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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 402391 matches for " Pia M?ller Faaborg "
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Abdominal Pain: A Comparison between Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction and Chronic Idiopathic Constipation
Pia Mller Faaborg,Nanna Brix Finnerup,Peter Christensen,Klaus Krogh
Gastroenterology Research and Practice , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/365037
Abstract: Introduction. Most spinal-cord-injured patients have constipation. One-third develop chronic abdominal pain 10 years or more after injury. Nevertheless, very little is known about the nature of abdominal pain after spinal cord injury (SCI). It may be neuropathic or caused by constipation. Aim. To compare characteristics of abdominal pain in SCI with able-bodied with chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC). Subjects and Methods. 21 SCI and 15 CIC patients were referred for treatment of bowel symptoms. Constipation-related symptoms were assessed with the Cleveland Constipation Scoring System and the International Spinal Cord Injury Basic Bowel Function Data Set. Characteristics of abdominal pain were described using the Brief Danish Pain Questionnaire. Total gastrointestinal transit times (GITT) were measured by radiopaque markers. Results. Seventeen (81%) SCI and 14 (93%) CIC patients reported abdominal pain or discomfort within the last month ( ). Pain was considered more intense by CIC than by SCI patients ( ). Only minor differences were found in patient’s qualitative description of abdominal pain or in the location of pain. In neither SCI nor CIC was pain associated with GITT. Conclusion. Most characteristics of abdominal pain among SCI patients resemble those of CIC. This indicates that constipation is a major cause of pain after SCI. 1. Introduction Spinal cord injury (SCI) has severe consequences for colorectal and anal sphincter function. The term neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) has been introduced and includes constipation, faecal incontinence, and abdominal pain [1]. It is well documented that faecal incontinence affects up to 75% and constipation approximately 80% of subjects with SCI [2]. In contrast to other symptoms, abdominal pain after SCI has received very little attention. Abdominal pain can have severe consequences for the quality of life of SCI patients [3]. It usually has a late onset as it is present in only 5–10% after five years [4] but in one-third after 10 years or more [5]. The nature of abdominal pain in NBD is unknown. This is unfortunate as the choice of treatment should reflect the underlying cause. We have previously described an association between infrequent defecation and abdominal pain suggesting a relation to constipation [5]. This is consistent with the fact that most able-bodied patients with chronic constipation have abdominal pain [6]. Abdominal pain in SCI is sometimes considered neuropathic pain if no underlying visceral pathology is identified. Neuropathic pain is present in other parts of the body in about
The Importance of Gender of Patients and General Practitioners in Relation to Treatment Practices for Overweight
Jeanett Friis Rohde, Marie Vik Hessner, J?rgen Lous, Pia Müller, Ulla H?lund, Berit Lilienthal Heitmann
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095706
Abstract: Background Several studies suggest that men and women are treated differently for similar disease including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Differences in attitudes and treatment practices towards men and women with obesity are not well recognized. Objective To investigate the attitudes and treatment practices among Danish general practitioners (GPs), in relation to treatment of overweight, while taking gender of both the patients and practitioners into account. Design Questionnaire inventory covertly examining attitudes and practices among Danish general practitioners towards treatment of overweight. All 3.637 general practitioners from the Danish Medical Association register were invited to participate in the survey. In total 1.136 participated. Results The GPs found weight loss to be more important for overweight male than overweight female patients. They also treated complications to overweight more rigorously among male than female patients, and recommended lipid lowering medicine more often to male than female overweight patients. In addition, the younger female GPs and older male GPs more often said that they would treat an overweight patient with lipid lowering medicine. Conclusion Among general practitioners in Denmark, treatment for weight loss is more often practiced for overweight male than overweight female patients presenting with same symptoms. In addition, hyperlipidemia among overweight males is also more often treated with lipid lowering medicine than hyperlipidemia among overweight females.
Enhancing Virus-Specific Immunity In Vivo by Combining Therapeutic Vaccination and PD-L1 Blockade in Chronic Hepadnaviral Infection
Jia Liu,Ejuan Zhang,Zhiyong Ma,Weimin Wu,Anna Kosinska,Xiaoyong Zhang,Inga Mller,Pia Seiz,Dieter Glebe,Baoju Wang,Dongliang Yang,Mengji Lu,Michael Roggendorf
PLOS Pathogens , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003856
Abstract: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistence is facilitated by exhaustion of CD8 T cells that express the inhibitory receptor programmed cell death-1 (PD-1). Improvement of the HBV-specific T cell function has been obtained in vitro by inhibiting the PD-1/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) interaction. In this study, we examined whether in vivo blockade of the PD-1 pathway enhances virus-specific T cell immunity and leads to the resolution of chronic hepadnaviral infection in the woodchuck model. The woodchuck PD-1 was first cloned, characterized, and its expression patterns on T cells from woodchucks with acute or chronic woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) infection were investigated. Woodchucks chronically infected with WHV received a combination therapy with nucleoside analogue entecavir (ETV), therapeutic DNA vaccination and woodchuck PD-L1 antibody treatment. The gain of T cell function and the suppression of WHV replication by this therapy were evaluated. We could show that PD-1 expression on CD8 T cells was correlated with WHV viral loads during WHV infection. ETV treatment significantly decreased PD-1 expression on CD8 T cells in chronic carriers. In vivo blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway on CD8 T cells, in combination with ETV treatment and DNA vaccination, potently enhanced the function of virus-specific T cells. Moreover, the combination therapy potently suppressed WHV replication, leading to sustained immunological control of viral infection, anti-WHs antibody development and complete viral clearance in some woodchucks. Our results provide a new approach to improve T cell function in chronic hepatitis B infection, which may be used to design new immunotherapeutic strategies in patients.
Novel Host-Related Virulence Factors Are Encoded by Squirrelpox Virus, the Main Causative Agent of Epidemic Disease in Red Squirrels in the UK
Alistair C. Darby, Colin J. McInnes, Karina Hansen Kj?r, Ann R. Wood, Margaret Hughes, Pia Mller Martensen, Alan D. Radford, Neil Hall, Julian Chantrey
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096439
Abstract: Squirrelpox virus (SQPV) shows little evidence for morbidity or mortality in North American grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), in which the virus is endemic. However, more recently the virus has emerged to cause epidemics with high mortality in Eurasian red squirrels (S. vulgaris) in Great Britain, which are now threatened. Here we report the genome sequence of SQPV. Comparison with other Poxviridae revealed a core set of poxvirus genes, the phylogeny of which showed SQPV to be in a new Chordopoxvirus subfamily between the Molluscipoxviruses and Parapoxviruses. A number of SQPV genes were related to virulence, including three major histocomaptibility class I homologs, and one CD47 homolog. In addition, a novel potential virulence factor showing homology to mammalian oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) was identified. This family of proteins normally causes activation of an endoribonuclease (RNaseL) within infected cells. The putative function of this novel SQPV protein was predicted in silico.
High frequency of corticosteroid and immunosuppressive therapy in patients with systemic sclerosis despite limited evidence for efficacy
Nicolas Hunzelmann, Pia Moinzadeh, Ekkehard Genth, Thomas Krieg, Walter Lehmacher, Inga Melchers, Michael Meurer, Ulf Müller-Ladner, Thorsten M Olski, Christiane Pfeiffer, Gabriela Riemekasten, Eckhard Schulze-Lohoff, Cord Sunderkoetter, Manfred Weber, the German Network for Systemic Scleroderma Centers
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/ar2634
Abstract: Data on duration and dosage of corticosteroids and on the type of immunosuppressive agent were analyzed from 1,729 patients who were registered in the German Network for Systemic Scleroderma (DNSS).A total 41.3% of all registered SSc patients was treated with corticosteroids. Corticosteroid use was reported in 49.1% of patients with diffuse cutaneous SSc and 31.3% of patients with limited cutaneous SSc (P < 0.0001). Among patients with overlap disease characteristics, 63.5% received corticosteroids (P < 0.0001 vs. limited cutaneous SSc). A total 16.1% of the patients received corticosteroids with a daily dose ≥ 15 mg prednisone equivalent. Immunosuppressive therapy was prescribed in 35.8% of patients. Again, among those patients with overlap symptoms, a much higher proportion (64.1%) was treated with immunosuppressive agents, compared with 46.4% of those with diffuse cutaneous SSc sclerosis and 22.2% of those with limited cutaneous SSc (P < 0.0001). The most commonly prescribed drugs were methotrexate (30.5%), cyclophosphamide (22.2%), azathioprine (21.8%) and (hydroxy)chloroquine (7.2%). The use of these compounds varied significantly between medical subspecialties.Despite limited evidence for the effectiveness of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents in SSc, these potentially harmful drugs are frequently prescribed to patients with all forms of SSc. Therefore, this study indicates the need to develop and communicate adequate treatment recommendations.Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare autoimmune disease involving the skin and internal organs. The disease hallmark is an overproduction and accumulation of collagen and other extracellular matrix proteins, resulting in thickening of the skin and fibrosis of the affected organs (for example, gastrointestinal tract, lung, heart, and kidney). The etiology of SSc is still not fully elucidated, but the dominant phenomena are immunologic mechanisms, vascular endothelial cell injury and an activation of fibroblasts.Si
Our Economy  [PDF]
Christian Müller*
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.24063
Abstract: I discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the current predominant approach to macroeconomic modelling of asset prices and suggest an alternative perspective. This alternative rests on the insight that the economy is the result of individual decisions. The industry standard has it, however, that individual action is ruled by objective, general laws instead. Changing the point of view allows to reconcile numerous puzzles and paves the way for a promising new research agenda.
Improved Variance Reduced Monte-Carlo Simulation of in-the-Money Options  [PDF]
Armin Müller
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2016.63029
Abstract: Pricing derivatives with Monte-Carlo simulations involve standard errors that typically decrease at a rate proportional to\"\" where N is the sample size. Several approaches have been discussed to reduce the empirical variance for a given sample size. This article analyzes the joint application of the put-call-parity approach and importance sampling to variance reduced option pricing. For this purpose, we examine non-path-dependent and path-dependent options. For European options, we observe dramatic variance reduction, especially for in-the-money options. Also for arithmetic Asian options, a significant variance reduction is achieved.
Halogen Exchange in Near-Critical Water  [PDF]
Abdulrahman M. Alhazmi, Pia R. Alburquerque, Thomas Junk
Green and Sustainable Chemistry (GSC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/gsc.2011.14021
Abstract: Bromoaromatics are ubiquitous in chemistry, and their manufacture is often wasteful. Halogen exchange under hydrothermal conditions constitutes a viable alternative for their synthesis in some cases. The prepara-tion of 1,2-dibromobenzene and 1-bromo-2-chlorobenzene from 1,2-dichlorobenzene, by treatment with hy-drobromic acid in hydrothermal media at temperatures ranging from 240?C to 320?C was investigated as a viable alternative to de novo synthesis. The effects of temperature, exchange duration and the presence of Fe3+ salts on product yields are discussed. Yields for both targeted haloarenes of up to 37% and 48%, respec-tively, were achieved, with very limited formation of 1,3- and 1,4-dihalobenzene isomers. A mechanism for halogen exchange was proposed.
Crime on the U.S.-Mexico Border: The Effect of Undocumented Immigration and Border Enforcement
Coronado, Roberto;Orrenius, Pia M.;
Migraciones internacionales , 2007,
Abstract: in the 1990s, the u.s. border led the nation in the decline of property-related crimes, while violent crime rates fell twice as fast in the u.s. as in the median border county. this paper asks how changes in undocumented immigration and border enforcement have played a role in generating these divergent trends. we find that migrant apprehensions are correlated with violent crime and that increased border enforcement has not had a deterrent effect on such crime. rather, increased border enforcement in a sector has led to more violent crime in neighboring sectors. in contrast to the results for violent crime, property crime is not correlated with migrant apprehensions, and while there is some evidence that border enforcement has lowered property crime rates, this result is sensitive to the model's specification. our findings also indicate that the improved border economy over this period, specifically rapid job growth, played a significant role in lowering property crime rates.
Crime on the U.S.-Mexico Border: The Effect of Undocumented Immigration and Border Enforcement
Roberto Coronado,Pia M. Orrenius
Migraciones internacionales , 2007,
Abstract: En los a os noventa, la frontera sur de Estados Unidos lideró a la nación en la caída de los crímenes sobre la propiedad, mientras que los crímenes violentos disminuyeron dos veces más rápido en todo el país que en los condados fronterizos. En este documento se encontró que las aprehensiones de inmigrantes están correlacionadas con los crímenes violentos y que el incremento en la seguridad fronteriza no ha tenido un efecto disuasivo en este tipo de crímenes, mientras que el incremento en la seguridad fronteriza en un sector ha propiciado la generación de más crímenes violentos en los sectores aleda os. En contraste con los resultados respecto a los crímenes violentos, los crímenes sobre la propiedad no están correlacionados con las aprehensiones de emigrantes. Además, existe cierta evidencia de que la seguridad fronteriza ha disminuido las tasas de crímenes sobre la propiedad, resultado sensible a la especifi cación del modelo. Los resultados también indican que la mejora en la economía fronteriza durante el período, específi camente el rápido crecimiento en el empleo, desempe ó un papel signifi cativo en la disminución de los crímenes sobre la propiedad.
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