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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7608 matches for " Philippe Preux "
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A Unified View of TD Algorithms; Introducing Full-Gradient TD and Equi-Gradient Descent TD
Manuel Loth,Philippe Preux
Computer Science , 2006,
Abstract: This paper addresses the issue of policy evaluation in Markov Decision Processes, using linear function approximation. It provides a unified view of algorithms such as TD(lambda), LSTD(lambda), iLSTD, residual-gradient TD. It is asserted that they all consist in minimizing a gradient function and differ by the form of this function and their means of minimizing it. Two new schemes are introduced in that framework: Full-gradient TD which uses a generalization of the principle introduced in iLSTD, and EGD TD, which reduces the gradient by successive equi-gradient descents. These three algorithms form a new intermediate family with the interesting property of making much better use of the samples than TD while keeping a gradient descent scheme, which is useful for complexity issues and optimistic policy iteration.
A Generalized Kernel Approach to Structured Output Learning
Hachem Kadri,Mohammad Ghavamzadeh,Philippe Preux
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: We study the problem of structured output learning from a regression perspective. We first provide a general formulation of the kernel dependency estimation (KDE) problem using operator-valued kernels. We show that some of the existing formulations of this problem are special cases of our framework. We then propose a covariance-based operator-valued kernel that allows us to take into account the structure of the kernel feature space. This kernel operates on the output space and encodes the interactions between the outputs without any reference to the input space. To address this issue, we introduce a variant of our KDE method based on the conditional covariance operator that in addition to the correlation between the outputs takes into account the effects of the input variables. Finally, we evaluate the performance of our KDE approach using both covariance and conditional covariance kernels on two structured output problems, and compare it to the state-of-the-art kernel-based structured output regression methods.
A Generative Model of Software Dependency Graphs to Better Understand Software Evolution
Vincenzo Musco,Martin Monperrus,Philippe Preux
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Software systems are composed of many interacting elements. A natural way to abstract over software systems is to model them as graphs. In this paper we consider software dependency graphs of object-oriented software and we study one topological property: the degree distribution. Based on the analysis of ten software systems written in Java, we show that there exists completely different systems that have the same degree distribution. Then, we propose a generative model of software dependency graphs which synthesizes graphs whose degree distribution is close to the empirical ones observed in real software systems. This model gives us novel insights on the potential fundamental rules of software evolution.
A Learning Algorithm for Change Impact Prediction: Experimentation on 7 Java Applications
Vincenzo Musco,Antonin Carette,Martin Monperrus,Philippe Preux
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Change impact analysis consists in predicting the impact of a code change in a software application. In this paper, we take a learning perspective on change impact analysis and consider the problem formulated as follows. The artifacts that are considered are methods of object-oriented software; the change under study is a change in the code of the method, the impact is the test methods that fail because of the change that has been performed. We propose an algorithm, called LCIP that learns from past impacts to predict future impacts. To evaluate our system, we consider 7 Java software applications totaling 214,000+ lines of code. We simulate 17574 changes and their actual impact through code mutations, as done in mutation testing. We find that LCIP can predict the impact with a precision of 69%, a recall of 79%, corresponding to a F-Score of 55%.
Datum-Wise Classification: A Sequential Approach to Sparsity
Gabriel Dulac-Arnold,Ludovic Denoyer,Philippe Preux,Patrick Gallinari
Computer Science , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-23780-5_34
Abstract: We propose a novel classification technique whose aim is to select an appropriate representation for each datapoint, in contrast to the usual approach of selecting a representation encompassing the whole dataset. This datum-wise representation is found by using a sparsity inducing empirical risk, which is a relaxation of the standard L 0 regularized risk. The classification problem is modeled as a sequential decision process that sequentially chooses, for each datapoint, which features to use before classifying. Datum-Wise Classification extends naturally to multi-class tasks, and we describe a specific case where our inference has equivalent complexity to a traditional linear classifier, while still using a variable number of features. We compare our classifier to classical L 1 regularized linear models (L 1-SVM and LARS) on a set of common binary and multi-class datasets and show that for an equal average number of features used we can get improved performance using our method.
Multiple Operator-valued Kernel Learning
Hachem Kadri,Alain Rakotomamonjy,Francis Bach,Philippe Preux
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: Positive definite operator-valued kernels generalize the well-known notion of reproducing kernels, and are naturally adapted to multi-output learning situations. This paper addresses the problem of learning a finite linear combination of infinite-dimensional operator-valued kernels which are suitable for extending functional data analysis methods to nonlinear contexts. We study this problem in the case of kernel ridge regression for functional responses with an lr-norm constraint on the combination coefficients. The resulting optimization problem is more involved than those of multiple scalar-valued kernel learning since operator-valued kernels pose more technical and theoretical issues. We propose a multiple operator-valued kernel learning algorithm based on solving a system of linear operator equations by using a block coordinatedescent procedure. We experimentally validate our approach on a functional regression task in the context of finger movement prediction in brain-computer interfaces.
Fast Reinforcement Learning with Large Action Sets using Error-Correcting Output Codes for MDP Factorization
Gabriel Dulac-Arnold,Ludovic Denoyer,Philippe Preux,Patrick Gallinari
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: The use of Reinforcement Learning in real-world scenarios is strongly limited by issues of scale. Most RL learning algorithms are unable to deal with problems composed of hundreds or sometimes even dozens of possible actions, and therefore cannot be applied to many real-world problems. We consider the RL problem in the supervised classification framework where the optimal policy is obtained through a multiclass classifier, the set of classes being the set of actions of the problem. We introduce error-correcting output codes (ECOCs) in this setting and propose two new methods for reducing complexity when using rollouts-based approaches. The first method consists in using an ECOC-based classifier as the multiclass classifier, reducing the learning complexity from O(A2) to O(Alog(A)). We then propose a novel method that profits from the ECOC's coding dictionary to split the initial MDP into O(log(A)) seperate two-action MDPs. This second method reduces learning complexity even further, from O(A2) to O(log(A)), thus rendering problems with large action sets tractable. We finish by experimentally demonstrating the advantages of our approach on a set of benchmark problems, both in speed and performance.
Improving offline evaluation of contextual bandit algorithms via bootstrapping techniques
Olivier Nicol,Jérémie Mary,Philippe Preux
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: In many recommendation applications such as news recommendation, the items that can be rec- ommended come and go at a very fast pace. This is a challenge for recommender systems (RS) to face this setting. Online learning algorithms seem to be the most straight forward solution. The contextual bandit framework was introduced for that very purpose. In general the evaluation of a RS is a critical issue. Live evaluation is of- ten avoided due to the potential loss of revenue, hence the need for offline evaluation methods. Two options are available. Model based meth- ods are biased by nature and are thus difficult to trust when used alone. Data driven methods are therefore what we consider here. Evaluat- ing online learning algorithms with past data is not simple but some methods exist in the litera- ture. Nonetheless their accuracy is not satisfac- tory mainly due to their mechanism of data re- jection that only allow the exploitation of a small fraction of the data. We precisely address this issue in this paper. After highlighting the limita- tions of the previous methods, we present a new method, based on bootstrapping techniques. This new method comes with two important improve- ments: it is much more accurate and it provides a measure of quality of its estimation. The latter is a highly desirable property in order to minimize the risks entailed by putting online a RS for the first time. We provide both theoretical and ex- perimental proofs of its superiority compared to state-of-the-art methods, as well as an analysis of the convergence of the measure of quality.
Cold-start Problems in Recommendation Systems via Contextual-bandit Algorithms
Hai Thanh Nguyen,Jérémie Mary,Philippe Preux
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: In this paper, we study a cold-start problem in recommendation systems where we have completely new users entered the systems. There is not any interaction or feedback of the new users with the systems previoustly, thus no ratings are available. Trivial approaches are to select ramdom items or the most popular ones to recommend to the new users. However, these methods perform poorly in many case. In this research, we provide a new look of this cold-start problem in recommendation systems. In fact, we cast this cold-start problem as a contextual-bandit problem. No additional information on new users and new items is needed. We consider all the past ratings of previous users as contextual information to be integrated into the recommendation framework. To solve this type of the cold-start problems, we propose a new efficient method which is based on the LinUCB algorithm for contextual-bandit problems. The experiments were conducted on three different publicly-available data sets, namely Movielens, Netflix and Yahoo!Music. The new proposed methods were also compared with other state-of-the-art techniques. Experiments showed that our new method significantly improves upon all these methods.
Multiple functional regression with both discrete and continuous covariates
Hachem Kadri,Philippe Preux,Emmanuel Duflos,Stéphane Canu
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: In this paper we present a nonparametric method for extending functional regression methodology to the situation where more than one functional covariate is used to predict a functional response. Borrowing the idea from Kadri et al. (2010a), the method, which support mixed discrete and continuous explanatory variables, is based on estimating a function-valued function in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces by virtue of positive operator-valued kernels.
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