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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 32293 matches for " Peter Eirew "
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Human Milk Protein Production in Xenografts of Genetically Engineered Bovine Mammary Epithelial Stem Cells
Eugenio Martignani,Peter Eirew,Paolo Accornero,Connie J. Eaves,Mario Baratta
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013372
Abstract: In the bovine species milk production is well known to correlate with mammary tissue mass. However, most advances in optimizing milk production relied on improvements of breeding and husbandry practices. A better understanding of the cells that generate bovine mammary tissue could facilitate important advances in milk production and have global economic impact. With this possibility in mind, we show that a mammary stem cell population can be functionally identified and isolated from the bovine mammary gland. We also demonstrate that this stem cell population may be a promising target for manipulating the composition of cow's milk using gene transfer.
Phenotypic and functional characterisation of the luminal cell hierarchy of the mammary gland
Mona Shehata, Andrew Teschendorff, Gemma Sharp, Nikola Novcic, I Alasdair Russell, Stefanie Avril, Michael Prater, Peter Eirew, Carlos Caldas, Christine J Watson, John Stingl
Breast Cancer Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/bcr3334
Abstract: We used fluorescence-activated cell sorting along with in vitro and in vivo functional assays to examine the growth and differentiation properties of distinct subsets of human and mouse mammary epithelial cells. We also examined how loss of steroid hormones influenced these populations in vivo. Gene expression profiles were also obtained for all the purified cell populations and correlated to those obtained from breast tumours.The luminal cell compartment of the mouse mammary gland can be resolved into nonclonogenic oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+) luminal cells, ER+ luminal progenitors and oestrogen receptor-negative (ER-) luminal progenitors. The ER+ luminal progenitors are unique in regard to cell survival, as they are relatively insensitive to loss of oestrogen and progesterone when compared with the other types of mammary epithelial cells. Analysis of normal human breast tissue reveals a similar hierarchical organisation composed of nonclonogenic luminal cells, and relatively differentiated (EpCAM+CD49f+ALDH-) and undifferentiated (EpCAM+CD49f+ALDH+) luminal progenitors. In addition, approximately one-quarter of human breast samples examined contained an additional population that had a distinct luminal progenitor phenotype, characterised by low expression of ERBB3 and low proliferative potential. Parent-progeny relationship experiments demonstrated that all luminal progenitor populations in both species are highly plastic and, at low frequencies, can generate progeny representing all mammary cell types. The ER- luminal progenitors in the mouse and the ALDH+ luminal progenitors in the human appear to be analogous populations since they both have gene signatures that are associated with alveolar differentiation and resemble those obtained from basal-like breast tumours.The luminal cell compartment in the mammary epithelium is more heterogeneous than initially perceived since progenitors of varying levels of luminal cell differentiation and proliferative capacit
Developmental Changes in the in Vitro Activated Regenerative Activity of Primitive Mammary Epithelial Cells
Maisam Makarem,Nagarajan Kannan,Long V. Nguyen,David J. H. F. Knapp,Sneha Balani,Michael D. Prater,John Stingl,Afshin Raouf,Oksana Nemirovsky,Peter Eirew,Connie J. Eaves
PLOS Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001630
Abstract: Many normal adult tissues contain rare stem cells with extensive self-maintaining regenerative potential. During development, the stem cells of the hematopoietic and neural systems undergo intrinsically specified changes in their self-renewal potential. In the mouse, mammary stem cells with transplantable regenerative activity are first detectable a few days before birth. They share some phenotypic properties with their adult counterparts but are enriched in a subpopulation that displays a distinct gene expression profile. Here we show that fetal mammary epithelial cells have a greater direct and inducible growth potential than their adult counterparts. The latter feature is revealed in a novel culture system that enables large numbers of in vitro clonogenic progenitors as well as mammary stem cells with serially transplantable activity to be produced within 7 days from single fetal or adult input cells. We further show that these responses are highly dependent on novel factors produced by fibroblasts. These findings provide new avenues for elucidating mechanisms that regulate normal mammary epithelial stem cell properties at the single-cell level, how these change during development, and how their perturbation may contribute to transformation.
Natural Rights, Morality, and the Law  [PDF]
Drum Peter
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2011.21004
Abstract: It is argued that despite attempts to discount the importance of natural rights for morality, they are fundamental to it; therefore, so too are natural rights to the legitimacy of the law.
Price Stability and the Growth Maximizing Rate of Inflation for Ghana  [PDF]
Peter Quartey
Modern Economy (ME) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/me.2010.13021
Abstract: Monetary policy in Ghana, which is typical of many central banks, over the years, has focused on ensuring price stability or low inflation. The aim of the policy of price stability is to provide a stable environment for real sector activities to flourish. However, the outcome of the policy on real sector activities has not been subjected to any empirical investigation and this forms the focus of the study. For instance, the Central Bank has focused on single digit inflation and whether such a low rate is growth maximizing is yet to be ascertained. The study therefore investigates the revenue maximizing and the ‘growth maximizing’ rate of inflation for Ghana using data from Bank of Ghana and WDI. The study finds that economic performance is higher under low inflation era than when inflation is high. It also established the revenue maximizing rate of inflation using the Laffer curve approach is lower than the growth maximizing rate of inflation. Also, from the results, it can be deduced that the single digit inflation target set by the Central bank is not growth maximizing.
Aristotle’s Definition of Place and of Matter  [PDF]
Peter Drum
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2011.11006
Abstract: The accuracy of Aristotle’s definition of place is defended in terms of his form-matter theory. This theory is in turn defended against the objectionable notion that it entails matter is ultimately characterless.
Adapted Caussinus-Mestre Algorithm for Networks of Temperature series (ACMANT)  [PDF]
Peter Domonkos
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2011.23032
Abstract: Any change in technical or environmental conditions of observations may result in bias from the precise values of observed climatic variables. The common name of these biases is inhomogeneity (IH). IHs usually appear in a form of sudden shift or gradual trends in the time series of any variable, and the timing of the shift indicates the date of change in the conditions of observation. The seasonal cycle of radiation intensity often causes marked seasonal cycle in the IHs of observed temperature time series, since a substantial portion of them has direct or indirect connection to radiation changes in the micro-environment of the thermometer. Therefore the magnitudes of temperature IHs tend to be larger in summer than in winter. A new homogenisation method (ACMANT) has recently been developed which treats in a special way the seasonal changes of IH-sizes in temperature time series. The ACMANT is a further development of the Caussinus-Mestre method, that is one of the most effective tool among the known homogenising methods. The ACMANT applies a bivariate test for searching the timings of IHs, the two variables are the annual mean temperature and the amplitude of seasonal temperature-cycle. The ACMANT contains several further innovations whose efficiencies are tested with the benchmark of the COST ES0601 project. The paper describes the properties and the operation of ACMANT and presents some verification results. The results show that the ACMANT has outstandingly high performance. The ACMANT is a recommended method for homogenising networks of monthly temperature time series that observed in mid- or high geographical latitudes, because the harmonic seasonal cycle of IH-size is valid for these time series only.
Random but System-Wide Unique Unlinkable Parameters  [PDF]
Peter Schartner
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2012.31001
Abstract: When initializing cryptographic systems or running cryptographic protocols, the randomness of critical parameters, like keys or key components, is one of the most crucial aspects. But, randomly chosen parameters come with the intrinsic chance of duplicates, which finally may cause cryptographic systems including RSA, ElGamal and Zero-Knowledge proofs to become insecure. When concerning digital identifiers, we need uniqueness in order to correctly identify a specific action or object. Unfortunately we also need randomness here. Without randomness, actions become linkable to each other or to their initiator’s digital identity. So ideally the employed (cryptographic) parameters should fulfill two potentially conflicting requirements simultaneously: randomness and uniqueness. This article proposes an efficient mechanism to provide both attributes at the same time without highly constraining the first one and never violating the second one. After defining five requirements on random number generators and discussing related work, we will describe the core concept of the generation mechanism. Subsequently we will prove the postulated properties (security, randomness, uniqueness, efficiency and privacy protection) and present some application scenarios including system-wide unique parameters, cryptographic keys and components, identifiers and digital pseudonyms.
Enlarged cauda equina nerve roots in Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis  [PDF]
Peter Kalina
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics (OJCD) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojcd.2011.13006
Abstract: CXT is a rare inherited autosomal recessive lipid storage disease due to the impaired metabolic pathway of cholesterol secondary to a deficiency in 27- sterol hydroxylase, an enzyme in the synthesis of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), a primary bile acid. Abnormal bile acid synthesis leads to elevated plasma Cholestanol (a derivative of cholesterol) accumulation, especially in the lens, central nervous system (CNS) and tendons.
Spinal Cord Compression by Thoracic Vertebral Hemangioma—A Case Report  [PDF]
Peter Kalina
Open Journal of Medical Imaging (OJMI) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojmi.2012.21005
Abstract: A 68 year old with lower extremity numbness, vibratory sensation loss, coldness and burning of his feet, unsteady gait, frequent falls and a sensory level had an MRI demonstrating aT7 and T8 vertebral body/posterior element lesion with epidural extension, cord compression and foraminal extension (Figures 1-5). Decompressive laminectomy/resection confirmed vertebral hemangioma, a common benign neoplasm that typically remains asymptomatic, found incidentally in 10% of the population. Progressive vertebral body hemangiomas may cause cord or nerve root compression due to epidural tumor extension, expanded bone, hematoma or fracture. Radiographs demonstrate course vertical striations caused by thick trabeculae. CT in indolent lesions demonstrates fat density while compressive lesions demonstrate soft tissue density. Indolent lesions follow fat signal on MRI; symptomatic lesions are T1 isointense/T2 hyperintense. Work-up for aggressive hemangiomas includes angiography to determine vascularity, identify feeding/draining vessels and identify blood supply to the cord. Biopsy helps differentiate hemangioma, lymphoma, myeloma or metastasis. Management of symptomatic hemangiomas includes vertebroplasty for pain, radiation for pain, compression or pre-op and decompressive laminectomy for epidural disease. Embolization of feeding vessels may be performed pre-op or may be curative. Hemangioma causing cord compression and neurologic symptoms by extraosseous extension is much less common than benign hemangioma. Imaging features may suggest potential for progression.
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