Abstract:
We discuss the fluctuation properties of diagonal matrix elements in the semiclassical limit in chaotic systems. For extended observables, covering a phase space area of many times Planck's constant, both classical and quantal distributions are Gaussian. If the observable is a projection onto a single state or an incoherent projection onto several states classical and quantal distribution differ, but the mean and the variance are still obtainable from classical considerations.

Abstract:
The fluctuations and correlations of matrix elements of cross sections are investigated in open systems that are chaotic in the classical limit. The form of the correlation functions is discussed within a statistical analysis and tested in calculations for a damped quantum kicked rotator. We briefly comment on the modifications expected for systems with slowly decaying correlations, a typical feature in mixed phase spaces.

Abstract:
The graph of communities is a network emerging above the level of individual nodes in the hierarchical organisation of a complex system. In this graph the nodes correspond to communities (highly interconnected subgraphs, also called modules or clusters), and the links refer to members shared by two communities. Our analysis indicates that the development of this modular structure is driven by preferential attachment, in complete analogy with the growth of the underlying network of nodes. We study how the links between communities are born in a growing co-authorship network, and introduce a simple model for the dynamics of overlapping communities.

Abstract:
We study the behavior of the clustering coefficient in tagged networks. The rich variety of tags associated with the nodes in the studied systems provide additional information about the entities represented by the nodes which can be important for practical applications like searching in the networks. Here we examine how the clustering coefficient changes when narrowing the network to a sub-graph marked by a given tag, and how does it correlate with various other properties of the sub-graph. Another interesting question addressed in the paper is how the clustering coefficient of the individual nodes is affected by the tags on the node. We believe these sort of analysis help acquiring a more complete description of the structure of large complex systems.

Abstract:
The amount of available data about complex systems is increasing every year, measurements of larger and larger systems are collected and recorded. A natural representation of such data is given by networks, whose size is following the size of the original system. The current trend of multiple cores in computing infrastructures call for a parallel reimplementation of earlier methods. Here we present the grid version of CFinder, which can locate overlapping communities in directed, weighted or undirected networks based on the clique percolation method (CPM). We show that the computation of the communities can be distributed among several CPU-s or computers. Although switching to the parallel version not necessarily leads to gain in computing time, it definitely makes the community structure of extremely large networks accessible.

Abstract:
Due to the increasing popularity of collaborative tagging systems, the research on tagged networks, hypergraphs, ontologies, folksonomies and other related concepts is becoming an important interdisciplinary topic with great actuality and relevance for practical applications. In most collaborative tagging systems the tagging by the users is completely "flat", while in some cases they are allowed to define a shallow hierarchy for their own tags. However, usually no overall hierarchical organisation of the tags is given, and one of the interesting challenges of this area is to provide an algorithm generating the ontology of the tags from the available data. In contrast, there are also other type of tagged networks available for research, where the tags are already organised into a directed acyclic graph (DAG), encapsulating the "is a sub-category of" type of hierarchy between each other. In this paper we study how this DAG affects the statistical distribution of tags on the nodes marked by the tags in various real networks. We analyse the relation between the tag-frequency and the position of the tag in the DAG in two large sub-networks of the English Wikipedia and a protein-protein interaction network. We also study the tag co-occurrence statistics by introducing a 2d tag-distance distribution preserving both the difference in the levels and the absolute distance in the DAG for the co-occurring pairs of tags. Our most interesting finding is that the local relevance of tags in the DAG, (i.e., their rank or significance as characterised by, e.g., the length of the branches starting from them) is much more important than their global distance from the root. Furthermore, we also introduce a simple tagging model based on random walks on the DAG, capable of reproducing the main statistical features of tag co-occurrence.

Abstract:
We investigate the fundamental statistical features of tagged (or annotated) networks having a rich variety of attributes associated with their nodes. Tags (attributes, annotations, properties, features, etc.) provide essential information about the entity represented by a given node, thus, taking them into account represents a significant step towards a more complete description of the structure of large complex systems. Our main goal here is to uncover the relations between the statistical properties of the node tags and those of the graph topology. In order to better characterise the networks with tagged nodes, we introduce a number of new notions, including tag-assortativity (relating link probability to node similarity), and new quantities, such as node uniqueness (measuring how rarely the tags of a node occur in the network) and tag-assortativity exponent. We apply our approach to three large networks representing very different domains of complex systems. A number of the tag related quantities display analogous behaviour (e.g., the networks we studied are tag-assortative, indicating possible universal aspects of tags versus topology), while some other features, such as the distribution of the node uniqueness, show variability from network to network allowing for pin-pointing large scale specific features of real-world complex networks. We also find that for each network the topology and the tag distribution are scale invariant, and this self-similar property of the networks can be well characterised by the tag-assortativity exponent, which is specific to each system.

Abstract:
Several recent studies of complex networks have suggested algorithms for locating network communities, also called modules or clusters, which are mostly defined as groups of nodes with dense internal connections. Along with the rapid development of these clustering techniques, the ability of revealing overlaps between communities has become very important as well. An efficient search technique for locating overlapping modules is provided by the Clique Percolation Method (CPM) and its extension to directed graphs, the CPMd algorithm. Here we investigate the centrality properties of directed module members in social networks obtained from e-mail exchanges and from sociometric questionnaires. Our results indicate that nodes in the overlaps between modules play a central role in the studied systems. Furthermore, the two different types of networks show interesting differences in the relation between the centrality measures and the role of the nodes in the directed modules.

Abstract:
We study the spectral statistics for extended yet finite quasi 1-d systems which undergo a transition from periodicity to disorder. In particular we compute the spectral two-point form factor, and the resulting expression depends on the degree of disorder. It interpolates smoothly between the two extreme limits -- the approach to Poissonian statistics in the (weakly) disordered case, and the universal expressions derived for the periodic case. The theoretical results agree very well with the spectral statistics obtained numerically for chains of chaotic billiards and graphs.

Abstract:
A search technique locating network modules, i.e., internally densely connected groups of nodes in directed networks is introduced by extending the Clique Percolation Method originally proposed for undirected networks. After giving a suitable definition for directed modules we investigate their percolation transition in the Erdos-Renyi graph both analytically and numerically. We also analyse four real-world directed networks, including Google's own webpages, an email network, a word association graph and the transcriptional regulatory network of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The obtained directed modules are validated by additional information available for the nodes. We find that directed modules of real-world graphs inherently overlap and the investigated networks can be classified into two major groups in terms of the overlaps between the modules. Accordingly, in the word-association network and among Google's webpages the overlaps are likely to contain in-hubs, whereas the modules in the email and transcriptional regulatory networks tend to overlap via out-hubs.