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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1546 matches for " Petra Vertes "
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A Unifying Framework for Measuring Weighted Rich Clubs
Jeff Alstott,Pietro Panzarasa,Mikail Rubinov,Ed Bullmore,Petra Vertes
Computer Science , 2014, DOI: 10.1038/srep07258
Abstract: Network analysis can help uncover meaningful regularities in the organization of complex systems. Among these, rich clubs are a functionally important property of a variety of social, technological and biological networks. Rich clubs emerge when nodes that are somehow prominent or 'rich' (e.g., highly connected) interact preferentially with one another. The identification of rich clubs is non-trivial, especially in weighted networks, and to this end multiple distinct metrics have been proposed. Here we describe a unifying framework for detecting rich clubs which intuitively generalizes various metrics into a single integrated method. This generalization rests upon the explicit incorporation of randomized control networks into the measurement process. We apply this framework to real-life examples, and show that, depending on the selection of randomized controls, different kinds of rich-club structures can be detected, such as topological and weighted rich clubs.
GluA1 Phosphorylation Alters Evoked Firing Pattern In Vivo
Balázs Barkóczi,Gábor Juhász,Robert G. Averkin,Imre V?r?s,Petra Vertes,Botond Penke,Viktor Szegedi
Neural Plasticity , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/286215
Abstract: AMPA and NMDA receptors convey fast synaptic transmission in the CNS. Their relative contribution to synaptic output and phosphorylation state regulate synaptic plasticity. The AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 is central in synaptic plasticity. Phosphorylation of GluA1 regulates channel properties and trafficking. The firing rate averaged over several hundred ms is used to monitor cellular input. However, plasticity requires the timing of spiking within a few ms; therefore, it is important to understand how phosphorylation governs these events. Here, we investigate whether the GluA1 phosphorylation (p-GluA1) alters the spiking patterns of CA1 cells in vivo. The antidepressant Tianeptine was used for inducing p-GluA1, which resulted in enhanced AMPA-evoked spiking. By comparing the spiking patterns of AMPA-evoked activity with matched firing rates, we show that the spike-trains after Tianeptine application show characteristic features, distinguishing from spike-trains triggered by strong AMPA stimulation. The interspike-interval distributions are different between the two groups, suggesting that neuronal output may differ when new inputs are activated compared to increasing the gain of previously activated receptors. Furthermore, we also show that NMDA evokes spiking with different patterns to AMPA spike-trains. These results support the role of the modulation of NMDAR/AMPAR ratio and p-GluA1 in plasticity and temporal coding. 1. Introduction Alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) type ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate fast neuronal excitatory transmission and play key roles in various forms of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. AMPARs comprise four subunits—GluA1, GluA2, GluA3, and GluA4 (or GluR1-4)—that combine to form tetramers. GluA1 is critical in several forms of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, correlates of learning, and memory. Mutant mice lacking the GluA1 subunit display impairments of the initial component of long-term potentiation (LTP) at CA1 in the hippocampus [1–4]. Moreover, these animals exhibit a robust spatial deficit in working memory [5–7]. Emerging evidence shows that as a rapid and short-term mechanism, dynamic protein phosphorylation directly modulates the electrophysiological properties of cells, as well as the trafficking/clustering and synthesis of AMPA receptors. The phosphorylation state of GluA1 has been demonstrated to be actively involved in regulating synaptic plasticity and, consequently, learning and memory processes. Phosphorylation of serine 831 and
The Religiosity of Japanese Migrants in the Czech Republic  [PDF]
Petra Tlcimukova
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.21002
Abstract: This study examines the role of religion in lives of the Japanese migrants in the Czech Republic. Scholars have been dealing with issues concerning both the religiosity and migration for a long time. The contemporary sociology of religion offers various theoretical and methodological tools to approach both social phenomena; nevertheless, regarding the transformative character of both of them, it remains difficult to characterize the nexus of the various modes of religiosity and migration development. Based on critics of contemporary research on migrants religiosity, I propose a qualitative approach that builds upon the postulates of theories of transnationalism and draws on Jean-Claude Kaufmann’s method of understanding interviews. The method of gaining and analysing the interviews conducted with the Japanese living long-term in the Czech Republic allowed me to observe the process of religious identity construction, or in other words to uncover the deeper levels of claims concerning their relationship with religion. The results of my empirical investigation and analysis show that 1) not all migrants create transnational identities, 2) the method of understanding interview allowed some respondents to construct their own individualized and fragmented religious identities, 3) not all religious identities of migrants can be interpreted as transnational.
Effect of Cultural Differences in Reaction of Students to Ambiguous Art Stimulus  [PDF]
Petra Potmesilova, Petra Sobkova, Marcela Fojtikova Roubalova
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.211008

Reconstruction is one of the basic methods used in art therapy and the artphiletic approach to work with a client. The method of Reconstruction can be used in practice not only for development of imagination, but also as a means of obtaining information about the ways clients react to ambiguous stimuli. The present article compares reactions of students of Palacky University in Olomouc and students of Sichuan University at Chengdu to an ambiguous stimulus using the reconstruction method.

Physical Activity Improves Mental Rotation Performance  [PDF]
Petra Jansen, Stefanie Pietsch
Creative Education (CE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2010.11009
Abstract: Even there seemed to be general knowledge that physical activity enhanced spatial cognitive performance almost none experimental studies on this influence exist. For that the influence of physical activity on mental rotation per-formance is investigated in this study. Mental rotation is the ability to imagine how an object would look if rotated away from the original orientation. Two groups of 44 students of educational science each solved a psychometrical mental rotation task with three-dimensional block figures. After this, the participants of the physical activity group took part in a sport lesson, whereas the participants of the cognitive activity group attended an oral lesson of kinematics. Both lessons took 45 minutes. Thereafter, all participants solved the mental rotation task again. The results showed that the participants of the physical activity group improved their mental rotation performance whereas the participants of the cognitive activity showed no improvement.
Collective Actions in the European Union—American or European Model?  [PDF]
Verica Trstenjak, Petra Weingerl
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2014.53015
Abstract: Collective redress is a procedural mechanism that allows for reasons of procedural economy and efficiency of enforcement many similar legal claims to be combined into a single court action. Consumers and investors encounter problems with the enforcement of their rights through the individual redress, especially in times of the financial crisis. If a substantial number of harmed individuals decide not to pursue their, usually low, claims, the unduly gained profits of the opposite party can be extremely high. Thus, collective redress mechanisms can represent better option for consumers and investors, as their claims tend to be much less burdensome in case of the collective action. However, such mechanisms can trigger the abuse of the procedures, with the most commonly quoted threat being the example of American regulation of class actions. Negative characteristics of American model are the reasons that EU decided to shape its own concept of collective redress mechanisms. The binding act in this field in the EU is directive on injunctions for the protection of consumers’ interests; however, there is no binding act yet regarding compensatory actions. In June 2013, the European Commission published the Recommendation on common principles for injunctive and compensatory collective redress mechanisms in the Member States concerning violations of rights granted under Union Law. It is not binding on Member States, however, it can serve as a guideline to improve their existing legislations, especially the regulation of collective compensatory actions. In so doing, consumers and investors might be given the possibility to use more efficient mechanism to compensate the harm suffered.
The Relation between Performance and Flows of Mutual Funds: Case of the Croatian Fund Market  [PDF]
Darko Brborovic, Petra Posedel
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.519292
Abstract: With pre 2008 euphoria and present depression, inflows to open investment funds and outflows from it shaped general market conditions on the Croatian fund market. This article studies the relationship between performance of open ended investment funds and inflows (outflows) to them on Croatian funds data in an environment without long fund data history, with small number of funds and relatively illiquid underlying equity market. The results suggest that the driving forces behind funds’ flows encompass the combined influence of present month fund’s performance and persistency of past performances. At the end of our analysis we test the significance of the introduced explanatory variables on the data sets that include data for each particular fund. The significance of the introduced explanatory variables varies among different funds, although a general level of the explanatory power is maintained on average.
Discriminating Depression, Physical and Social Anhedonia by Neurotransmitter Related Challenge Tests  [PDF]
Petra Netter, Juergen Hennig
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.73030

The aim of this study was to investigate, if anhedonia, a salient component of depression, shows similar response patterns to neurotransmitter challenge tests as depression, and if the two questionnaire based components Physical (PA) and Social (SA) Anhedonia can be discriminated by differences in drug related size and time of cortisol responses elicited by the specific serotonin (5- HT) and noradrenaline (NA) reuptake inhibitors citalopram and reboxetine and prolactin responses to the dopamine (DA) agonist bromocriptine orally applied to 36 male volunteers in a double blind balanced cross-over design. Analyses of variance applied to placebo corrected hormone responses revealed that low and late DA responses were characteristics of global Depression and of Physical Anhedonia, and that low DA responses were associated with high NA responses in PA, and with low 5-HT responses in SA. These patterns were explained by differences in transmitter production and receptor sensitivities and proved to be suitable to discriminate PA from SA and from global depression by analysing neurochemical response patterns rather than single means of variables.

Evidence-Based Physiotherapy Culture—The Influence of Health Care Leaders in Sweden  [PDF]
Petra Dannapfel, Per Nilsen
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2016.53006
Abstract: Research in physiotherapy has increased rapidly over the last decade, yet studies have shown that many practice decisions continue to be based on knowledge obtained during initial physiotherapy education and/or personal experience, rather than findings from research. Both barriers and facilitators to achieving a more evidence-based practice (EBP) in physiotherapy have been identified. Leadership is a facilitator that has been recognized to have an important influence on the implementation of EBP in various settings. Our aim was to explore how physiotherapy leaders in Sweden influence the culture for implementation of evidence-based physiotherapy practice. Nine interviews with managers of physiotherapy clinics were conducted in various settings in Sweden. Data were analysed using qualitative analysis and a framework developed by Schein (Schein, 2010). Organizational Culture and Leadership (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass) was applied. The framework identifies a number of mechanisms by which leaders can influence the culture of an organization and/or groups within an organization. The mechanisms of paying attention to, measuring and controlling on a regular basis as well as deliberate role modelling, teaching and coaching did have some relevance. However, EBP issues seemed to depend on committed individuals, often younger physiotherapists, who were interested in research. Overall, there was limited relevance for most of the embedding mechanisms. The findings suggest that physiotherapy leaders in Sweden contribute to a modest degree to establishing a culture conducive to implementation of an evidence-based physiotherapy practice.
NR2C in the Thalamic Reticular Nucleus; Effects of the NR2C Knockout
Yuchun Zhang, Andres Buonanno, Robert P. Vertes, Walter B. Hoover, John E. Lisman
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041908
Abstract: NMDAR antagonists can evoke delta frequency bursting in the nucleus reticularis of the thalamus (nRT). The mechanism of this oscillation was determined; antagonist blocks an NR2C-like conductance that has low Mg block at resting potential and thus can contribute a resting inward current in response to ambient glutamate. Block of this current hyperpolarizes the cell, deinactivating T-type Ca channels and thus triggering delta frequency bursting. The basis for assuming a NR2C-like conductance was that (1) transcripts for NR2C are abundant in the thalamus and (2) the current-voltage curve of the synaptically evoked NMDAR current has the low rectification characteristic of NR2C. In the current study, we have sought to determine whether the channels that generate the NMDAR current are NR2C-like or are actually comprised of receptors containing NR2C. We studied the current-voltage curve of synaptically evoked NMDAR current in the nRT of NR2C knockout mice. In wild-type mice, the current was weakly voltage dependent, as previously observed in rats. This weak rectification was absent in NR2C KO mice. In contrast, NR2C KO had no effect on the strongly rectifying NMDAR current in pyramidal cells of the prefrontal cortex. These results demonstrate that the low rectification normally observed in the nRT is due to NR2C.
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