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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 220752 matches for " Peter D. Turney "
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Similarity of Semantic Relations
Peter D. Turney
Computer Science , 2006,
Abstract: There are at least two kinds of similarity. Relational similarity is correspondence between relations, in contrast with attributional similarity, which is correspondence between attributes. When two words have a high degree of attributional similarity, we call them synonyms. When two pairs of words have a high degree of relational similarity, we say that their relations are analogous. For example, the word pair mason:stone is analogous to the pair carpenter:wood. This paper introduces Latent Relational Analysis (LRA), a method for measuring relational similarity. LRA has potential applications in many areas, including information extraction, word sense disambiguation, and information retrieval. Recently the Vector Space Model (VSM) of information retrieval has been adapted to measuring relational similarity, achieving a score of 47% on a collection of 374 college-level multiple-choice word analogy questions. In the VSM approach, the relation between a pair of words is characterized by a vector of frequencies of predefined patterns in a large corpus. LRA extends the VSM approach in three ways: (1) the patterns are derived automatically from the corpus, (2) the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is used to smooth the frequency data, and (3) automatically generated synonyms are used to explore variations of the word pairs. LRA achieves 56% on the 374 analogy questions, statistically equivalent to the average human score of 57%. On the related problem of classifying semantic relations, LRA achieves similar gains over the VSM.
Word Sense Disambiguation by Web Mining for Word Co-occurrence Probabilities
Peter D. Turney
Computer Science , 2004,
Abstract: This paper describes the National Research Council (NRC) Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) system, as applied to the English Lexical Sample (ELS) task in Senseval-3. The NRC system approaches WSD as a classical supervised machine learning problem, using familiar tools such as the Weka machine learning software and Brill's rule-based part-of-speech tagger. Head words are represented as feature vectors with several hundred features. Approximately half of the features are syntactic and the other half are semantic. The main novelty in the system is the method for generating the semantic features, based on word \hbox{co-occurrence} probabilities. The probabilities are estimated using the Waterloo MultiText System with a corpus of about one terabyte of unlabeled text, collected by a web crawler.
Measuring Semantic Similarity by Latent Relational Analysis
Peter D. Turney
Computer Science , 2005,
Abstract: This paper introduces Latent Relational Analysis (LRA), a method for measuring semantic similarity. LRA measures similarity in the semantic relations between two pairs of words. When two pairs have a high degree of relational similarity, they are analogous. For example, the pair cat:meow is analogous to the pair dog:bark. There is evidence from cognitive science that relational similarity is fundamental to many cognitive and linguistic tasks (e.g., analogical reasoning). In the Vector Space Model (VSM) approach to measuring relational similarity, the similarity between two pairs is calculated by the cosine of the angle between the vectors that represent the two pairs. The elements in the vectors are based on the frequencies of manually constructed patterns in a large corpus. LRA extends the VSM approach in three ways: (1) patterns are derived automatically from the corpus, (2) Singular Value Decomposition is used to smooth the frequency data, and (3) synonyms are used to reformulate word pairs. This paper describes the LRA algorithm and experimentally compares LRA to VSM on two tasks, answering college-level multiple-choice word analogy questions and classifying semantic relations in noun-modifier expressions. LRA achieves state-of-the-art results, reaching human-level performance on the analogy questions and significantly exceeding VSM performance on both tasks.
A Uniform Approach to Analogies, Synonyms, Antonyms, and Associations
Peter D. Turney
Computer Science , 2008,
Abstract: Recognizing analogies, synonyms, antonyms, and associations appear to be four distinct tasks, requiring distinct NLP algorithms. In the past, the four tasks have been treated independently, using a wide variety of algorithms. These four semantic classes, however, are a tiny sample of the full range of semantic phenomena, and we cannot afford to create ad hoc algorithms for each semantic phenomenon; we need to seek a unified approach. We propose to subsume a broad range of phenomena under analogies. To limit the scope of this paper, we restrict our attention to the subsumption of synonyms, antonyms, and associations. We introduce a supervised corpus-based machine learning algorithm for classifying analogous word pairs, and we show that it can solve multiple-choice SAT analogy questions, TOEFL synonym questions, ESL synonym-antonym questions, and similar-associated-both questions from cognitive psychology.
Analogy perception applied to seven tests of word comprehension
Peter D. Turney
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: It has been argued that analogy is the core of cognition. In AI research, algorithms for analogy are often limited by the need for hand-coded high-level representations as input. An alternative approach is to use high-level perception, in which high-level representations are automatically generated from raw data. Analogy perception is the process of recognizing analogies using high-level perception. We present PairClass, an algorithm for analogy perception that recognizes lexical proportional analogies using representations that are automatically generated from a large corpus of raw textual data. A proportional analogy is an analogy of the form A:B::C:D, meaning "A is to B as C is to D". A lexical proportional analogy is a proportional analogy with words, such as carpenter:wood::mason:stone. PairClass represents the semantic relations between two words using a high-dimensional feature vector, in which the elements are based on frequencies of patterns in the corpus. PairClass recognizes analogies by applying standard supervised machine learning techniques to the feature vectors. We show how seven different tests of word comprehension can be framed as problems of analogy perception and we then apply PairClass to the seven resulting sets of analogy perception problems. We achieve competitive results on all seven tests. This is the first time a uniform approach has handled such a range of tests of word comprehension.
Semantic Composition and Decomposition: From Recognition to Generation
Peter D. Turney
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Semantic composition is the task of understanding the meaning of text by composing the meanings of the individual words in the text. Semantic decomposition is the task of understanding the meaning of an individual word by decomposing it into various aspects (factors, constituents, components) that are latent in the meaning of the word. We take a distributional approach to semantics, in which a word is represented by a context vector. Much recent work has considered the problem of recognizing compositions and decompositions, but we tackle the more difficult generation problem. For simplicity, we focus on noun-modifier bigrams and noun unigrams. A test for semantic composition is, given context vectors for the noun and modifier in a noun-modifier bigram ("red salmon"), generate a noun unigram that is synonymous with the given bigram ("sockeye"). A test for semantic decomposition is, given a context vector for a noun unigram ("snifter"), generate a noun-modifier bigram that is synonymous with the given unigram ("brandy glass"). With a vocabulary of about 73,000 unigrams from WordNet, there are 73,000 candidate unigram compositions for a bigram and 5,300,000,000 (73,000 squared) candidate bigram decompositions for a unigram. We generate ranked lists of potential solutions in two passes. A fast unsupervised learning algorithm generates an initial list of candidates and then a slower supervised learning algorithm refines the list. We evaluate the candidate solutions by comparing them to WordNet synonym sets. For decomposition (unigram to bigram), the top 100 most highly ranked bigrams include a WordNet synonym of the given unigram 50.7% of the time. For composition (bigram to unigram), the top 100 most highly ranked unigrams include a WordNet synonym of the given bigram 77.8% of the time.
The Latent Relation Mapping Engine: Algorithm and Experiments
Peter D. Turney
Computer Science , 2008,
Abstract: Many AI researchers and cognitive scientists have argued that analogy is the core of cognition. The most influential work on computational modeling of analogy-making is Structure Mapping Theory (SMT) and its implementation in the Structure Mapping Engine (SME). A limitation of SME is the requirement for complex hand-coded representations. We introduce the Latent Relation Mapping Engine (LRME), which combines ideas from SME and Latent Relational Analysis (LRA) in order to remove the requirement for hand-coded representations. LRME builds analogical mappings between lists of words, using a large corpus of raw text to automatically discover the semantic relations among the words. We evaluate LRME on a set of twenty analogical mapping problems, ten based on scientific analogies and ten based on common metaphors. LRME achieves human-level performance on the twenty problems. We compare LRME with a variety of alternative approaches and find that they are not able to reach the same level of performance.
Technical Note: Bias and the Quantification of Stability
Peter D. Turney
Computer Science , 2002,
Abstract: Research on bias in machine learning algorithms has generally been concerned with the impact of bias on predictive accuracy. We believe that there are other factors that should also play a role in the evaluation of bias. One such factor is the stability of the algorithm; in other words, the repeatability of the results. If we obtain two sets of data from the same phenomenon, with the same underlying probability distribution, then we would like our learning algorithm to induce approximately the same concepts from both sets of data. This paper introduces a method for quantifying stability, based on a measure of the agreement between concepts. We also discuss the relationships among stability, predictive accuracy, and bias.
A Theory of Cross-Validation Error
Peter D. Turney
Computer Science , 2002,
Abstract: This paper presents a theory of error in cross-validation testing of algorithms for predicting real-valued attributes. The theory justifies the claim that predicting real-valued attributes requires balancing the conflicting demands of simplicity and accuracy. Furthermore, the theory indicates precisely how these conflicting demands must be balanced, in order to minimize cross-validation error. A general theory is presented, then it is developed in detail for linear regression and instance-based learning.
The Identification of Context-Sensitive Features: A Formal Definition of Context for Concept Learning
Peter D. Turney
Computer Science , 2002,
Abstract: A large body of research in machine learning is concerned with supervised learning from examples. The examples are typically represented as vectors in a multi-dimensional feature space (also known as attribute-value descriptions). A teacher partitions a set of training examples into a finite number of classes. The task of the learning algorithm is to induce a concept from the training examples. In this paper, we formally distinguish three types of features: primary, contextual, and irrelevant features. We also formally define what it means for one feature to be context-sensitive to another feature. Context-sensitive features complicate the task of the learner and potentially impair the learner's performance. Our formal definitions make it possible for a learner to automatically identify context-sensitive features. After context-sensitive features have been identified, there are several strategies that the learner can employ for managing the features; however, a discussion of these strategies is outside of the scope of this paper. The formal definitions presented here correct a flaw in previously proposed definitions. We discuss the relationship between our work and a formal definition of relevance.
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