Abstract:
At present the model of the genetic code (the code of protein biosynthesis) proposed almost 50 years ago by M. Nirenberg and F. Crick has undergone severe erosion. Tactically, it is true that triplicity and the synonymous degeneracy are unmistakable. But the Nirenberg-Crick postulate about unambiguous coding of amino acids, i.e., the strategy raises reasonable doubt. The reasons to doubt showed up very early: it turned out that the triplet UUU codes both phenylalanine and leucine, which was inconsistent with the declaration of the unambiguity of the DNA-RNA encoding of amino acids in proteins. On the other hand, the ambiguity automatically stems from the Wobble Hypothesis by F. Crick relating to the wobbling of the third nucleotide in codons, (random, undetermined behavior), which means the 3’-5’ codon-anticodon pair is not involved in the encoding, and represents a “steric crutch”. In fact, amino acids are coded not by triplet, but by doublet of nucleotides in a triplet, according to “Two-out-of-Three” rule by Ulf Lagerkvist. From this perspective, the codon families split into two classes: 32 codon-synonym triplets and 32 codon triplets with undetermined coding functions, that is inherent to one of the 32 codons UUU. These “undetermined” codons have called homonyms. They are ambiguous as they potentially and simultaneously encode two different amino acids, or amino acid and the stop function. However, the ambiguity is overcome in real protein biosynthesis. This is due to the sign orientations of ribosomes within mRNA contexts. This is the way the semantics of the codon-homonyms occur, as an exact analogy of the consciousness work in the human languages, abounding with homonyms. This turn in the understanding of the protein code, as actual text formation, leads to a strong idea of the genome as a quasi-intelligent biocomputer structure of living cells. Ignoring this leads to erroneous and dangerous works of genetic engineering, the most important results are Synthia bacteria with synthetic genome and GM foods. Protein biosynthesis is a key, but not the only basic information function of chromosomes. There are other, no less important, holographic and quantum non-locality functions related to morphogenesis. In this plane, the work of the genome, as a quantum biocomputer, occurs on the wave level. Here the main function is regulatory quantum broadcasting of genetic-metabolic information on the intercellular, tissue and organism levels using a coherent photon DNA radiation and its nonlinear vibrational states (sound). DNA information presents itself in

Abstract:
We will find a constant of motion with energy units for a relativistic particle moving in a quadratic dissipative medium subjected to a force which depends on the position. Then, we will find the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian of the equation of motion in a time interval such that the velocity does not change its sign. Finally, we will see that the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian have some problems.

Abstract:
This paper has two parts, in this occasion we will present the first one. Until today, there are two formulations of classical mechanics. The first one is based on the Newton’s laws and the second one is based on the principle of least action. In this paper, we will find a third formulation that is totally different and has some advantages in comparison with the other two formulations.

Abstract:
In the first part of this paper, we found a more convenient algorithm for solving the equation of motion of a system of n bodies. This algorithm consists in solving first the trajectory equation and then the temporal equation. In this occasion, we will introduce a new way to solve the temporal equation by curving the horizontal axis (the time axis). In this way, we will be able to see the period of some periodic systems as the length of a certain curve and this will allow us to approximate the period in a different way. We will also be able to solve some problems like the pendulum one without using elliptic integrals. Finally, we will solve Kepler’s problem using all the formalism.

Abstract:
In this work, a numerical model is presented that describes the transfer of heat and mass inside a cylindrical regenerator of a solar adsorption refrigerator that uses the methanol/activated-carbon refrigerant pair. This model is based on the equations of mass conservation, energy conservation, Darcy’s law and the balance model between sorbate and sorbent given by the Dubinin-Astak- hov’s equation. On the other hand, the linear driving force (LDF) model is used to describe the rate of desorption. In the developed model, the spatial variation of methanol vapor pressure within the activated carbon bed is taken into account and, as one of the boundary conditions, the temperature is used at the external surface of the absorber measured experimentally along the day. Using the developed model, the temperature, pressure and concentration of methanol were calculated; both inside the grains of carbon and in the space between the grains, as a function of time. The algorithm was validated comparing the numerical results with the experimental data, obtaining a satisfactory concordance.

Abstract:
The following is
the theoretical and experimental analysis of the role of the third nucleotide
in codons during protein biosynthesis. Its role is largely enhanced compared to
the existing understanding. Third nucleotide functionally and symmetrically
divides codon families in 32 synonyms and 32 SYnonymous-HOMonymous
hybrid codons—SYHOMs. Wherein, the syhoms
function is to initiate nonlocal ribosome analysis of mRNA, representing
real context in DNA language. Such analysis is a natural necessity for
selection of one amino acid from two different amino acids, and between amino
acids or a stop position, in situations when a ribosome interacts with syhom
codons which have dual coding. This was theoretically substantiated earlier？[1][2][3]. Experimental work[4] confirmed this theory: It was
demonstrated that two different amino acids, selenocysteine and cysteine, are
coded by a single UGA-syhom-codon for Euplotes
crassus infusoria. This result does not call into question the dogma of
unambiguity of amino acids and stop position coding by the cells genome, but it
requiresamendments to the existing model of
genetic coding. These amendments are based on an enhanced understanding of the
special linguistic/semantic

Abstract:
We study the steady-state orbital distributions of giant planets migrating through the combination of the Kozai-Lidov (KL) mechanism due to a stellar companion and friction due to tides raised on the planet by the host star. We run a large set of Monte Carlo simulations that describe the secular evolution of a star-planet-star triple system including the effects from general relativistic precession, stellar and planetary spin evolution, and tides. Our simulations show that KL migration produces Hot Jupiters (HJs) with semi-major axes that are generally smaller than in the observations and they can only explain the observations if the following are both true: (i) tidal dissipation at high eccentricities is at least $\sim 150$ times more efficient than the upper limit inferred from the Jupiter-Io interaction; (ii) highly eccentric planets get tidally disrupted at distances $\gtrsim 0.015$ AU. Based on the occurrence rate and semi-major axis distribution of HJs, we find that KL migration in stellar binaries can produce at most $\sim 20\%$ of the observed HJs. Almost no intermediate-period (semi-major axis $\sim0.1-2$ AU) planets are formed by this mechanism - migrating planets spend most of their lifetimes undergoing KL oscillations at large orbital separations ($>2$ AU) or as Hot Jupiters.

Abstract:
We study the dynamical stability and fates of hierarchical (in semi-major axis) two-planet systems with arbitrary eccentricities and mutual inclinations. We run a large number of long-term numerical integrations and use the Support Vector Machine algorithm to search for an empirical boundary that best separates stable systems from systems experiencing either ejections or collisions with the star. We propose the following new criterion for dynamical stability: $a_{\rm out}(1-e_{\rm out})/[a_{\rm in}(1+e_{\rm in})]>2.4\left[\max(\mu_{\rm in},\mu_{\rm out})\right]^{1/3}(a_{\rm out}/a_{\rm in})^{1/2}+1.15$, which should be applicable to planet-star mass ratios $\mu_{\rm in},\mu_{\rm out}=10^{-4}-10^{-2}$, integration times up to $10^8$ orbits of the inner planet, and mutual inclinations $\lesssim40^\circ$. Systems that do not satisfy this condition by a margin of $\gtrsim0.5$ are expected to be unstable, mostly leading to planet ejections if $\mu_{\rm in}>\mu_{\rm out}$, while slightly favoring collisions with the star for $\mu_{\rm in}<\mu_{\rm out}$. We use our numerical integrations to test other stability criteria that have been proposed in the literature and show that our stability criterion performs significantly better for the range of system parameters that we have explored.

Abstract:
We study the possibility that hot Jupiters are formed through the secular gravitational interactions between two planets in eccentric orbits with relatively low mutual inclinations ($\lesssim20^\circ$) and friction due to tides raised on the planet by the host star. We term this migration mechanism Coplanar High-eccentricity Migration because, like disk migration, it allows for migration to occur on the same plane in which the planets formed. Coplanar High-eccentricity Migration can operate from the following typical initial configurations: (i) inner planet in a circular orbit and the outer planet with an eccentricity $\gtrsim0.67$ for $m_{\rm in}/m_{\rm out}(a_{\rm in}/a_{\rm out})^{1/2}\lesssim0.3$; (ii) two eccentric ($\gtrsim0.5$) orbits for $m_{\rm in}/m_{\rm out}(a_{\rm in}/a_{\rm out})^{1/2}\lesssim0.16$. A population synthesis study of hierarchical systems of two giant planets using the observed eccentricity distribution of giant planets shows that Coplanar High-eccentricity Migration produces hot Jupiters with low stellar obliquities ($\lesssim30^\circ$), with a semi-major axis distribution that matches the observations, and at a rate that can account for their observed occurrence. A different mechanism is needed to create large obliquity hot Jupiters, either a different migration channel or a mechanism that tilts the star or the proto-planetary disk. Coplanar High-eccentricity Migration predicts that hot Jupiters should have distant ($a\gtrsim5$ AU) and massive (most likely $\sim1-3$ more massive than the hot Jupiter) companions with relatively low mutual inclinations ($\lesssim 20^\circ$) and moderately high eccentricities ($e\sim0.2-0.5$)

Abstract:
Using the ray method,an investigation has been
carried out on the structure of caustics in the wa- veguideassuming the canonical distribution of the sound
velocity with depth. Monochromatic point source of sound was on the axis of the
waveguide. There is considered water rays only. It is
shown that the spatial part of the phase of a running sound wave does not
contain the wave propagation direction and is
always a positive quantity. When the trajectories are calculated,it is assumed that inversion of
rays occurs at an angle of total internal reflection where the reflection
coefficient is equal to unity. This eliminates the horizontal part of the
trajectories. At other points, the reflection coefficient
is assumed to be zero, and the passing coefficient is equal to unity. With this
change in the calculation of ray’s trajectories, the basic structure of the caustics remained the same. It is shown that
the boundary line of the caustic is a number of foci in which rays intersect
with similar angles out of the source and have neighbour times of propagation.
Structure of the sound field along the boundary line of the caustic is
periodic. Its period coincides with the wavelength of the field radiated by the source.