Abstract:
The collective excitations in ensembles of dissipative, laser driven ultracold atoms exhibit crystal-like patterns, a many-body effect of the Rydberg blockade mechanism. These crystalline structure are revealed in experiment from a post-selection of configurations with fixed numbers of excitations. Here, we show that these sub-ensemble can be well represented by ensembles of effective particles that interact via logarithmic pair potentials. This allows one to study the emergent patterns with a small number of effective particles to determine the phases of Rydberg crystals and to systematically study contributions from $N$-body terms.

Abstract:
We study the dynamics of photonic quantum circuits consisting of nodes coupled by quantum channels. We are interested in the regime where time delay in communication between the nodes is significant. This includes the problem of quantum feedback, where a quantum signal is fed back on a system with a time delay. We develop a matrix product state approach to solve the Quantum Stochastic Schr\"odinger Equation with time delays, which accounts in an efficient way for the entanglement of nodes with the stream of emitted photons in the waveguide, and thus the non-Markovian character of the dynamics. We illustrate this approach with two paradigmatic quantum optical examples: two coherently driven distant atoms coupled to a photonic waveguide with a time delay, and a driven atom coupled to its own output field with a time delay as an instance of a quantum feedback problem.

Abstract:
The dynamics of a bilayer system of ultracold dipolar molecules exhibits classical and quantum glassy behavior, characterized by long tails in the relaxation time and dynamical heterogeneity. In the proposed setup, quantum fluctuations are of the order of thermal fluctuations and the degree of frustration can tuned by the interlayer distance. We present experimental accessible order parameters based on marker molecules, distinguished by properly chosen internal levels, and find quantum features of dynamical heterogeneity.

Abstract:
Lecture Notes for the Les Houches Summer School LXIII on Quantum Fluctuations in July 1995 to appear in Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. 1997, edited by E. Giacobino and S. Reynaud.

Abstract:
We discuss continuous observation of the momentum of a single atom by employing the high velocity sensitivity of the index of refraction in a driven $\Lambda$-system based on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). In the ideal limit of unit collection efficiency this provides a quantum limited measurement with minimal backaction on the atomic motion. A feedback loop, which drives the atom with a force proportional to measured signal, provides a cooling mechanism for the atomic motion. We derive the master equation which describes the feedback cooling and show that in the Lamb-Dicke limit the steady state energies are close to the ground state, limited only by the photon collection efficiency. Outside of the Lamb-Dicke regime the predicted temperatures are well below the Doppler limit.

Abstract:
We describe how to design a large class of always on spin-1 interactions between polar molecules trapped in an optical lattice. The spin degrees of freedom correspond to the hyperfine levels of a ro-vibrational ground state molecule. Interactions are induced using a microwave field to mix ground states in one hyperfine manifold with the spin entangled dipole-dipole coupled excited states. Using multiple fields anistropic models in one, two, or three dimensions, can be built with tunable spatial range. An illustrative example in one dimension is the generalized Haldane model, which at a specific parameter has a gapped valence bond solid ground state. The interaction strengths are large compared to decoherence rates and should allow for probing the rich phase structure of strongly correlated systems, including dimerized and gapped phases.

Abstract:
We propose and analyze a scheme for sympathetic cooling of the translational motion of polar molecules in an optical lattice, interacting one by one with laser-cooled ions in a radio-frequency trap. The energy gap between the excitation spectra of the particles in their respective trapping potentials is bridged by means of a parametric resonance, provided by the additional modulation of the RF field. We analyze two scenarios: simultaneous laser cooling and energy exchange between the ion and the molecule, and a scheme when these two processes take place separately. We calculate the lowest final energy of the molecule and the cooling rate depending on the amplitude of the parametric modulation. For small parametric modulation, the dynamics can be solved analytically within the rotating wave approximation.

Abstract:
Recent experimental progress with Alkaline-Earth atoms has opened the door to quantum computing schemes in which qubits are encoded in long-lived nuclear spin states, and the metastable electronic states of these species are used for manipulation and readout of the qubits. Here we discuss a variant of these schemes, in which gate operations are performed in nuclear-spin-dependent optical lattices, formed by near-resonant coupling to the metastable excited state. This provides an alternative to a previous scheme [A. J. Daley, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. Lett 101, 170504 (2008)], which involved independent lattices for different electronic states. As in the previous case, we show how existing ideas for quantum computing with Alkali atoms such as entanglement via controlled collisions can be freed from important technical restrictions. We also provide additional details on the use of collisional losses from metastable states to perform gate operations via a lossy blockade mechanism.

Abstract:
We describe an experimental protocol for introducing spin-dependent lattice structure in a cold atomic fermi gas using lasers. It can be used to realize Hubbard models whose hopping parameters depend on spin and whose interaction strength can be controlled with an external magnetic field. We suggest that exotic superfluidities will arise in this framework. An especially interesting possibility is a class of states that support coexisting superfluid and normal components, even at zero temperature. The quantity of normal component varies with external parameters. We discuss some aspects of the quantum phase transition that arises at the point where it vanishes.

Abstract:
Engineered dissipation can be employed to prepare interesting quantum many body states in a non-equilibrium fashion. The basic idea is to obtain the state of interest as the unique steady state of a quantum master equation, irrespective of the initial state. Due to a fundamental competition of topology and locality, the dissipative preparation of gapped topological phases with a non-vanishing Chern number has so far remained elusive. Here, we study the open quantum system dynamics of fermions on a two-dimensional lattice in the framework of a Lindblad master equation. In particular, we discover a mechanism to dissipatively prepare a topological steady state with non-zero Chern number by means of short-range system bath interaction. Quite remarkably, this gives rise to a stable topological phase in a non-equilibrium phase diagram. We demonstrate how our theoretical construction can be implemented in a microscopic model that is experimentally feasible with cold atoms in optical lattices.