Abstract:
The total surgery obstruction of a finite n-dimensional Poincare complex X is an element s(X) of a certain abelian group S_n (X) with the property that for n >= 5 we have s(X) = 0 if and only if X is homotopy equivalent to a closed n-dimensional topological manifold. The definitions of S_n (X) and s(X) and the property are due to Ranicki in a combination of results of two books and several papers. In this paper we present these definitions and a detailed proof of the main result so that they are in one place and we also add some of the details not explicitly written down in the original sources.

Abstract:
This work addresses the design of an active multi-link micro-catheter actuated by Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) micro actuators. This may be a response to one medical major demand on such devices, which will be useful for surgical explorations and interventions. In this paper, we focus on a training and design simulator dedicated to such catheters. This simulator is based on an original simulation platform (OpenMASK). The catheter is a robotic system, which is evaluated by a dynamical simulation addressing a navigation task in its environment. The design of the prototype and its mechanical model are presented. We develop an interaction model for contact. This model uses a real medical database for which distance cartography is proposed. Then we focus on an autonomous control model based on a multi-agent approach and including the behaviour description of the SMA actuators. Results of mechanical simulations including interaction with the ducts are presented. Furthermore, the interest of such a simulator is presented by applying virtual prototyping techniques for the design optimization. This optimization process is achieved by using genetic algorithms at different stages with respect to the specified task.

Abstract:
Effective physician patient communication is essential to best practice in medicine. Good communication with patients is critical in making the right diagnosis, improving compliance and overall outcomes for our patients (as well as improving physician satisfaction.) Communication skills can be learned and need to be taught, practiced and given the same emphasis as other core competencies in medicine. The focus of this article is on the Calgary-Cambridge Model for physician patient communication in the context of a medical interview. The beginning of a patient encounter is discussed, with emphasis on appropriate introductions and attentive active listening.

Abstract:
Information based models for radiation emitted by a Black Body which passes through a scattering medium are analyzed. In the limit, when there is no scattering this model reverts to the Black Body Radiation Law. The advantage of this mathematical model is that it includes the effect of the scattering of the radiation between source and detector. In the case when the exact form of the scattering mechanism is not known a model using a single scattering parameter is derived. A simple version of this model is derived which is useful for analyzing large data.

Abstract:
Recent measurements have shown that gravitational waves and thus the gravitational interaction propagate with the speed of light. The propagation delay of the gravitational interaction in orbiting systems couples the orbital and center of mass motions. This causes the orbits to spiral out and the center of mass to accelerate. It is one of a number of small effects modifying the Kepler orbits. The calculations show that the analytical describable expansion of the semimajor axis started at a time that is less than the age of the systems. This could be caused by a collision of a system component in the past. The effect of this propagation delay on the motion of the Earth Moon and the Brown Dwarf 569Bab binary star system is analyzed. These systems were chosen because a considerable amount of measured astronomical data is available. The calculated results are in excellent agreement with the measured data. In galaxies, too, the energy transfer from the orbit of the star cloud to the center of mass motion causes the galaxies to ac-celerate. If galaxies are considered to be molecules of the universe, then the acceleration of the galaxies will cause the molecular gas to heat and expand. Alternatively, the loss in orbital internal energy of the galaxies should be included in the mass and energy in the calculation of the expanding Universe.

Abstract:
The least action principle is used to derive a general mathematical model of the motion of point objects subject to non-instantaneous interactions. A Lagrangian Equation of Motion, a Hamiltonian Formalism, a Poisson Bracket and the Relation of Reaction Mechanics and the General Theory of Relativity are derived here. In the limit of no delay, the equation of motion reverts to Newtonian Mechanics. In the limit of infinitesimal delay, the equation of motion takes the form of the Geodesic Equation of Motion of the General Theory of Relativity. For two objects, the single instantaneous interaction splits into two interactions when the propagation delay is considered. Object ONE experiences the following interactions at the present: it senses an interaction radiated by object TWO in the past. It also radiates an interaction that other objects might or might not sense in the future. It experiences a Recoil interaction equal in magnitude and opposed to the direction of the interaction it radiated. The Recoil interaction is independent of the radiated interaction reaching its target or not reaching its target. The Recoil interaction is causal.

Abstract:
The motion of objects where the interaction propagated with a finite velocity was analyzed in my previous paper “The Contribution of the Gravitational Propagation Delay to Orbital and Center of Mass Motions”. It is shown here that this analysis is valid for the case when the wavelength of the gravitational wave excited by the motion of the masses is much larger than the system of masses. It is also proven here that the conclusion reached in my previous paper conserves energy. Since this interaction is conservative, the energy is equal to the Hamiltonian. Therefore, the Hamiltonian is calculated and it is shown that the time derivative of the Hamiltonian is equal to zero. Thus, the Hamiltonian and therefore, the energy, are constants.

Abstract:
The motion of two point objects at the end of a
spring is analyzed. The objects interact by an elastic wave propagating through
the spring. A new comprehensive method, Reaction Mechanics, for the analysis of
this motion is used.？ This analysis is
valid when the propagation of the interaction through the spring wire takes
less time than the period of the oscillating frequency. The propagation delay
couples the oscillating and center of mass motions. If the masses are equal,
the center of mass velocity is a constant, and the objects oscillate with a
frequency which is a modification of the oscillation frequency with no delay.
If the masses are not equal, the center of mass also oscillates. In the case of
zero delay, the motion of the objects reverts to the motion of a Simple
Harmonic Oscillator.

Abstract:
The effect of the propagation delay of gravitational
interactions results in a singularity of the normalized acceleration of the
radius of a sphere representing the Universe. Stephen Hawking in his Inflation
Model also discusses a delay type interaction. This term can be used to model
the inflationary rapid expansion of the early Universe. Since the Universe is
thought to occupy all of space-time, one cannot define a boundary or radius of
the Universe. Therefore, the properties of a sphere in the Universe are analyzed. It is assumed that the Universe will behave similarly to this
sphere. This analysis is performed by including the effect of the propagation
delay of gravitational interactions in Einstein’s equation.

Abstract:
Background: Today in the United States, approximately 30% of deliveries
are performed by cesarean section. Wound infections and other post-operative complications
represent a frequent morbidity which may be improved with an understanding of
local risk factors. Objective: This project used a retrospective analysis of
cesarean section incision complications and infection events along with patient
chart information to identify potential risk factors associated with incisional
wound complications at our institution. Methods: ICD9 codes identified 618
cesarean sections from July 2012 through June 2013. Of these, 59 were excluded.
Twelve different data elements were examined and complications were divided
into two categories: presence of infection and presence of seroma/hematoma.
Statistics included univariate analysis and multiple logistic regressions to
identify an odds ratio for associations using P < 0.05 as significant.
Results: 73 (13.1%) of 559 patients developed a post-partum incision
complication. Five logistic variables were included in amultiple logistic
regression model for all incision complications.
Three of the five variables had a significant odds ratio: emergent cesarean
section, stapled skin closure, and preeclampsia. Five logistic variables were
included in another multiple logistic regression model for all wound infections. Two of the five variables
had a significant odds ratio: BMI > 33.4 and preeclampsia. Conclusions:
Cesarean section rates account for approximately 30% of deliveries, with
significant maternal morbidity associated with incisional wound complications.
This study found multiple significant risk factors for both wound complications
and infections. Preeclampsia was an independent risk factor for both wound
complications and infections.