Abstract:
We present experimental measurements of a wall-bounded gravity current, motivated by characterizing natural gravity currents such as oceanic overflows. We use particle image velocimetry and planar laser-induced fluorescence to simultaneously measure the velocity and density fields as they evolve downstream of the initial injection from a turbulent channel flow onto a plane inclined at 10$^\circ$ with respect to horizontal. The turbulence level of the input flow is controlled by injecting velocity fluctuations upstream of the output nozzle. The initial Reynolds number based on Taylor microscale of the flow, R$_\lambda$, is varied between 40 and 120, and the effects of the initial turbulence level are assessed. The bulk Richardson number $Ri$ for the flow is about 0.3 whereas the gradient Richardson number $Ri_g$ varies between 0.04 and 0.25, indicating that shear dominates the stabilizing effect of stratification. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability results in vigorous vertical transport of mass and momentum. We present baseline characterization of standard turbulence quantities and calculate, in several different ways, the fluid entrainment coefficient $E$, a quantity of considerable interest in mixing parameterization for ocean circulation models. We also determine properties of mixing as represented by the flux Richardson number $Ri_f$ as a function of $Ri_g$ and diapycnal mixing parameter $K_\rho$ versus buoyancy Reynolds number $Re_b$. We find reasonable agreement with results from natural flows.

Abstract:
Internal gravity waves contribute to fluid mixing and energy transport, not only in oceans but also in the atmosphere and in astrophysical bodies. We provide here the first experimental measurement of the growth rate of a resonant triad instability (also called parametric subharmonic instability) transferring energy to smaller scales where it is dissipated. We make careful and quantitative comparisons with theoretical predictions for propagating vertical modes in laboratory experiments.

Abstract:
Shear-induced vertical mixing in a stratified flow is a key ingredient of thermohaline circulation. We experimentally determine the vertical flux of momentum and density of a forced gravity current using high-resolution velocity and density measurements. A constant eddy viscosity model provides a poor description of the physics of mixing, but a Prandtl mixing length model relating momentum and density fluxes to mean velocity and density gradients works well. For $ \approx 0.08$ and $Re_\lambda \approx 100$, the mixing lengths are fairly constant, about the same magnitude, comparable to the turbulent shear length.

Abstract:
We report the experimental observation of a robust horizontal mean flow induced by internal gravity waves. A wave beam is forced at the lateral boundary of a tank filled with a linearly stratified fluid initially at rest. After a transient regime, a strong jet appears in the wave beam, with horizontal recirculations outside the wave beam. We present a simple physical mechanism predicting the growth rate of the mean flow and its initial spatial structure. We find good agreement with experimental results.

Abstract:
Internal waves are believed to be of primary importance as they affect ocean mixing and energy transport. Several processes can lead to the breaking of internal waves and they usually involve non linear interactions between waves. In this work, we study experimentally the parametric subharmonic instability (PSI), which provides an efficient mechanism to transfer energy from large to smaller scales. It corresponds to the destabilization of a primary plane wave and the spontaneous emission of two secondary waves, of lower frequencies and different wave vectors. Using a time-frequency analysis, we observe the time evolution of the secondary waves, thus measuring the growth rate of the instability. In addition, a Hilbert transform method allows the measurement of the different wave vectors. We compare these measurements with theoretical predictions, and study the dependence of the instability with primary wave frequency and amplitude, revealing a possible effect of the confinement due to the finite size of the beam, on the selection of the unstable mode.

Abstract:
Studies of magnetic induction in von K\'arm\'an swirling flows have so far linked the time-averaged induced magnetic field to the structure of the mean flow. They have evidenced the Omega and Parker mechanism generated respectively by the flow differential rotation and helicity, which underly the Duddley and James \cite{DuddleyJames} dynamos. Using an array of Hall probes we study here the dynamical regime. In the experimental flow, turbulence is fully developed and large fluctuations are observed in the magnetic induction processes. We find that the large scale turbulent fluctuations have different characteristics when induction results from the differential rotation or from the dynamics of the stagnation point in the mid plane of the von K\'arm\'an flow. Symmetry considerations indicate that the dynamical flow spends half of its time away from the time-averaged structure. The consequences of these observations for dynamo experiments are discussed.

Abstract:
We study magnetohydrodynamics in a von K\'arm\'an flow driven by the rotation of impellers made of material with varying electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability. Gallium is the working fluid and magnetic Reynolds numbers of order unity are achieved. We find that specific induction effects arise when the impeller's electric and magnetic characteristics differ from that of the fluid. Implications in regards to the VKS dynamo are discussed.

Abstract:
The parametric subharmonic instability in stratified fluids depends on the frequency and the amplitude of the primary plane wave. In this paper, we present experimental and numerical results emphasizing that the finite width of the beam also plays an important role on this triadic instability. A new theoretical approach based on a simple energy balance is developed and compared to numerical and experimental results. Because of the finite width of the primary wave beam, the secondary pair of waves can leave the interaction zone which affects the transfer of energy. Experimental and numerical results are in good agreement with the prediction of this theory, which brings new insights on energy transfers in the ocean where internal waves with finite-width beams are dominant.

Abstract:
We analyze time series stemming from experiments and direct numerical simulations of hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. Simulations are done in periodic boxes, but with a volumetric forcing chosen to mimic the geometry of the flow in the experiments, the von K\'arm\'an swirling flow between two counter-rotating impellers. Parameters in the simulations are chosen to (within computational limitations) allow comparisons between the experiments and the numerical results. Conducting fluids are considered in all cases. Two different configurations are considered: a case with a weak externally imposed magnetic field, and a case with self-sustained magnetic fields. Evidence of long-term memory and $1/f$ noise is observed in experiments and simulations, in the case with weak magnetic field associated with the hydrodynamic behavior of the shear layer in the von K\'arm\'an flow, and in the dynamo case associated with slow magnetohydrodynamic behavior of the large scale magnetic field.

Abstract:
In order to obtain modulated-martensite in our epitaxial Ni-Mn-Ga films, we have tuned the composition by using a co-sputtering process. Here we present how the composition affects the variant distribution of the 14-modulated martensite at room temperature. The nature of such modulated-martensites is still strongly debated for magnetic shape memory alloys. It has been very recently demonstrated that the modulated-martensites in Ni-Mn-Ga are adaptive phases. The results presented here corroborate this theory for the first time, for three different compositions. Moreover, we demonstrate with the help of the adaptive modulations theory that b-variants of the 14-modulated martensite form close to the free-surface of the film to release the stress induced by branching of macro-twinned domains during the martensitic transformation on a rigid substrate. At room temperature, the content of such b-variants is found to strongly decrease when the macro-twinned domain sizes increase.