Abstract:
This paper describes a flow simulation model used to determine the effects of a shroud on the performance of a wind turbine. Also, it focuses on comparing the standard type of wind turbines— upwind turbine with three blades fixed on a horizontal axis—with a new type that is called a shrouded wind turbine. In addition, the two types of turbines are compared in terms of velocities profiles, pressure distribution and power output when applying four different velocities of winds: 10, 20, 30, 40 mph. Numerical values and graphs are highlighted in order to show the main differences between the shrouded turbine and the conventional one. Finally, a conclusion and some recommendations are provided to summarize the scope of this research and give a better prediction for a future optimal design of the shrouded turbines.

Abstract:
A centrifugal pump used as a hydraulic turbine in producing power for a microhydropower system is multifaceted. Centrifugal pumps are far more ubiquitous than turbines in the turbomachinery market, therefore being more readily available to the consumer. Additionally, they are cheaper. Hydraulic turbines undergo rigorous CFD simulation design and testing to establish their blade geometries and ranges of operation. This results in a refined but very expensive final product. Centrifugal pumps are thus presented as a logical alternative seeing that they can physically perform the same task as a hydropower turbine albeit at a reduced efficiency. This paper presents the results of an analysis and simulation to assess the use of a centrifugal pump as a hydraulic turbine.

Abstract:
This paper describes the flow simulation of a dual rotor, three-bladed wind turbine module with a shroud to determine its performance. The parameters that were evaluated are the effects of adding a second rotor, wind speed, distance between the two rotors, the size of the front rotor and the shroud. The results were obtained by using the Solid Works 2015 flow simulation program. Also, the benefits and cost issues for wind generating systems are illustrated.

Abstract:
Drag across a golf ball can affect distance traveled when hitting a ball. An average golf ball will have a drag coefficient of, 0.24 < C_{D} < 0.7, in a Reynolds number range of 30,000 < Re_{D} < 108,000. This paper investigates the effect of dimple patterns on the boundary layer around a ball. Changing the depth of the dimple will cause a change to the drag coefficient. A deeper dimple pattern will cause a larger drag coefficient at higher velocities, u > 35 m/s. This research found that a significantly deeper dimple pattern will greatly affect the boundary layer, thus changing the drag coefficient and boundary layer.

Abstract:
This paper describes an experimental offside detection system that will be capable of detecting offside passes during a game of soccer. Soccer is the world’s most popular and most televised sport. In recent years, FIFA has implemented goal line technology in order to end controversial goals/missed goals during high profile competitive matches. The most contentious aspect of the sport is the offside rule and its many controversial calls or lack of calls. Sometimes the linesmen cannot see the passage of playing fast enough to make a correct decision. Being similar to goal line technology, people have requested offside technology to help the linesmen and to reduce the number of incorrect offside calls in a game. This paper describes a working offside detection system that can accurately detect offside passes. Positional data was exported from a VICON infrared motion tracking camera system and a MATLAB script was written so that it can analyze the positions of the players and the ball and determine if a pass was offside.

Abstract:
The couplings and interactions of baryons containing a heavy quark are related by light quark spin-flavor symmetry in the large $N$ limit. The single pion coupling constant which determines all heavy quark baryon-pion couplings is equal to the pion coupling constant for light quark baryons. Light quark symmetry relations amongst the baryon couplings are violated at order $1/N^2$. Heavy quark spin-flavor symmetry is used in conjunction with large $N$ light quark spin-flavor symmetry to determine the couplings of the degenerate doublets of heavy quark baryons.

Abstract:
The hyperfine mass splittings of baryons containing a heavy quark are derived at leading order in large $N$ QCD. Hyperfine splittings either preserve or violate heavy quark spin symmetry. Previous work proves that the splittings which preserve heavy quark spin symmetry are proportional to ${\bf J}^2$ at order $1/N$, where $J$ is the angular momentum of the light degrees of freedom of the baryon. This work proves that the splittings which violate heavy quark spin symmetry are proportional to ${\bf J} \cdot {\bf S_Q}$ at order $1/(N m_Q)$ in the $1/N$ and $1/m_Q$ expansions.

Abstract:
The hyperfine mass splittings of baryons in large $N$ QCD are proved to be proportional to ${\bf J}^2$. Hyperfine mass splittings are first allowed at order $1/N$ in the $1/N$ expansion.

Abstract:
The chiral Lagrangian for baryons is formulated in an expansion in 1/N_c. The chiral Lagrangian implements the contracted spin-flavor symmetry of large-N_c baryons as well as nonet symmetry of the leading planar diagrams. Large-N_c consistency conditions ensure that chiral loop corrections are suppressed in 1/N_c through exact cancellation of chiral loop graphs to fixed orders in 1/N_c. Application of 1/N_c baryon chiral perturbation theory to the flavor-27 baryon mass splittings and the baryon axial vector currents are considered as examples.

Abstract:
The 1/N_c expansion provides a theoretical method for analyzing the spin-flavor symmetry properties of baryons in QCD that is quantitative, systematic and predictive. An exact spin-flavor symmetry exists for large-N_c baryons, whereas for QCD baryons, the spin-flavor symmetry is approximate and is broken by corrections proportional to the symmetry-breaking parameter 1/N_c = 1/3. The 1/N_c expansion predicts a hierarchy of spin and flavor symmetry relations for QCD baryons that is observed in nature. It provides a quantitative understanding of why some SU(3) flavor symmetry relations in the baryon sector, such as the Gell-Mann--Okubo mass formula, are satisfied to a greater precision than expected from flavor symmetry-breaking suppression factors alone.