Abstract:
Several studies have mentioned network modularity—that a network can easily be decomposed into subgraphs that are densely connected within and weakly connected between each other—as a factor affecting metabolic robustness. In this paper we measure the relation between network modularity and several aspects of robustness directly in a model system of metabolism.

Abstract:
One of network epidemiology's central assumptions is that the contact structure over which infectious diseases propagate can be represented as a static network. However, contacts are highly dynamic, changing at many time scales. In this paper, we investigate conceptually simple methods to construct static graphs for network epidemiology from temporal contact data. We evaluate these methods on empirical and synthetic model data. For almost all our cases, the network representation that captures most relevant information is a so-called exponential-threshold network. In these, each contact contributes with a weight decreasing exponentially with time, and there is an edge between a pair of vertices if the weight between them exceeds a threshold. Networks of aggregated contacts over an optimally chosen time window perform almost as good as the exponential-threshold networks. On the other hand, networks of accumulated contacts over the entire sampling time, and networks of concurrent partnerships, perform worse. We discuss these observations in the context of the temporal and topological structure of the data sets.

Abstract:
In the Susceptible–Infectious–Recovered (SIR) model of disease spreading, the time to extinction of the epidemics happens at an intermediate value of the per-contact transmission probability. Too contagious infections burn out fast in the population. Infections that are not contagious enough die out before they spread to a large fraction of people. We characterize how the maximal extinction time in SIR simulations on networks depend on the network structure. For example we find that the average distances in isolated components, weighted by the component size, is a good predictor of the maximal time to extinction. Furthermore, the transmission probability giving the longest outbreaks is larger than, but otherwise seemingly independent of, the epidemic threshold.

Abstract:
Many recent large-scale studies of interaction networks have focused on networks of accumulated contacts. In this paper we explore social networks of ongoing relationships with an emphasis on dynamical aspects. We find a distribution of response times (times between consecutive contacts of different direction between two actors) that has a power-law shape over a large range. We also argue that the distribution of relationship duration (the time between the first and last contacts between actors) is exponentially decaying. Methods to reanalyze the data to compensate for the finite sampling time are proposed. We find that the degree distribution for networks of ongoing contacts fits better to a power-law than the degree distribution of the network of accumulated contacts do. We see that the clustering and assortative mixing coefficients are of the same order for networks of ongoing and accumulated contacts, and that the structural fluctuations of the former are rather large.

Abstract:
We investigate efficient methods for packets to navigate in complex networks. The packets are assumed to have memory, but no previous knowledge of the graph. We assume the graph to be indexed, i.e. every vertex is associated with a number (accessible to the packets) between one and the size of the graph. We test different schemes to assign indices and utilize them in packet navigation. Four different network models with very different topological characteristics are used for testing the schemes. We find that one scheme outperform the others, and has an efficiency close to the theoretical optimum. We discuss the use of indexed-graph navigation in peer-to-peer networking and other distributed information systems.

Abstract:
Many real-world networks have broad degree distributions. For some systems, this means that the functional significance of the vertices is also broadly distributed, in other cases the vertices are equally significant, but in different ways. One example of the latter case is metabolic networks, where the high-degree vertices -- the currency metabolites -- supply the molecular groups to the low-degree metabolites, and the latter are responsible for the higher-order biological function, of vital importance to the organism. In this paper, we propose a generalization of currency metabolites to currency vertices. We investigate the network structural characteristics of such systems, both in model networks and in some empirical systems. In addition to metabolic networks, we find that a network of music collaborations and a network of e-mail exchange could be described by a division of the vertices into currency vertices and others.

Abstract:
We use real-world contact sequences, time-ordered lists of contacts from one person to another, to study how fast information or disease can spread across network of contacts. Specifically we measure the reachability time -- the average shortest time for a series of contacts to spread information between a reachable pair of vertices (a pair where a chain of contacts exists leading from one person to the other) -- and the reachability ratio -- the fraction of reachable vertex pairs. These measures are studied using conditional uniform graph tests. We conclude, among other things, that the network reachability depends much on a core where the path lengths are short and communication frequent, that clustering of the contacts of an edge in time tend to decrease the reachability, and that the order of the contacts really do make sense for dynamical spreading processes.

Abstract:
We investigate growing networks based on Barabasi and Albert's algorithm for generating scale-free networks, but with edges sensitive to overload breakdown. the load is defined through edge betweenness centrality. We focus on the situation where the average number of connections per vertex is, as the number of vertices, linearly increasing in time. After an initial stage of growth, the network undergoes avalanching breakdowns to a fragmented state from which it never recovers. This breakdown is much less violent if the growth is by random rather than preferential attachment (as defines the Barabasi and Albert model). We briefly discuss the case where the average number of connections per vertex is constant. In this case no breakdown avalanches occur. Implications to the growth of real-world communication networks are discussed.

Abstract:
The central points of communication network flow has often been identified using graph theoretical centrality measures. In real networks, the state of traffic density arises from an interplay between the dynamics of the flow and the underlying network structure. In this work we investigate the relationship between centrality measures and the density of traffic for some simple particle hopping models on networks with emerging scale-free degree distributions. We also study how the speed of the dynamics are affected by the underlying network structure. Among other conclusions, we find that, even at low traffic densities, the dynamical measure of traffic density (the occupation ratio) has a non-trivial dependence on the static centrality (quantified by "betweenness centrality"), which non-central vertices getting a comparatively large portion of the traffic.

Abstract:
Recently there have been a tremendous interest in models of networks with a power-law distribution of degree -- so called "scale-free networks." It has been observed that such networks, normally, have extremely short path-lengths, scaling logarithmically or slower with system size. As en exotic and unintuitive example we propose a simple stochastic model capable of generating scale-free networks with linearly scaling distances. Furthermore, by tuning a parameter the model undergoes a phase transition to a regime with extremely short average distances, apparently slower than log log N (which we call a hypersmall-world regime). We characterize the degree-degree correlation and clustering properties of this class of networks.