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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 419556 matches for " Peter R. C. Howe "
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Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids May Be Beneficial for Reducing Obesity—A Review
Jonathan D. Buckley,Peter R. C. Howe
Nutrients , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/nu2121212
Abstract: Current recommendations for counteracting obesity advocate the consumption of a healthy diet and participation in regular physical activity, but many individuals have difficulty complying with these recommendations. Studies in rodents and humans have indicated that long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) potentially elicit a number of effects which might be useful for reducing obesity, including suppression of appetite, improvements in circulation which might facilitate nutrient delivery to skeletal muscle and changes in gene expression which shift metabolism toward increased accretion of lean tissue, enhanced fat oxidation and energy expenditure and reduced fat deposition. While LC n-3 PUFA supplementation has been shown to reduce obesity in rodents, evidence in humans is limited. Epidemiological associations between LC n-3 PUFA intakes and obesity are inconclusive but small cross-sectional studies have demonstrated inverse relationships between markers of LC n-3 PUFA status and markers of obesity. Human intervention trials indicate potential benefits of LC n-3 PUFA supplementation, especially when combined with energy-restricted diets or exercise, but more well-controlled and long-term trials are needed to confirm these effects and identify mechanisms of action.
Oiling the Brain: A Review of Randomized Controlled Trials of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Psychopathology across the Lifespan
Natalie Sinn,Catherine Milte,Peter R. C. Howe
Nutrients , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/nu2020128
Abstract: Around one in four people suffer from mental illness at some stage in their lifetime. There is increasing awareness of the importance of nutrition, particularly omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), for optimal brain development and function. Hence in recent decades, researchers have explored effects of n-3 PUFA on mental health problems over the lifespan, from developmental disorders in childhood, to depression, aggression, and schizophrenia in adulthood, and cognitive decline, dementia and Alzheimer’s disease in late adulthood. This review provides an updated overview of the published and the registered clinical trials that investigate effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on mental health and behavior, highlighting methodological differences and issues.
Relationships between Obesity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Cardiovascular Function
Kade Davison,Stefan Bircher,Alison Hill,Alison M. Coates,Peter R. C. Howe,Jonathan D. Buckley
Journal of Obesity , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/191253
Abstract: Background. Obesity and low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) have been shown to independently increase the risk of CVD mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between CRF, body fatness and markers of arterial function. Method and Results. Obese (9 male, 18 female; BMI 35.3 ± 0.9 kg·m-2) and lean (8 male, 18 female; BMI 22.5 ± 0.3 kg·m-2) volunteers were assessed for body composition (DXA), cardiorespiratory fitness (predicted ?VO2max), blood pressure (BP), endothelial vasodilatator function (FMD), and arterial compliance (AC) (via radial artery tonometry). The obese group had more whole body fat and abdominal fat (43.5 ± 1.2% versus 27.2 ± 1.6%; <.001 and 48.6 ± 0.9% versus 28.9 ± 1.8%; <.001, resp.), and lower FMD (3.2 ± 0.4% versus 5.7 ± 0.7%; <.01) than the lean subjects, but there was no difference in AC. AC in large arteries was positively associated with CRF (R=0.5; <.01) but not with fatness. Conclusion. These results indicate distinct influences of obesity and CRF on blood vessel health. FMD was impaired with obesity, which may contribute to arterial and metabolic dysfunction. Low CRF was associated with reduced elasticity in large arteries, which could result in augmentation of aortic afterload.
Effects of Eating Fresh Lean Pork on Cardiometabolic Health Parameters
Karen J. Murphy,Rebecca L. Thomson,Alison M. Coates,Jonathan D. Buckley,Peter R. C. Howe
Nutrients , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/nu4070711
Abstract: High protein meat-based diets are commonly promoted for weight loss, supposedly by increasing satiety and energy expenditure. Pork is a good source of protein however little information on the metabolic effects of pork consumption exists. This pilot study aimed to examine whether regular consumption of fresh lean pork could improve body composition and cardiovascular risk factors in a 6 month parallel intervention trial. 164 overweight adults (mean BMI 32) were randomly assigned to incorporate up to 1 kg pork/week by substituting for other foods or maintain their habitual diet (control). Plasma levels of lipids, glucose and insulin, BMI, waist/hip circumference, blood pressure, heart rate and arterial compliance were measured at baseline and 3 and 6 months. Body composition was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. A total of 144 volunteers completed and volunteers in the pork group increased their intake 10 fold by substituting pork for mainly beef and chicken. After 3 months, there were significant ( p ≤ 0.01) reductions in weight, BMI, waist circumference, % body fat, fat mass and abdominal fat in the pork group relative to controls, which persisted for 6 months. There was no change in lean mass, indicating that the reduction in weight was due to loss of fat mass. There were no significant effects on other metabolic parameters. Regular consumption of lean fresh pork may improve body composition.
Dairy consumption and cardiometabolic health: outcomes of a 12-month crossover trial
Georgina E Crichton, Peter R C Howe, Jonathan D Buckley, Alison M Coates, Karen J Murphy
Nutrition & Metabolism , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1743-7075-9-19
Abstract: An intervention trial was undertaken in 61 overweight or obese adults who were randomly assigned to a high dairy diet (HD, 4 serves of reduced fat dairy/day) or a low dairy control diet (LD, ≤1 serve/day) for 6 months then crossed over to the alternate diet for a further 6 months. A range of anthropometric and cardiometabolic parameters including body composition, metabolic rate, blood lipids, blood pressure and arterial compliance were assessed at the end of each diet phase.Total energy intake was 1120 kJ/day higher during the HD phase, resulting in slight weight gain during this period. However, there were no significant differences between HD and LD in absolute measures of waist circumference, body weight, fat mass or any other cardiometabolic parameter.Recommended intakes of reduced fat dairy products may be incorporated into the diet of overweight adults without adversely affecting markers of cardiometabolic health.The trial was registered with the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12608000538347) on 24th October, 2008.Obesity has become a worldwide health epidemic [1]. With obesity related health costs exceeding billions of dollars in both Australia [2] and the United States [3], easily implemented interventions to slow or prevent obesity via weight loss has become a health priority.Dairy products provide over half of the dietary intake of calcium in most parts of the Western world [4]. In addition to calcium, dairy is an important dietary source of protein, vitamin D, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. Clinical trials show that increasing dietary calcium and dairy intake can enhance weight and fat loss and preserve lean muscle mass during energy restriction, with dairy products exerting greater effects on attenuating adiposity than calcium supplementation alone [5-7]. However, other studies have failed to find any effect of a high intake of dairy food on body weight in an energy-restricted diet [8-10]. Without energy restriction, ther
Relationships between Obesity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Cardiovascular Function
Kade Davison,Stefan Bircher,Alison Hill,Alison M. Coates,Peter R. C. Howe,Jonathan D. Buckley
Journal of Obesity , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/191253
Abstract: Background. Obesity and low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) have been shown to independently increase the risk of CVD mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between CRF, body fatness and markers of arterial function. Method and Results. Obese (9 male, 18 female; BMI 35.3 ± 0.9 kg·m-2) and lean (8 male, 18 female; BMI 22.5 ± 0.3?kg·m-2) volunteers were assessed for body composition (DXA), cardiorespiratory fitness (predicted max), blood pressure (BP), endothelial vasodilatator function (FMD), and arterial compliance (AC) (via radial artery tonometry). The obese group had more whole body fat and abdominal fat (43.5 ± 1.2% versus 27.2 ± 1.6%; and 48.6 ± 0.9% versus 28.9 ± 1.8%; resp.), and lower FMD (3.2 ± 0.4% versus 5.7 ± 0.7%; ) than the lean subjects, but there was no difference in AC. AC in large arteries was positively associated with CRF ( ; ) but not with fatness. Conclusion. These results indicate distinct influences of obesity and CRF on blood vessel health. FMD was impaired with obesity, which may contribute to arterial and metabolic dysfunction. Low CRF was associated with reduced elasticity in large arteries, which could result in augmentation of aortic afterload. 1. Introduction Obesity and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are independent predictors of cardiovascular (CV) and all-cause mortality [1–5]. Furthermore, it appears that CRF may be protective against the cardiovascular risk associated with obesity [6]. The mechanisms which mediate the relationships between obesity, CRF, and CV mortality risk are not entirely understood [5, 7]. However, given that the protective effects of CRF and the detrimental effects of obesity appear to influence CV mortality independently of other CV risk factors, it is of interest to investigate their influences on established markers of subclinical CV function. This will allow for a better understanding of the potential mechanisms by which obesity and CRF may influence the risk of CV mortality. Increased adiposity, in particular visceral adiposity, is associated with reduced vascular endothelial function [8, 9]. Endothelial function refers to the general functional capacity of vascular endothelial cells, primarily mediated by their capacity to synthesize and release nitric oxide (NO) [10]. Reduced synthesis and/or availability of NO is associated with increased vascular permeability, inflammation, adhesion and thrombosis, and a reduced vasodilatory capacity, and abnormalities of endothelial function have been associated with a number of CV risk factors [11]. The noninvasive
Chronic Effects of a Wild Green Oat Extract Supplementation on Cognitive Performance in Older Adults: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial
Rachel H. X. Wong,Peter R. C. Howe,Janet Bryan,Alison M. Coates,Jonathan D. Buckley,Narelle M. Berry
Nutrients , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/nu4050331
Abstract: Background and aim: Preliminary evaluation of a wild green oat extract (WGOE) (Neuravena ? ELFA ?955, Frutarom, Switzerland) revealed an acute cognitive benefit of supplementation. This study investigated whether regular daily WGOE supplementation would result in sustained cognitive improvements. Method: A 12-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial of WGOE supplementation (1500 mg/day) versus placebo was undertaken in 37 healthy adults aged 67 ± 0.8 years (mean ± SEM). Cognitive assessments included the Stroop colour-word test, letter cancellation, the rule-shift task, a computerised multi-tasking test battery and the trail-making task. All assessments were conducted in Week 12 and repeated in Week 24 whilst subjects were fasted and at least 18 h after taking the last dose of supplement. Result: Chronic WGOE supplementation did not affect any measures of cognition. Conclusion: It appears that the cognitive benefit of acute WGOE supplementation does not persist with chronic treatment in older adults with normal cognition. It remains to be seen whether sustained effects of WGOE supplementation may be more evident in those with mild cognitive impairment.
Dairy Foods and Dairy Protein Consumption Is Inversely Related to Markers of Adiposity in Obese Men and Women
Karen J. Murphy,Georgina E. Crichton,Kathryn A. Dyer,Alison M. Coates,Tahna L. Pettman,Catherine Milte,Alicia A. Thorp,Narelle M. Berry,Jonathan D. Buckley,Manny Noakes,Peter R. C. Howe
Nutrients , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/nu5114665
Abstract: A number of intervention studies have reported that the prevalence of obesity may be in part inversely related to dairy food consumption while others report no association. We sought to examine relationships between energy, protein and calcium consumption from dairy foods (milk, yoghurt, cheese, dairy spreads, ice-cream) and adiposity including body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip circumference (HC), and direct measures of body composition using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (% body fat and abdominal fat) in an opportunistic sample of 720 overweight/obese Australian men and women. Mean (SD) age, weight and BMI of the population were 51 ± 10 year, 94 ± 18 kg and 32.4 ± 5.7 kg/m 2, respectively. Reduced fat milk was the most commonly consumed dairy product (235 ± 200 g/day), followed by whole milk (63 ± 128 g/day) and yoghurt (53 ± 66 g/day). Overall dairy food consumption (g/day) was inversely associated with BMI, % body fat and WC (all p < 0.05). Dairy protein and dairy calcium (g/day) were both inversely associated with all adiposity measures (all p < 0.05). Yoghurt consumption (g/day) was inversely associated with % body fat, abdominal fat, WC and HC (all p < 0.05), while reduced fat milk consumption was inversely associated with BMI, WC, HC and % body fat (all p < 0.05). Within a sample of obese adults, consumption of dairy products, dairy protein, and calcium was associated with more favourable body composition.
Why Nutrients?
Peter Howe
Nutrients , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/nu1010001
Abstract: The field of nutrition continues to attract increasing interest from health professionals, including dietitians, sports nutritionists and medical practitioners, from biomedical, agricultural, nutritional and food scientists and from health conscious consumers alike. [...]
The Australian Paradox
Peter Howe
Nutrients , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/nu4040258
Abstract: Nutrients recently became the target of an unprecedented internet campaign by an individual who disagrees with the content and conclusions of a paper published in the journal last year, viz. “The Australian Paradox: A Substantial Decline in Sugars Intake over the Same Timeframe that Overweight and Obesity Have Increased” by Alan W. Barclay and Jennie Brand-Miller, Nutrients 2011, 3, 491–504. Regrettably, his criticism has extended to the journal and its peer review processes for permitting publication of the article. [...]
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