spirulina, curcuma, tomato pomace, false flax, linseed, chia, perilla seeds) as suitable polyunsaturated fatty acid n-3 (n-3 PUFA) sources, on the lipid traits in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat of growing rabbits. The fatty acid (FA) analyses of the diets, carried out by gas chromatography, differed over a wide range on the basis of the highly varied ingredients in 27 experimental formulations. Among the 29 identified FAs, three from feeds were catabolized in the rabbits, five were de novo synthesized and stored chiefly in the muscle. It was possible to linearly characterize the incorporation from the feed to the muscle of 16 FAs. This study has confirmed that the dietary inclusion of various raw materials could be considered as a way of enriching the n-3 PUFA of rabbit meat. A proposal for the prediction of n-3 PUFA from dietary α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3) and a panel of another 10 FAs has been made for intramuscular fat (R 2 = 0.94) and perirenal fat (R 2 = 0.96).
Sport in Psychiatric Rehabilitation: A Tool in Pre-Acute, Post-Acute and Chronic Phase  [PDF]
Giorgio Corretti, Christian Martini, Pier L. Greco, Francesco P. Marchetti
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2011.25093
Abstract: The principal goal of psychiatric rehabilitation is to improve the global functioning of a person who suffer from a mental disorder. New emerging groups of patients meet difficult to attend to a rehabilitation program. Sport represents a new flexible model that can be used in psychiatric rehabilitation. Sport improves physical health and well being, increases sociality, increases self-efficacy and self-esteem. It is well accepted and well tolerated by the patients, too. Its use goes over the chronic phase of illness (typical target of rehabilitation) and it extends to the post-acute and pre acute phase, too.
Appraisal of ingestion and digestibility in growing rabbits using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) of feeds and faeces
Giorgia Meineri,Pier Giorgio Peiretti,Giorgio Masoero
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2009.75
Abstract: The aim of this work was to examine whether faecal profiling using NIRS could be profitable for promote the Best Available Techniques (BAT) in the rational feeding of rabbits. A set of 51 feed samples, taken from 12 experimental diets, and of 66 dried grouped faeces samples, belonging to four nutrition experiments, with 130 ad libitum registered feed intakes (CV=25%), were submitted to a UV-Vis-NIRS scan (350-2500 nm) in order to calibrate the chemical composition and nutritional parameters, the ingestion aptitude and digestibility. A chemometric system has made it possible to contemporary use the spectrum of the input diet concatenated together with the spectra of the related output pool of the dried faeces. The daily measured feed intake, in absolute or in relative terms as ingestion per unit of metabolic weight, obtained a good resolution for the spectra of the feeds (R2 cv=0.80 and 0.75, respectively), for the faeces (0.81 and 0.80) and for the joint evaluation of the concatenated spectra (0.87 and 0.81). The intake was positively correlated to the mineral, insoluble ash, protein, gross energy, crude fiber and acid detergent fiber (ADF) content in the feeds, and negatively correlated to the N-free extract, lignocellulose and all the digestibility coefficients, except crude fiber. Very significant improvements, on average equal to 0.20 R2 points, were also provided to the digestibility coefficients when using the concatenated method; in decreasing order: neutral detergent fiber (R2 cv=0.00, 0.18 and 0.50 for the feeds, faeces and concatenated, respectively), ADF (0.00, 0.45 and 0.62), ether extract (0.53, 0.52 and 0.86), crude protein (0.53; 0.53 and 0.75), and gross energy (0.61; 0.74 and 0.83). The results corroborate previous knowledge and show the possibility of using NIRS faecal profiling in rabbit nutrition, which together with the NIRS of the feeds, could contribute to nitrogen monitoring.
Effects of diets with increasing levels of golden flaxseed on carcass characteristics, meat quality and lipid traits of growing rabbits
Pier Giorgio Peiretti,Giorgia Meineri
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2010.e70
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of three levels (0, 8, or 16%) of the golden variety of flaxseed (GFS; Linum usitatissimum L.), included in isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets, on the carcass characteristics, meat composition and fatty acid profile of rabbit meat and perirenal fat. The trial was carried out on 30 weaned crossbred rabbits aged 9 weeks, weighing on average 2074 g. The animals were divided equally into three groups of 10 (five male and five female rabbits each) and kept separate in individual cages. At the end of the experiment, which lasted 5 weeks, there were no significant differences between the groups in the carcass yield or the proportions of various carcass parts and edible organs. Although the chemical composition of the meat was not signi cantly affected by the dietary treatment, the saturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid proportion in the longissimus dorsi muscle (-22% and -24%, respectively) and perirenal fat (-34% and –29%, respectively) decreased and the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) increased (+36% in the muscle and 43% in the fat, respectively) with increased GFS inclusion. GFS dietary supplementation has shown to be effective in improving the n-3 PUFAproportion (76% in the muscle and 77% in the fat, respectively), decreasing the n-6/n-3 ratio and reducing the saturation, atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes of the meat, with consequent benefits on the nutritional quality of rabbit meat for consumers.
Effects of diets with increasing levels of golden flaxseed on carcass characteristics, meat quality and lipid traits of growing rabbits
Pier Giorgio Peiretti,Giorgia Meineri
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2012,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of three levels (0, 8, or 16%) of the golden variety of flaxseed (GFS; Linum usitatissimum L.), included in isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets, on the carcass characteristics, meat composition and fatty acid profile of rabbit meat and perirenal fat. The trial was carried out on 30 weaned crossbred rabbits aged 9 weeks, weighing on average 2074 g. The animals were divided equally into three groups of 10 (five male and five female rabbits each) and kept separate in individual cages. At the end of the experiment, which lasted 5 weeks, there were no significant differences between the groups in the carcass yield or the proportions of various carcass parts and edible organs. Although the chemical composition of the meat was not signi cantly affected by the dietary treatment, the saturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid proportion in the longissimus dorsi muscle (-22% and -24%, respectively) and perirenal fat (-34% and –29%, respectively) decreased and the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) increased (+36% in the muscle and 43% in the fat, respectively) with increased GFS inclusion. GFS dietary supplementation has shown to be effective in improving the n-3 PUFA proportion (76% in the muscle and 77% in the fat, respectively), decreasing the n-6/n-3 ratio and reducing the saturation, atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes of the meat, with consequent benefits on the nutritional quality of rabbit meat for consumers.
The equal load-sharing model of cascade failures in power grids
Antonio Scala,Pier Giorgio De Sanctis Lucentini
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Electric power-systems are one of the most important critical infrastructures. In recent years, they have been exposed to extreme stress due to the increasing demand, the introduction of distributed renewable energy sources, and the development of extensive interconnections. We investigate the phenomenon of abrupt breakdown of an electric power-system under two scenarios: load growth (mimicking the ever-increasing customer demand) and power fluctuations (mimicking the effects of renewable sources). Our results indicate that increasing the system size causes breakdowns to become more abrupt; in fact, mapping the system to a solvable statistical-physics model indicates the occurrence of a first order transition in the large size limit. Such an enhancement for the systemic risk failures (black-outs) with increasing network size is an effect that should be considered in the current projects aiming to integrate national power-grids into "super-grids".
Synaptic Functions of Invertebrate Varicosities: What Molecular Mechanisms Lie Beneath
Carlo Natale Giuseppe Giachello,Pier Giorgio Montarolo,Mirella Ghirardi
Neural Plasticity , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/670821
Abstract: In mammalian brain, the cellular and molecular events occurring in both synapse formation and plasticity are difficult to study due to the large number of factors involved in these processes and because the contribution of each component is not well defined. Invertebrates, such as Drosophila, Aplysia, Helix, Lymnaea, and Helisoma, have proven to be useful models for studying synaptic assembly and elementary forms of learning. Simple nervous system, cellular accessibility, and genetic simplicity are some examples of the invertebrate advantages that allowed to improve our knowledge about evolutionary neuronal conserved mechanisms. In this paper, we present an overview of progresses that elucidates cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying synaptogenesis and synapse plasticity in invertebrate varicosities and their validation in vertebrates. In particular, the role of invertebrate synapsin in the formation of presynaptic terminals and the cell-to-cell interactions that induce specific structural and functional changes in their respective targets will be analyzed. 1. Introduction Interneuronal communication is essential for all nervous system functions. Neurons transmit their signals to one another at specialized structures termed synapses in which a presynaptic and a postsynaptic compartment are both morphologically and functionally distinguished. Cellular accessibility and the relative simplicity of their nervous system have made invertebrate models, such as Aplysia, Lymnaea, Hirudo, Helix, and Helisoma [1–9], a particularly suitable solution for investigating the formation of synapse and the specificity of neuronal connectivity. A large number of invertebrate neurons can be individually identified and isolated in cell culture, since they share similar size, position, biophysical properties, synaptic connections, and physiological functions among animals of the same species [10]. Therefore, it is even possible to reconstruct in dissociated cell culture synapses between individually identified invertebrate neurons that recapitulate in vitro their in vivo features [6, 7, 11–13]. Culture conditions, specific to each system, promote the regeneration of new neuritic arbors and the establishment of synaptic connections with remarkable accuracy. Thus, cell culture approaches combined with imaging and electrophysiological techniques have allowed neuroscientists to monitor cellular and molecular events underlying neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, and synaptic plasticity. Commonly, vertebrate neurons display a stereotyped polarity in which it is possible to
THE OXIDATIVE STRESS RESPONSE GENE P66 shc AND THE TUMOR SUPPRESSOR GENE P53 INDUCE MITOCHONDRIAL DNA DAMAGES
Mirella Trinei,Marco Giorgio,Sara Barozzi,Pier Giuseppe Pelicci
The Scientific World Journal , 2001, DOI: 10.1100/tsw.2001.230
Abstract:
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