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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 32341 matches for " Peter Kinyua Muriungi "
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The union spell-out principle
Peter Kinyua Muriungi
Nordlyd : Troms? University Working Papers on Language & Linguistics / Institutt for Spr?k og Litteratur, Universitetet i Troms? , 2009,
Abstract: This paper argues that grammar has a union spell-out principle that dictates that contiguous heads be spelled out by a single morpheme or phrase if there exists a morpheme or phrase in the lexicon with a collection of the features of the contiguous heads
The Syntax of Wh-Questions in Gichuka  [PDF]
Peter Kinyua Muriungi, Miriam Kathomi Mutegi, Mary Karuri
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2014.41015
Abstract:

This study investigated wh-question formation in Gichuka, an SVO Bantu language spoken in Kenya. The study established that Gichuka forms wh-question using the four strategies, namely: wh-in situ, full wh-movement, partial wh-movement, and intermediate strategy. In wh-in situ, the wh-phrase does not move. In full wh-movement, the wh-phrase moves to the beginning of the sentence. In partial wh-movement, the wh-phrase moves to an intermediate Spec, CP. In the intermediate strategy, the wh-phrase moves to an intermediate Spec, CP, or a Spec of the matrix CP, followed by movement of the subject to position above CP, a Topic position. These findings are similar to those of Muriungi (2003) who established that Kitharaka, a related Bantu language forms questions using the four strategies. As in Muriungi (2003), the study established that subjects cannot be questioned in situ.

Syntactic Analysis of Kimbeere Relative Clauses  [PDF]
Peter Kinyua Muriungi, Nancy Mbandi Mutange
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2019.96041
Abstract: This paper provides a syntactic analysis of noun phrase movement in raising predicates in Kimuthambi. The study is guided by the Principles and Parameters theory by Chomsky & Lasnik (1993) and in particular, the Minimalist Program developed by Chomsky (1995). This theory recognizes that there is always a trigger movement which is the need to check features at an appropriate landing site. The paper demonstrates that Raising in Kimuthambi is triggered by need to check case features. Since raising verbs cannot assign case to a NP, the NP must move to a position in a sentence where it can be assigned case. This according to Carnie (2007) is due to the fact that the NP and the case assigner must be local in such a way that it must be the specifier or the complement of the case assigner, in order to check the feature of case. Case therefore becomes a mandatory trigger for movement of NPs that are not in positions that can be assigned case as in the case of raising predicates. The paper also demonstrates that unlike in English where raising occurs out infinitive clauses only, there is hyper raising in Kimuthambi where raising can occur out of a finite clause.
Agreement in Kimbeere Relative Clauses  [PDF]
Peter Kinyua Muriungi, Nancy Mbandi Mutange
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2019.96042
Abstract: This paper demonstrates that the two relative markers “-rĩa” and “-ĩngĩ” agree with the head noun in Kimbeere. The agreement is determined by the class of the Head noun.
Categorizing adpositions in K tharaka
Peter Muriungi
Nordlyd : Troms? University Working Papers on Language & Linguistics / Institutt for Spr?k og Litteratur, Universitetet i Troms? , 2006,
Abstract: In this paper, I discuss the categorial status of K tharaka adpositions. I demonstrate that there are two main classes of adpositions(to be referred to as Class A and Class B). Class A adpositions are syntactic heads and they belong to the functional lexical category P. Class B adpositions are a phrasal P category with a nominal component. They therefore spell out a complex structure than adpositional heads do. This bipartation of K tharaka Ps is based on (i) optionality of complements (ii) case assignment (iii) modification (iv) recoverability of content (v) movement and (vi) derivational morphology.
Effectiveness of Examination Handling and Distribution Procedures in Curbing Malpractices in Secondary Schools in Eastern Province, Kenya  [PDF]
Eunice Kagendo Njue, George M. Muthaa, Peter K. Muriungi
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.58068
Abstract:

Examinations provide discriminatory criteria for individuals and evaluate whether educational goals are being achieved. To guarantee equity, fair evaluation must be devoid of all malpractices. The KNEC has put in place policies aimed at reducing cases of examination malpractices; however there has been a rise in reported cases of examination malpractices with the release of every examination results. The current study sought to determine the effectiveness of the examination handling and distribution procedures in addressing the examination malpractices. A sample size of 511 subjects was involved in the study. The study was conducted using descriptive survey research design. Reliability of instruments was determined using cronbach coefficient alpha method. The study established that the management of the examinations is dominated by the male gender. Handling and distribution of examinations was blamed for examinations malpractices. The researcher recommends training for all personnel involved in the management of the examinations.

Competence of Security Officers in the Management of National Examinations in Secondary Schools in Eastern Province, Kenya  [PDF]
George M. George M. Muthaa, Peter K. Muriungi, Eunice Kagendo Njue
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.212010
Abstract: Examinations provide discriminatory criteria for individuals and evaluate whether educational goals are being achieved. To guarantee equity, fair evaluation must be devoid of all malpractices. The study was motivated by the continued incidences of examination irregularities despite the policies put in place by KNEC. A sample size of 120 security officers was used for the study. The study was conducted using descriptive survey research design. Validity of the research instrument was ascertained by experts in research from Chuka University, while the reliability of instruments was determined using Cronbach’s coefficient alpha method. The study established that majority of the security officers were not oriented on examinations management. The researcher recommends that security officers should be training on examinations management and their role expectations.
Influence of the Environment on Cassava Quality Traits in Central Rift Valley of Kenya  [PDF]
John N. Ndung’u, Francis N. Wachira, Miriam G. Kinyua, David K. Lelgut, Henry Okwaro, Peter Njau, Hannington Obiero
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.310181
Abstract: Cassava (Manihot esculenta Cranzt) is an important food security crop for poor rural communities particularly in Africa. However, little is known about variability of critical root nutritional and quality traits of African cassava germplasm. Cassava roots contain low levels of important micronutrients and its quality can be influenced by the levels of cyanogenic glucosides. Roots from fourteen accessions comprising Kenyan local landraces and improved clones were screened for their nutritional traits including the contents of cyanogenic glycosides, protein and the micro nutrients iron and zinc. Trait stability and the effects of the environment on the expression of the nutritional traits were evaluated using various genotype (G) by environment (E) interaction study models. There were significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences for all the nutritional traits in the three test sites of Baringo, Kericho and Nakuru in Kenya. Contents of cyanogenic glycosides in both roots and leaves, total root proteins, root iron and zinc ranged from 31.8 ppm to 90.8 ppm; 20.8 ppm to 154.4 ppm; 1.15% to 3.47%; 17.81 ppm to 59.69 ppm and 39.39 ppm to 118 ppm, respectively. The sites were also significantly (p ≤ 0.05) different from each other with the highest cyanogenic content in leaves and roots expressed at the Nakuru site. Regression analysis was used to assess genotype response to environments. Regression coefficients (bi) obtained ranged from 0.13 to 2.23 for all traits combined indicating wide variability in quality trait among the test germplasm. Analysis for sensitivity to environmental change SEi2 revealed that cassava genotypes differed in their level of sensitivity. The root cyanide trait had the highest mean SEi2 which indicated that it was the least stable quality trait in the cassava germplasm. This implies that the same cassava genotypes will give food of different quality depending on growing environment. The observed values for protein and mineral contents suggest the potential for improving the nutritive value of local cassava germplasm.
The Challenges Facing Small-Scale Women Entrepreneurs: A Case of Kenya
Fridah Muriungi Mwobobia
International Journal of Business Administration , 2012, DOI: 10.5430/ijba.v3n2p112
Abstract: The study sought to identify the challenges facing small scale women entrepreneurs in Kenya and initiatives put in place to counter the challenges. The study employed desktop research. MSEs Baseline survey, recorded that 612,848 women in Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Kenya, accounting for 47.4 per cent of all those in MSEs. The study showed that women tended to operate enterprises associated with traditional women’s roles, such as hairstyling. The small and micro enterprises (SMEs) play an important role in the Kenyan Economy such as creating jobs however they face serious challenges such as lack of finance, discrimination, problems with the city council, multiple duties, poor access to justice, lack of education, among others. The study established that many stakeholders from both public and private sector are helping empower women entrepreneurs in Kenya: such as formation of women enterprise fund, establishing of women’s university of science and technology, formal and informal financial support, and donor initiatives among others have been put in place. The study recommends that women in entrepreneurs need to be accepted and supported financially, legally and more capacity building should be made available. Further research is recommended in this area.
Role of Business Management into the Success and Survival of Small Businesses: The Case of Star Learning Centre in Botswana
Fridah Muriungi Mwobobia
International Journal of Business Administration , 2012, DOI: 10.5430/ijba.v3n1p93
Abstract: The study aimed to establish the aspects of management, which have led to the survival, and success of the small-scale businesses in Botswana- a case of Star Learning Centre. The questions explored were 1) What is the role of management in the survival or success of Star Learning Centre? 2) What management styles, systems and practices are appropriate for Star Learning Centre and other small scale businesses in the Botswana? 3) What work culture is appropriate for business success? 4) What factors have enabled the Star Learning Centre to succeed? The study used a convenience sample comprising 31 staff members of Star Learning Centre. The probability sampling approach was applied because the number sampled was known. Questionnaires, observation and interview methods were used as the main instruments. Findings revealed that Star Learning Centre success can be attributed to effective management, team work, timely communication, conducive working environment. The problems/challenges faced by the Centre were: shortage of capital, shortage of land, lack of open discussion between staff and management, and an unsatisfactory remuneration system. The study recommends further research that may capture more and bigger businesses.
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