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Communication, Gender and Formality: A Study of Request Forms Used by Undergraduate Students in Ghana  [PDF]
Philip Arthur Gborsong
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2016.41003
Abstract: The question of sex difference in communication has been a growth industry as scholars have attempted to claim and to counter claim that there are or are not important differences in the ways in which males and females communicate. In this work, an attempt is made to find out if male and female students make requests differently. The study considered the sentence types used by males and females, the levels of formality in request making, the variety of English used, and the politeness of the requests made. Using the Speech Act Theory of Austin and Searle, and the Convergence theory in Gender as a theoretical base, an argument is made that females and males make requests differently. A major finding was that the interrogative was the most commonly used sentence type in making requests especially by females; the males used imperatives more often than the females. In instances where declaratives were used, it was observed that males used simple declarative sentences whereas the females used complex declarative sentences.
A COMMUNICATIVE STUDY OF ELECTRONIC MEDIA ADVERTISEMENTS IN GHANA
Philip Arthur, Mercy Fumi & Martin
The Dawn Journal , 2012,
Abstract: A common phenomenon of global interest is advertisement. The Ghanaian media is replete with all kinds of advertisements ranging from education, through social issues to business. It is in lis-tening to some of these advertisements that my appetite was whipped to look at their linguistic make up. This paper examines closely the linguistic structures and strategies that are employed by the advertiser to persuade potential users of their goods and services. The study reveals that advertisers employ various styles including dialogues, straight forward presentation, repetition, jingles, catch-phrases, superlative adjectives and pattern repetition in persuading their audience to use their products and services.
A Needs Analysis of Undergraduate Students of Communicative Skills: The Case of Tertiary Institutions in Ghana  [PDF]
Philip Arthur Gborsong, Joseph B. A. Afful, Wincharles Coker, Osei Yaw Akoto, Rita Twumasi, Araba Baiden
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2015.55037
Abstract: For over three decades now, research on undergraduate student pedagogy has shifted focus from an error analysis tradition to an emphasis on learner needs. As part of this shift, we examined the needs of students who offered Communicative Skills in an English-medium university in Ghana, and whether their needs were discipline-specific. Data were collected from two hundred and forty students and twenty lecturers, using a two-pronged sampling method. Major results showed a great need for grammar and writing skills among students, though they held that note taking and note making skills, outlining and skimming be expunged from the programme. The study also indicated that although teachers of Communicative Skills preferred a variationist approach, the reverse was the case among their students. Surprisingly, while students desired to be exposed to modern skills such as CV and Proposal writing, their instructors, on the other hand, were of the view that paragraph and essay development were not so useful. The study, thus, resonates with proclivities for further interventionist methods, specialist instructor (re)training and future research in undergraduate student writing.
The Real-rootedness of Eulerian Polynomials via the Hermite--Biehler Theorem
Arthur L. B. Yang,Philip B. Zhang
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: Based on the Hermite--Biehler theorem, we simultaneously prove the real-rootedness of Eulerian polynomials of type $D$ and the real-rootedness of affine Eulerian polynomials of type $B$, which were first obtained by Savage and Visontai by using the theory of $\mathbf{s}$-Eulerian polynomials. We also confirm Hyatt's conjectures on the interlacing property of half Eulerian polynomials. Borcea and Br\"and\'en's work on the characterization of linear operators preserving Hurwitz stability is critical to this approach.
Mutual Interlacing and Eulerian-like Polynomials for Weyl Groups
Arthur L. B. Yang,Philip B. Zhang
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: We use the method of mutual interlacing to prove two conjectures on the real-rootedness of Eulerian-like polynomials: Brenti's conjecture on $q$-Eulerian polynomials for Weyl groups of type $D$, and Dilks, Petersen, and Stembridge's conjecture on affine Eulerian polynomials for irreducible finite Weyl groups. For the former, we obtain a refinement of Brenti's $q$-Eulerian polynomials of type $D$, and then show that these refined Eulerian polynomials satisfy certain recurrence relation. By using the Routh--Hurwitz theory and the recurrence relation, we prove that these polynomials form a mutually interlacing sequence for any positive $q$, and hence prove Brenti's conjecture. For $q=1$, our result reduces to the real-rootedness of the Eulerian polynomials of type $D$, which were originally conjectured by Brenti and recently proved by Savage and Visontai. For the latter, we introduce a family of polynomials based on Savage and Visontai's refinement of Eulerian polynomials of type $D$. We show that these new polynomials satisfy the same recurrence relation as Savage and Visontai's refined Eulerian polynomials. As a result, we get the real-rootedness of the affine Eulerian polynomials of type $D$. Combining the previous results for other types, we completely prove Dilks, Petersen, and Stembridge's conjecture, which states that, for every irreducible finite Weyl group, the affine descent polynomial has only real zeros.
Optimal Recovery of Holomorphic Functions from Inaccurate Information about Radial Integration  [PDF]
Arthur DeGraw
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2012.24035
Abstract: This paper addresses the optimal recovery of functions from Hilbert spaces of functions on the unit disc. The estimation, or recovery, is performed from inaccurate information given by integration along radial paths. For a holomorphic function expressed as a series, three distinct situations are considered: where the information error in L2 norm is bound by δ>0 or for a finite number of terms the error in l2N norm is bound by δ>0 or lastly the error in the jth coefficient is bound by δj>0. The results are applied to the Hardy-Sobolev and Bergman-Sobolev spaces.
Phosphoproteomic Profiling of In Vivo Signaling in Liver by the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1)
Gokhan Demirkan, Kebing Yu, Joan M. Boylan, Arthur R. Salomon, Philip A. Gruppuso
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021729
Abstract: Background Our understanding of signal transduction networks in the physiological context of an organism remains limited, partly due to the technical challenge of identifying serine/threonine phosphorylated peptides from complex tissue samples. In the present study, we focused on signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1), which is at the center of a nutrient- and growth factor-responsive cell signaling network. Though studied extensively, the mechanisms involved in many mTORC1 biological functions remain poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed a phosphoproteomic strategy to purify, enrich and identify phosphopeptides from rat liver homogenates. Using the anticancer drug rapamycin, the only known target of which is mTORC1, we characterized signaling in liver from rats in which the complex was maximally activated by refeeding following 48 hr of starvation. Using protein and peptide fractionation methods, TiO2 affinity purification of phosphopeptides and mass spectrometry, we reproducibly identified and quantified over four thousand phosphopeptides. Along with 5 known rapamycin-sensitive phosphorylation events, we identified 62 new rapamycin-responsive candidate phosphorylation sites. Among these were PRAS40, gephyrin, and AMP kinase 2. We observed similar proportions of increased and reduced phosphorylation in response to rapamycin. Gene ontology analysis revealed over-representation of mTOR pathway components among rapamycin-sensitive phosphopeptide candidates. Conclusions/Significance In addition to identifying potential new mTORC1-mediated phosphorylation events, and providing information relevant to the biology of this signaling network, our experimental and analytical approaches indicate the feasibility of large-scale phosphoproteomic profiling of tissue samples to study physiological signaling events in vivo.
Predictors of anti-convulsant treatment failure in children presenting with malaria and prolonged seizures in Kampala, Uganda
Arthur Mpimbaza, Sarah G Staedke, Grace Ndeezi, Justus Byarugaba, Philip J Rosenthal
Malaria Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-145
Abstract: In a previous study, the efficacy and safety of buccal midazolam was compared to that of rectal diazepam in the treatment of prolonged seizures in children aged three months to 12 years in Kampala, Uganda. For this study, predictive models were used to determine risk factors for anti-convulsant treatment failure and seizure recurrence among the 221 of these children with malaria.Using predictive models, focal seizures (OR 3.21; 95% CI 1.42–7.25, p = 0.005), cerebral malaria (OR 2.43; 95% CI 1.20–4.91, p = 0.01) and a blood sugar ≥200 mg/dl at presentation (OR 2.84; 95% CI 1.11–7.20, p = 0.02) were independent predictors of treatment failure (seizure persistence beyond 10 minutes or recurrence within one hour of treatment). Predictors of seizure recurrence included: 1) cerebral malaria (HR 3.32; 95% CI 1.94–5.66, p < 0.001), 2) presenting with multiple seizures (HR 2.45; 95% CI 1.42–4.23, p = 0.001), 3) focal seizures (HR 2.86; 95% CI 1.49–5.49, p = 0.002), 4) recent use of diazepam (HR 2.43; 95% CI 1.19–4.95, p = 0.01) and 5) initial control of the seizure with diazepam (HR 1.96; 95% CI 1.16–3.33, p = 0.01).Specific predictors, including cerebral malaria, can identify patients with malaria at risk of anti-convulsant treatment failure and seizure recurrence.In endemic areas, falciparum malaria remains the leading cause of seizures in children presenting to emergency departments [1-4]. In addition, seizures are the most common neurological complication of severe malaria, often resulting in hospital admission, and seizures have been shown to increase morbidity and mortality in these patients [1,4,5]. The management of seizures in malaria is complicated, as they may be refractory to readily available anti-convulsants and there is concern for drug induced respiratory depression [6].Uncontrolled seizures in malaria can damage the brain by aggravating hypoxia, hypoglycaemia and intracranial hypertension, and in children with cerebral malaria they have been shown to increas
An Assessment of Fixed Interval Timing in Free-Flying Honey Bees (Apis mellifera ligustica): An Analysis of Individual Performance
David Philip Arthur Craig, Christopher A. Varnon, Michel B. C. Sokolowski, Harrington Wells, Charles I. Abramson
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101262
Abstract: Interval timing is a key element of foraging theory, models of predator avoidance, and competitive interactions. Although interval timing is well documented in vertebrate species, it is virtually unstudied in invertebrates. In the present experiment, we used free-flying honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica) as a model for timing behaviors. Subjects were trained to enter a hole in an automated artificial flower to receive a nectar reinforcer (i.e. reward). Responses were continuously reinforced prior to exposure to either a fixed interval (FI) 15-sec, FI 30-sec, FI 60-sec, or FI 120-sec reinforcement schedule. We measured response rate and post-reinforcement pause within each fixed interval trial between reinforcers. Honey bees responded at higher frequencies earlier in the fixed interval suggesting subject responding did not come under traditional forms of temporal control. Response rates were lower during FI conditions compared to performance on continuous reinforcement schedules, and responding was more resistant to extinction when previously reinforced on FI schedules. However, no “scalloped” or “break-and-run” patterns of group or individual responses reinforced on FI schedules were observed; no traditional evidence of temporal control was found. Finally, longer FI schedules eventually caused all subjects to cease returning to the operant chamber indicating subjects did not tolerate the longer FI schedules.
Increasing the Action Gap: New Operators for Reinforcement Learning
Marc G. Bellemare,Georg Ostrovski,Arthur Guez,Philip S. Thomas,Rémi Munos
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: This paper introduces new optimality-preserving operators on Q-functions. We first describe an operator for tabular representations, the consistent Bellman operator, which incorporates a notion of local policy consistency. We show that this local consistency leads to an increase in the action gap at each state; increasing this gap, we argue, mitigates the undesirable effects of approximation and estimation errors on the induced greedy policies. This operator can also be applied to discretized continuous space and time problems, and we provide empirical results evidencing superior performance in this context. Extending the idea of a locally consistent operator, we then derive sufficient conditions for an operator to preserve optimality, leading to a family of operators which includes our consistent Bellman operator. As corollaries we provide a proof of optimality for Baird's advantage learning algorithm and derive other gap-increasing operators with interesting properties. We conclude with an empirical study on 60 Atari 2600 games illustrating the strong potential of these new operators.
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