oalib

Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99

Submit

Any time

2020 ( 11 )

2019 ( 88 )

2018 ( 70 )

2017 ( 90 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 33317 matches for " Peter Newman "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /33317
Display every page Item
Decoupling Economic Growth from Fossil Fuels  [PDF]
Peter Newman
Modern Economy (ME) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/me.2017.86055
Abstract: The decoupling of fossil fuels from economic growth has not been imaginable for most of the industrial era but is now underway. The data for this are presented for the world and for typical nations. The mechanisms behind this are outlined and suggest that climate change goals to end poverty and to achieve the phasing out of fossil fuels are achievable if the trends are mainstreamed.
Why Fast Trains Work: An Assessment of a Fast Regional Rail System in Perth, Australia  [PDF]
James McIntosh, Peter Newman, Garry Glazebrook
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2013.32A005
Abstract:

Perth’s new 72 km long Southern Rail System opened in 2007. With a maximum speed of 137 km/hr and an average speed of almost 90 km/hr this system acts more like a new high speed rail than a suburban rail system, which in Australia typically averages around 40 km/hr for an all-stops services. The Southern Rail Line was very controversial when being planned as the urban areas served are not at all typical of those normally provided with rail but instead were highly car dependent and scattered low density land uses. Nevertheless it has been remarkably successful, carrying over 70,000 people per day (five times the patronage on the express buses it replaced) and has reached the patronage levels predicted for 2021 a decade ahead of time. The reasons for this success are analyzed and include well-designed interchanges, careful integration of bus services, the use of integrated ticketing and fares without transfer penalties and, crucially the high speed of the system when compared to competing car based trips. The Southern Rail Line in effect explodes the current paradigm of transfer penalties, exposing this as a myth. The lessons for transport planning in low density cities are significant, and are explored further in the paper.

Peak Car Use and the Rise of Global Rail: Why This Is Happening and What It Means for Large and Small Cities  [PDF]
Peter Newman, Jeffrey Kenworthy, Garry Glazebrook
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2013.34029
Abstract:

The 21st century promises some dramatic changes—some expected, others surprising. One of the more surprising changes is the dramatic peaking in car use and an associated increase in the world’s urban rail systems. This paper sets out what is happening with the growth of rail, especially in the traditional car dependent cities of the US and Australia, and why this is happening, particularly its relationship to car use declines. It provides new data on the plateau in the speed of urban car transportation that supports rail’s increasing role compared to cars in cities everywhere, as well as other structural, economic and cultural changes that indicate a move away from car dependent urbanism. The paper suggests that the rise of urban rail is a contributing factor in peak car use through the relative reduction in speed of traffic compared to transit, especially rail, as well as the growing value of dense, knowledge-based centers that depend on rail access for their viability and cultural attraction. Finally, the paper suggests what can be done to make rail work better based on some best practice trends in large cities and small car dependent cities.

The Geography of Solar Photovoltaics (PV) and a New Low Carbon Urban Transition Theory
Peter Newton,Peter Newman
Sustainability , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/su5062537
Abstract: This paper examines the early phases of a 21st century energy transition that involves distributed generation technologies employing low or zero carbon emission power sources and their take-up within Australia, with particular reference to the major cities and solar photovoltaics (PV). This transition is occurring in a nation with significant path dependency to overcome in relation to fossil fuel use. Tracking the diffusion of solar PV technology within Australia over the past decade provides a basis for assessing those factors underpinning its exponential growth and its associated geography of diffusion. Positive evidence that there are pathways for cities to decarbonise is apparent but there appear to be different pathways for different city forms with lower density suburban areas showing the biggest take-up of household-based energy technologies. This suggests a model for the low carbon urban transition involving combinations of simple technological changes and harder structural changes, depending upon which parts of the urban fabric are in focus. This is being called a New Low Carbon Urban Transition Theory.
Biophilic Cities Are Sustainable, Resilient Cities
Timothy Beatley,Peter Newman
Sustainability , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/su5083328
Abstract: There is a growing recognition of the need for daily contact with nature, to live happy, productive, meaningful lives. Recent attention to biophilic design among architects and designers acknowledges this power of nature. However, in an increasingly urban planet, more attention needs to be aimed at the urban scales, at planning for and moving towards what the authors call “biophilic cities”. Biophilic cities are cities that provide close and daily contact with nature, nearby nature, but also seek to foster an awareness of and caring for this nature. Biophilic cities, it is argued here, are also sustainable and resilient cities. Achieving the conditions of a biophilic city will go far in helping to foster social and landscape resilience, in the face of climate change, natural disasters and economic uncertainty and various other shocks that cities will face in the future. The paper identifies key pathways by which biophilic urbanism enhances resilience, and while some are well-established relationships, others are more tentative and suggest future research and testing.
Astrometric demands of fibre-input spectrographs for wide-field quasar redshift surveys
Peter R Newman
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: A potential problem with using wide-field multi-object spectrographs for quasar redshift surveys is the introduction of position-dependent selection effects into the survey catalogue because of variations in the observed signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) across the survey area. A function relating signal losses in instruments using optical fibre input to the fibre-to-image position error, the fibre diameter and the seeing conditions is given and plotted for a range of typical values of fibre sizes and seeing found in current instruments.
Positioning errors and efficiency in fiber spectrographs
Peter R. Newman
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/341715
Abstract: The use of wide-field multi-object fiber-input spectrographs for large redshift surveys introduces the possibility of variations in the observed signal-to-noise ratio across the survey area due to errors in positioning the fibers with respect to the target image positions, leading to position-dependent errors in the survey catalog. This paper brings together a comprehensive description of the sources of fiber-to-image position errors in different instrument designs, and quantifies their effects on the efficiency with which signal is recorded. For point sources, a function relating a fractional efficiency and an equivalent aperture correction to the fiber-to-image position error, the fiber diameter and the image size is plotted for typical values of fiber and image sizes found in current instruments. The tools required by observers to maximize the efficiency of fiber-spectrographic surveys are discussed.
Happiness, Environment and Wealth: What Can Bhutan Show Us about Resolving the Nexus?  [PDF]
Dorji Yangka, Peter Newman
Modern Economy (ME) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/me.2019.108120
Abstract: The Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis examines how economic development can improve environmental outcomes (called Ecological Modernisation Theory) or it can cause worse outcomes (called Treadmill of Production Theory). This paper examines Bhutan which has committed policies for increased happiness and wealth while remaining carbon neutral. The difference is being tested by regression analysis of how economic growth varies with the environmental intensity of well being (EIWB). The regression analysis shows that the case of Bhutan can be explained in terms of the Treadmill of Production Theory based on economic and wellbeing growth harming the environment, however, it is simply too early in the EKC. The data also show that population growth helps resolve the nexus which works more in the Ecological Modernisation Theory perspective and supports the need to continue urbanization to resolve these issues. Rather than just simply waiting for economic growth to turn around the EKC, Bhutan should take direct action to maintain its carbon neutral goal and its happiness goal and thus continue to provide a model for the sustainable development discourse in general. Highlights: 1) The concept of the environmental intensity of human well being (EIWB) was used to examine the two dominant environmental impact theories: Treadmill of Production Theory (TPT) under the IPAT hypothesis and Ecological Modernisation Theory (EMT) for Bhutan under the framework of the EKC hypothesis. 2) The nexus between economic growth and EIWB leans towards TPT, but it is still too early to see EKC though decoupling has begun and is likely to lead to EMT. 3) The nexus between population and EIWB leans towards EMT. 4) The need for intervention on social and environmental issues within a modified economic growth trajectory remains the core finding of how sustainable development can be achieved.
HERA Diffractive Structure Function Data and Parton Distributions
Paul Newman,Frank-Peter Schilling
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: Recent diffractive structure function measurements by the H1 and ZEUS experiments at HERA are reviewed. Various data sets, obtained using systematically different selection and reconstruction methods, are compared. NLO DGLAP QCD fits are performed to the most precise H1 and ZEUS data and diffractive parton densities are obtained in each case. Differences between the Q^2 dependences of the H1 and ZEUS data are reflected as differences between the diffractive gluon densities.
The Trackless Tram: Is It the Transit and City Shaping Catalyst We Have Been Waiting for?  [PDF]
Peter Newman, Karlson Hargroves, Sebastian Davies-Slate, Daniel Conley, Marie Verschuer, Mike Mouritz, Dorji Yangka
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2019.91003
Abstract: Recent innovations in transport technology are now providing mobility that is cheaper, autonomous, electric, and with improved ride quality. While much of the world’s attention has been on how this can be applied to cars, there have been rapid adoption of these and other technologies in High Speed Rail and Metro Rail systems that run between and across cities. This paper shows how such innovations have now been applied to create the next generation of urban transit system called a Trackless Tram. Trackless Trams are effectively the same as traditional light rail except they run on rubber tyres avoiding disruption from construction for Light Rail, but they retain the electric propulsion (with batteries) and have high ride quality due to rail-type bogies, stabilization technologies and precision tracking from the autonomous optical guidance systems—with infrastructure costs reduced to as low as one tenth of a Light Rail system. As with Light Rail, a Trackless Tram System provides a rapid transit option that can harness the fixed route assurance necessary to unlock new land value appreciation that can be leveraged to contribute to construction and running costs whilst creating urban regeneration. The paper considers the niche for Trackless Trams in cities along with its potential for city shaping through the creation of urban re-development along corridors. The paper suggests that the adoption of Trackless Tram Systems is likely to grow rapidly as a genuine alternative to car and bus systems, supplementing and extending the niche occupied by Light Rail Transit (LRT). This appears to be feasible in any medium-sized or larger city, especially in emerging and developing economies, and case studies are outlined for Perth and Thimpu to illustrate its potential.
Page 1 /33317
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.