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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 323220 matches for " Peter J. Carrington "
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Missing persons and social exclusion
Laura Kiepal,Peter J. Carrington,Myrna Dawson
The Canadian Journal of Sociology , 2012,
Abstract: The concept of social exclusion is used to explore the relationship between people and groups who may be socially and economically disadvantaged and the phenomenon of going missing. Police data about missing persons are compared to census data to determine whether groups who experience family dissolution, labour market exclusion, and other forms of disadvantage and social exclusion are overrepresented among people reported missing compared to the general population. The analysis shows that disadvantaged youth, women, Aboriginal people, people who are not in the labour force, unemployed people, and homeless people are all overrepresented among people reported missing.People occupying the intersections of multiple high risk categories are at particularly high risk of being reported missing. Linking missing persons with the concept of social exclusion shows that social and economic disadvantage can lead directly and indirectly to peoples’ disappearances.
Introduction
Carrington, Peter
Canadian Graduate Journal of Sociology and Criminology , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction
The ERI-6/7 Helicase Acts at the First Stage of an siRNA Amplification Pathway That Targets Recent Gene Duplications
Sylvia E. J. Fischer,Taiowa A. Montgomery,Chi Zhang,Noah Fahlgren,Peter C. Breen,Alexia Hwang,Christopher M. Sullivan,James C. Carrington,Gary Ruvkun
PLOS Genetics , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002369
Abstract: Endogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are a class of naturally occuring regulatory RNAs found in fungi, plants, and animals. Some endogenous siRNAs are required to silence transposons or function in chromosome segregation; however, the specific roles of most endogenous siRNAs are unclear. The helicase gene eri-6/7 was identified in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by the enhanced response to exogenous double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) of the null mutant. eri-6/7 encodes a helicase homologous to small RNA factors Armitage in Drosophila, SDE3 in Arabidopsis, and Mov10 in humans. Here we show that eri-6/7 mutations cause the loss of 26-nucleotide (nt) endogenous siRNAs derived from genes and pseudogenes in oocytes and embryos, as well as deficiencies in somatic 22-nucleotide secondary siRNAs corresponding to the same loci. About 80 genes are eri-6/7 targets that generate the embryonic endogenous siRNAs that silence the corresponding mRNAs. These 80 genes share extensive nucleotide sequence homology and are poorly conserved, suggesting a role for these endogenous siRNAs in silencing of and thereby directing the fate of recently acquired, duplicated genes. Unlike most endogenous siRNAs in C. elegans, eri-6/7–dependent siRNAs require Dicer. We identify that the eri-6/7–dependent siRNAs have a passenger strand that is ~19 nt and is inset by ~3–4 nts from both ends of the 26 nt guide siRNA, suggesting non-canonical Dicer processing. Mutations in the Argonaute ERGO-1, which associates with eri-6/7–dependent 26 nt siRNAs, cause passenger strand stabilization, indicating that ERGO-1 is required to separate the siRNA duplex, presumably through endonucleolytic cleavage of the passenger strand. Thus, like several other siRNA–associated Argonautes with a conserved RNaseH motif, ERGO-1 appears to be required for siRNA maturation.
Interpretation of the angular dependence of the de Haas-van Alphen effect in MgB_2
A. Carrington,J. D. Fletcher,H. Harima
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.71.174505
Abstract: We present detailed results for the amplitude and field dependence of the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) signal arising from the electron-like $\pi$ sheet of Fermi surface in MgB_2. Our data and analysis show that the dip in dHvA amplitude when the field is close to the basal plane is caused by a beat between two very similar dHvA frequencies and not a spin-zero effect as previously assumed. Our results imply that the Stoner enhancement factors in MgB_2 are small on both the Sigma and Pi sheets.
Location of gap nodes in the organic superconductors $κ$-(ET)$_2$Cu(NCS)$_2$ and $κ$-(ET)$_2$Cu[N(CN)$_2$]Br determined by magnetocalorimetry
L. Malone,O. J. Taylor,J. A. Schlueter,A. Carrington
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.82.014522
Abstract: We report specific heat measurements of the organic superconductors $\kappa$-(ET)$_2$Cu(NCS)$_2$ and $\kappa$-(ET)$_2$Cu[N(CN)$_2$]Br. When the magnetic field is rotated in the highly conducting planes at low temperature ($T\simeq 0.4$ K), we observe clear oscillations of specific heat which have a strong fourfold component. The observed strong field and temperature dependence of this fourfold component identifies it as originating from nodes in the superconducting energy gap which point along the in-plane crystal axes ($d_{xy}$ symmetry)
Damping of the de Haas-van Alphen oscillations in the superconducting state of MgB_2
J. D. Fletcher,A. Carrington,S. M. Kazakov,J. Karpinski
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.70.144501
Abstract: The de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) signal arising from orbits on the $\pi$ Fermi surface sheet of the two-gap superconductor MgB$_2$ has been observed in the vortex state below $H_{c2}$. An extra attenuation of the dHvA signal, beyond those effects described in the conventional Lifshitz-Kosevich expression, is seen due to the opening of the superconducting gap. Our data show that the $\pi$ band gap is still present up to $H_{c2}$. The data are compared to current theories of dHvA oscillations in the superconducting state which allow us to extract estimates for the evolution of the $\pi$ band gap with magnetic field. Contrary to results for other materials, we find that the most recent theories dramatically underestimate the damping in MgB$_2$.
Superconductor-Insulator Phase Separation Induced by Rapid Cooling in kappa-(ET)_2Cu[N(CN)_2]Br
O. J. Taylor,A. Carrington,J. A. Schlueter
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.77.060503
Abstract: We present measurements of the low temperature specific heat of single crystals of kappa-(ET)_2Cu[N(CN)_2]Br as a function of the cooling rate through the glasslike structure transition at $\sim$ 80K. We find that rapid cooling produces a small (< 4%) decrease in the superconducting transition temperature accompanied by a substantial (up to 50%) decrease in the normal-state electronic specific heat. A natural explanation of our data is that there is a macroscopic phase separation between superconducting and insulating regions in rapidly cooled samples.
Absence of non-linear Meissner effect in YBa2Cu3O6.95
A. Carrington,R. W. Giannetta,J. T. Kim,J. Giapintzakis
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.59.R14173
Abstract: We present measurements the field and temperature dependence of the penetration depth (lambda) in high purity, untwinned single crystals of YBa2Cu3O6.95 in all three crystallographic directions. The temperature dependence of lambda is linear down to low temperatures, showing that our crystals are extremely clean. Both the magnitude and temperature dependence of the field dependent correction to lambda however, are considerably different from that predicted from the theory of the non-linear Meissner effect for a d-wave superconductor (Yip-Sauls theory). Our results suggest that the Yip-Sauls effect is either absent or is unobservably small in the Meissner state of YBa2Cu3O6.95.
Specific heat measurements of the gap structure of the organic superconductors kappa-(ET)_2Cu[N(CN)_2]Br and kappa-(ET)_2Cu(NCS)_2
O. J. Taylor,A. Carrington,J. A. Schlueter
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.057001
Abstract: We present high resolution heat capacity measurements for the organic superconductors kappa-(ET)_2Cu[N(CN)_2]Br and kappa-(ET)_2Cu(NCS)_2 in fields up to 14 T. We use the high field data to determine the normal state specific heat and hence extract the behavior of the electronic specific heat C_{el} in the superconducting state in zero and finite fields. We find that in both materials for T/T_c<0.3, C_{el}(H=0)\sim T^2 indicating d-wave superconductivity. Our data are inconsistent with s-wave behavior, but may be fitted to a strong coupling d-wave model over the full temperature range.
Psoriasis Patients Are Enriched for Genetic Variants That Protect against HIV-1 Disease
Haoyan Chen,Genki Hayashi,Olivia Y. Lai,Alexander Dilthey,Peter J. Kuebler,Tami V. Wong,Maureen P. Martin,Marcelo A. Fernandez Vina,Gil McVean,Matthias Wabl,Kieron S. Leslie,Toby Maurer,Jeffrey N. Martin,Steven G. Deeks,Mary Carrington,Anne M. Bowcock,Douglas F. Nixon,Wilson Liao
PLOS Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002514
Abstract: An important paradigm in evolutionary genetics is that of a delicate balance between genetic variants that favorably boost host control of infection but which may unfavorably increase susceptibility to autoimmune disease. Here, we investigated whether patients with psoriasis, a common immune-mediated disease of the skin, are enriched for genetic variants that limit the ability of HIV-1 virus to replicate after infection. We analyzed the HLA class I and class II alleles of 1,727 Caucasian psoriasis cases and 3,581 controls and found that psoriasis patients are significantly more likely than controls to have gene variants that are protective against HIV-1 disease. This includes several HLA class I alleles associated with HIV-1 control; amino acid residues at HLA-B positions 67, 70, and 97 that mediate HIV-1 peptide binding; and the deletion polymorphism rs67384697 associated with high surface expression of HLA-C. We also found that the compound genotype KIR3DS1 plus HLA-B Bw4-80I, which respectively encode a natural killer cell activating receptor and its putative ligand, significantly increased psoriasis susceptibility. This compound genotype has also been associated with delay of progression to AIDS. Together, our results suggest that genetic variants that contribute to anti-viral immunity may predispose to the development of psoriasis.
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