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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 252923 matches for " Peter R "
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Risk of overweight and obesity among migrants in Switzerland  [PDF]
Thomas Volken, Peter Rüesch
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.48082
Abstract: We assessed the risk of overweight and obesity for six large migrant groups in Switzerland. We used population-based survey data form the Swiss Migrant Health Survey 2010 and the Swiss Health Survey 2007. The sample comprised permanent residents aged 17 - 64 years (n = 14,637). Multivariate logistic regressions have been used to estimate odds ratios (OR). Compared with Swiss nationals, the odds of being obese were 1.97 times higher for Turkish nationals (CI-95 1.26, 3.07), 1.73 times higher for Kosovan nationals (CI-95 1.09, 2.74) and 3.42 times higher for Serbs (CI-95 2.28, 5.12). The chance of being obese was not statistically different between Swiss nationals and those from Portugal, Italy, and Germany. The chance of being overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 25) was higher for migrants than for Swiss nationals. The respective odds were 1.54 times higher for nationals from Portugal (CI-95 1.13, 2.11), 2.05 times higher for those from Turkey (CI-95 1.50, 2.78), 2.67 times higher for those from Serbia (CI-95 1.93, 3.68), 2.68 times higher for those from Kosovo (CI-95 2.01, 3.56), and 2.16 times higher for nationals from Italy (CI-95 1.54, 3.02). We suggest that preventive initiatives should take into account the specific needs of migrants as well as the needs of persons with low education from all nationalities.
Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in isolated pancreatic islets: Multiphysics FEM model calculations compared to results of perifusion experiments with human islets  [PDF]
Peter Buchwald, Sirlene R. Cechin
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.65A006
Abstract: Because insulin released by the β-cells of pancreatic islets is the main regulator of glucose levels, the quantitative modeling of their glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is of obvious interest not only to improve our understanding of the processes involved, but also to allow better assessment of β -cell function in diabetic patients or islet transplant recipients as well as the development of improved artificial or bioartificial pancreas devices. We have recently developed a general, local concentrations-based multiphysics computational model of insulin secretion in avascular pancreatic islets that can be used to calculate insulin secretion for arbitrary geometries of cultured, perifused, transplanted, or encapsulated islets in response to various glucose profiles. Here, experimental results obtained from two different dynamic glucose-stimulated insulin release (GSIR) perifusion studies performed by us following standard procedures are compared to those calculated by the model. Such perifusion studies allow the quantitative assessment of insulin release kinetics under fully controllable experimental conditions of varying external concentrations of glucose, oxygen, or other compounds of interest, and can provide an informative assessment of islet quality and function. The time-profile of the insulin secretion calculated by the model was in good agree- ment with the experimental results obtained with isolated human islets. Detailed spatial distributions of glucose, oxygen, and insulin were calculated and are presented to provide a quantitative visualization of various important aspects of the insulin secretion dynamics in perifused islets.
Health Status Inequality among Immigrants in Switzerland  [PDF]
Thomas Volken, Peter Rüesch
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.46054

Objective: To assess self-rated health and impairments for six large immigrant groups (Germany, Italy, Kosovo, Portugal, Serbia, Turkey) in Switzerland. Methods: We used population-based survey data from the Swiss Migrant Health Survey 2010 and the Swiss Health Survey 2007. The sample comprised permanent residents aged 17 - 64 years (n = 14,637). Multivariate logistic regressions have been used to estimate odds ratios (OR). Results: Ill health and activities of daily living (ADL) impairments were associated with older age in all groups. However, nationals from Turkey and nationals from Kosovo were substantially more likely than Swiss to report ill health (OR = 1.05; CI = 1.02 - 1.09; P = 0.001 and OR = 1.05; CI = 1.01 - 1.10; P = 0.016) and ADL impairments (OR = 1.06; CI = 1.03 - 1.09; P = 0.000 and OR = 1.04; CI = 1.01 - 1.07; P = 0.004) with increasing age. Furthermore, Portuguese women were more likely (OR = 2.65; CI = 1.40 - 5.03; P = 0.003) to report ill health than Swiss women. Conclusions: Immigrant-specific preventive and health promotion initiatives should target vulnerable immigrants from Turkey, Portugal, and Kosovo. Furthermore, groups with few economic and psychosocial resources in the general population of Switzerland should be more involved in interventions to reduce health risk.

On the Kenney-Lau Approach to Internal Stability Evaluation of Soils  [PDF]
Hans R?nnqvist, Peter Viklander
Geomaterials (GM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/gm.2014.44013
Abstract: A commonly used approach to evaluating the potential for internal instability in soils is that of Kenney and Lau. This method involves a shape analysis of the grain size curve over a length of the soil’s finer part. A soil that is internally unstable has a particle size distribution with a finer fraction less than the coarser fraction; therefore, the coarser fraction makes up the primary fabric of the material. Thus, the fine-grained particles are loose (non-structural) in between fixed (structural) coarser grains, and these loose fine particles are permitted to migrate through the constrictions of the fabric of the coarser fraction. This paper discusses the evolution of the Kenney-Lau method and its boundary relations, and furthermore, a discussion on adaptations of the method, which touches on field experience and engineering practice, is given.
Applying Empirical Methods to Assess the Internal Stability of Embankment Dam Cores of Glacial Till  [PDF]
Hans R?nnqvist, Peter Viklander
Geomaterials (GM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/gm.2015.51001
Abstract: This paper presents a database of glacial till gradations that are compiled from laboratory internal stability tests from the literature and from core soils of existing dams, some of which have experienced internal erosion. The potential internal instability of these gradations is assessed using empirical methods. Two approaches of evaluation are used: the Kenney-Lau method, which analyzes the shape of the gradation curve; and the Burenkova method, which uses factors of uniformity of the slope of the gradation. Although they include some uncertainties in terms of soils with fines, these methods, which are primarily developed from laboratory studies of sand and gravels, are used in engineering practice to evaluate widely graded soils that include fines, such as glacial tills. This study evaluates the glacial till gradations of the database using these approaches and discusses their applicability and relative predictive success. This study indicates that both the Kenney-Lau method and the Burenkova method have merit, but a closer analysis indicates that the Kenney-Lau approach has relatively better predictive ability based on the glacial till gradations analyzed in this study.
A Qualitative Evaluation of a Mentoring Program for Health and Physical Education Teachers  [PDF]
Peter R. Whipp, Richard Pengelley
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2016.62012
Abstract: This study examined the impact of a mentoring relationship on Quality of Work Life (QWL) and teaching self-efficacy for early career and experienced Health and Physical Education (HPE) teachers, and the application of mentoring skills by experienced teachers. Experienced mentor teachers (n = 22) were paired with early career mentee teachers (n = 22) at the beginning of a year-long intervention. Semi-structured interviews provided unanimous support for the utility of the Physical Educators Mentoring Active Teachers through Experience and Support (PE M.A.T.E.S) program and the overall impact of mentoring on professional skills, teaching self-efficacy and outcomes. Quantitative journal entries reinforced enhanced applications of mentoring skills for mentors.
Christian Albert Theodor Billroth: Master of surgery
Kazi R,Peter R
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 2004,
The Functions of the Amyloid Precursor Protein Gene and Its Derivative Peptides: I Molecular Biology and Metabolic Processing  [PDF]
Peter K Panegyres, Emily R Atkins
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2011.22018
Abstract: The amyloid precursor protein gene (APP) and its derivative peptides have important functions in the central nervous system. APP and Aβ fulfil criteria as neuractive peptides: presence, release and identity of action. Aβ is a peptide of 1 - 43 amino acids in length, derived from APP and the major component of the core of neuritic plaques found in Alzheimer’s disease. Analysis of the cDNA of Aβ revealed its origins from the larger precursor protein. There are at least four types of mRNA generated by alternative splicing of exons 7 and 8. Exon 7 encodes a 57 amino acid sequence found in the extracellular domain with major homology to the Kunitz-type of serine protease inhibitors. APP is cleaved by three secretases known as α, β, and γ secretase which act on APP at different sites producing various fragments of differing amino acid length. The γ secretase is a macromolecular enzyme complex composed of presenilin 1, 2 and other molecular constitutents essential for its function.
The Functions of the Amyloid Precursor Protein Gene and Its Derivative Peptides: II Experimental Evidence and Clinical Studies  [PDF]
Peter K. Panegyres, Emily R. Atkins
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2011.23033
Abstract: In vitro studies suggest Amyloid Precursor Protein Gene (APP) is involved in interaction with the extracellular matrix, neurite growth, adhesion, development, synaptic function, platelet function, and interaction with GTP binding proteins. In vivo experiments show a role in embryonic development, response to cerebral excitotoxicity and gliosis, response to brain injury including ischaemia, hypothalamic function, locomotor function, learning and memory. In vitro observations indicate Aβ has a role in amyloid formation, excitotoxic neuronal injury, tachykinin interaction, endothelial vasoconstrictor response, calcium and oxidative stress, free radical interaction, cell membrane fluidity, apoptosis, astrocyte stimulation, and microglial interaction. Other studies suggest important roles for Aβ oligomers in synaptic function and as an antimicrobial peptide. In vivo investigations show involvement in memory function, the blood brain barrier, and tachykinin response to cerebral injury.
The Functions of the Amyloid Precursor Protein Gene and Its Derivative Peptides: III Pharmacological Studies  [PDF]
Peter K. Panegyres, Emily R. Atkins
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2011.24053
Abstract: Pharmacological studies reveal APP and Aβ have interactions with glutamate and calcium, cytokines, copper/zinc chelators, secretases and presenilins, nicotinic receptors, acetycholinesterase, neurotrophins, non-steroidal anti-inflame-matory drugs, monoclonal antibodies to Aβ, protease inhibitors, oestrogen, homocysteine, immediate early genes such as c-fos or c-jun and cholesterol. These functional and pharmacological observations highlight the need for greater understanding of APP and Aβ in brain function and have implications for clinical trials.
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