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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 489728 matches for " Peter A. Cook "
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The Worldwide Abalone Industry  [PDF]
Peter A. Cook
Modern Economy (ME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/me.2014.513110
Abstract: Global fish production continues to outpace world population growth, and aquaculture remains one of the fastest-growing food producing sectors. In 2012, global aquaculture production was 90.4 million tonnes. Although, in terms of production tonnage, abalone contributes a relatively small proportion of this aquaculture production, it is one of the most highly prized seafood delicacies and, therefore, in terms of the value of production, is very important to many countries. The total volume of worldwide abalone fisheries has declined since the 1970’s, but farm production has increased significantly over the past few years. A huge increase in farm production has occurred, beginning in the 1970s, when farm production was almost negligible, to recent years when increases have been huge. In the 8 years immediately preceding 2010, for example, farm production increased by more than 750% and by 2013, farm production had reached an estimated 103,464 mt. The overall effects of these huge increases on the world market are discussed.
Abalone of the World: Biology, Fisheries and Culture
Peter Cook
African Zoology , 2012,
Abstract: Although this book originated from the First International Symposium on Abalone Biology, which was held in La Paz, Mexico in 1989, it is far more than a collection of symposium papers. The symposium papers are included in the volume but, in addition to this, the editors solicited review articles on several of the more important aspects of abalone biology. One of the most attractive features of the book is the skilful way in which the editors have managed to cover a very broad range of subject material whilst at the same time treating individual topics in sufficient depth to satisfy specialists.
Fluorescent Imaging of Antigen Released by a Skin-Invading Helminth Reveals Differential Uptake and Activation Profiles by Antigen Presenting Cells
Ross A. Paveley,Sarah A. Aynsley,Peter C. Cook,Joseph D. Turner,Adrian P. Mountford
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000528
Abstract: Infection of the mammalian host by the parasitic helminth Schistosoma mansoni is accompanied by the release of excretory/secretory molecules (ES) from cercariae which aid penetration of the skin. These ES molecules are potent stimulants of innate immune cells leading to activation of acquired immunity. At present however, it is not known which cells take up parasite antigen, nor its intracellular fate. Here, we develop a technique to label live infectious cercariae which permits the imaging of released antigens into macrophages (MΦ) and dendritic cells (DCs) both in vitro and in vivo. The amine reactive tracer CFDA-SE was used to efficiently label the acetabular gland contents of cercariae which are released upon skin penetration. These ES products, termed ‘0-3hRP’, were phagocytosed by MHC-II+ cells in a Ca+ and actin-dependent manner. Imaging of a labelled cercaria as it penetrates the host skin over 2 hours reveals the progressive release of ES material. Recovery of cells from the skin shows that CFDA-SE labelled ES was initially (3 hrs) taken up by Gr1+MHC-II? neutrophils, followed (24 hrs) by skin-derived F4/80+MHC-IIlo MΦ and CD11c+ MHC-IIhi DC. Subsequently (48 hrs), MΦ and DC positive for CFDA-SE were detected in the skin-draining lymph nodes reflecting the time taken for antigen-laden cells to reach sites of immune priming. Comparison of in vitro-derived MΦ and DC revealed that MΦ were slower to process 0-3hRP, released higher quantities of IL-10, and expressed a greater quantity of arginase-1 transcript. Combined, our observations on differential uptake of cercarial ES by MΦ and DC suggest the development of a dynamic but ultimately balanced response that can be potentially pushed towards immune priming (via DC) or immune regulation (via MΦ).
Enhancers and silencers: an integrated and simple model for their function
Petros Kolovos, Tobias A Knoch, Frank G Grosveld, Peter R Cook, Argyris Papantonis
Epigenetics & Chromatin , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-8935-5-1
Abstract: The complex linear organisation [1] of many metazoan genomes encodes regulatory sequences that can be categorised into two major groups: enhancers and silencers. Enhancers are short motifs that contain binding sites for transcription factors; they activate their target genes without regard to orientation and often over great separations in cis or in trans [2]. Silencers suppress gene expression [3] and/or confine it within specific chromatin boundaries (and thus are also called 'insulators') [4]. The interplay between these contrasting regulatory elements, their target promoters and epigenetic modifications at all levels of three-dimensional organisation (that is, nucleosomes, chromatin fibres, loops, rosettes, chromosomes and chromosome location) [5-9] fine-tune expression during development and differentiation. However, the mechanisms involved in this interplay remain elusive, although some can be computationally predicted [10]. Although enhancers and silencers have apparently opposite effects, accumulating evidence suggests they share more properties than intuition would suggest [11]. Herein we try to reconcile their apparently disparate modes of action. We suggest they act by tethering their target promoters close to, or distant from, hot spots of nucleoplasmic transcription (known as 'transcription factories') as they produce noncoding transcripts (ncRNAs) [12-15].Enhancers were characterised almost 30 years ago [16], but their functional definitions vary because of their flexibility of action (whether in cis or in trans) [17,18], position (relative orientation and/or distance) and genomic location (in gene deserts, introns and/or untranslated regions) [2]. Although sequence conservation between species can, in some cases, be an efficient predictor of enhancer identity, there are examples where genes with identical expression patterns in different species rely on enhancers that bear no similarities [19]. Within a single genome, however, sensitivity to DNase I a
Agnostic geophysics
A. Cook
Annals of Geophysics , 1997, DOI: 10.4401/ag-3849
Abstract: The physics of the Earth and the planets itself limits the knowledge that can be obtained of it. Two principle limitations are set in inverse problems and by chaotic dynamics; examples of each are given in this essay and some implications are discussed.
Field Validation of a Transcriptional Assay for the Prediction of Age of Uncaged Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes in Northern Australia
Leon E. Hugo,Peter E. Cook,Petrina H. Johnson,Luke P. Rapley,Brian H. Kay,Peter A. Ryan,Scott A. Ritchie,Scott L. O'Neill
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000608
Abstract: Background New strategies to eliminate dengue have been proposed that specifically target older Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the proportion of the vector population that is potentially capable of transmitting dengue viruses. Evaluation of these strategies will require accurate and high-throughput methods of predicting mosquito age. We previously developed an age prediction assay for individual Ae. aegypti females based on the transcriptional profiles of a selection of age responsive genes. Here we conducted field testing of the method on Ae. aegypti that were entirely uncaged and free to engage in natural behavior. Methodology/Principal Findings We produced “free-range” test specimens by releasing 8007 adult Ae. aegypti inside and around an isolated homestead in north Queensland, Australia, and recapturing females at two day intervals. We applied a TaqMan probe-based assay design that enabled high-throughput quantitative RT-PCR of four transcripts from three age-responsive genes and a reference gene. An age prediction model was calibrated on mosquitoes maintained in small sentinel cages, in which 68.8% of the variance in gene transcription measures was explained by age. The model was then used to predict the ages of the free-range females. The relationship between the predicted and actual ages achieved an R2 value of 0.62 for predictions of females up to 29 days old. Transcriptional profiles and age predictions were not affected by physiological variation associated with the blood feeding/egg development cycle and we show that the age grading method could be applied to differentiate between two populations of mosquitoes having a two-fold difference in mean life expectancy. Conclusions/Significance The transcriptional profiles of age responsive genes facilitated age estimates of near-wild Ae. aegypti females. Our age prediction assay for Ae. aegypti provides a useful tool for the evaluation of mosquito control interventions against dengue where mosquito survivorship or lifespan reduction are crucial to their success. The approximate cost of the method was US$7.50 per mosquito and 60 mosquitoes could be processed in 3 days. The assay is based on conserved genes and modified versions are likely to support similar investigations of several important mosquito and other disease vectors.
Maternal Trauma and Adolescent Depression: Is Parenting Style a Moderator?  [PDF]
Leigh A. Leslie, Emily T. Cook
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.66066
Abstract: Current research suggests that parents who experience symptoms of trauma transfer distress to their children. The purpose of this study was to understand the possible moderating effect of mothers’ parenting style on this relationship for adolescents. This study differs from much of the existing literature in that the adolescents themselves are the reporters of their own well-being. The level of maternal trauma, use of parenting styles, and adolescent depression were examined for a clinical sample of 113 mothers and adolescent dyads. Results indicate that mothers who experience high levels of trauma symptoms are more likely to parent using authoritarian or permissive behaviors. Although mother’s level of trauma alone was not related to adolescent’s depression, an interaction was found such that mothers experiencing high levels of trauma symptoms who parented with an authoritarian style had adolescents who experienced more depression than those whose mothers were less authoritarian. These findings are discussed in light of the larger literature on “secondary trauma”, or the transfer of distress, which often focuses on young children, with mothers as the reporters of both their own and their children’s functioning. Clinical implications are also considered.
CD4+CD25+ Regulatory Cells Contribute to the Regulation of Colonic Th2 Granulomatous Pathology Caused by Schistosome Infection
Joseph D. Turner,Gavin R. Jenkins,Karen G. Hogg,Sarah A. Aynsley,Ross A. Paveley,Peter C. Cook,Mark C. Coles,Adrian P. Mountford
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001269
Abstract: Eggs of the helminth Schistosoma mansoni accumulate in the colon following infection and generate Th2-biassed inflammatory granulomas which become down- modulated in size as the infection proceeds to chronicity. However, although CD4+CD25+FoxP3+regulatory T cells (Tregs) are known to suppress Th1-mediated colitis, it is not clear whether they control Th2 –associated pathologies of the large intestine which characterise several helminth infections. Here we used a novel 3D-multiphoton confocal microscopy approach to visualise and quantify changes in the size and composition of colonic granulomas at the acute and chronic phases of S. mansoni infection. We observed decreased granuloma size, as well as reductions in the abundance of DsRed+ T cells and collagen deposition at 14 weeks (chronic) compared to 8 weeks (acute) post-infection. Th2 cytokine production (i.e. IL-4, IL-5) in the colonic tissue and draining mesenteric lymph node (mLN) decreased during the chronic phase of infection, whilst levels of TGF-β1 increased, co-incident with reduced mLN proliferative responses, granuloma size and fibrosis. The proportion of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+Tregs: CD4+ cells in the mLN increased during chronic disease, while within colonic granulomas there was an approximate 4-fold increase. The proportion of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+Tregs in the mLN that were CD103+ and CCR5+ also increased indicating an enhanced potential to home to intestinal sites. CD4+CD25+ cells suppressed antigen-specific Th2 mLN cell proliferation in vitro, while their removal during chronic disease resulted in significantly larger granulomas, partial reversal of Th2 hypo-responsiveness and an increase in the number of eosinophils in colonic granulomas. Finally, transfer of schistosome infection-expanded CD4+CD25+Tregs down-modulated the development of colonic granulomas, including collagen deposition. Therefore, CD4+CD25+FoxP3+Tregs appear to control Th2 colonic granulomas during chronic infection, and are likely to play a role in containing pathology during intestinal schistosomiasis.
Staphylococcus aureus in the Community: Colonization Versus Infection
Maureen Miller, Heather A. Cook, E. Yoko Furuya, Meera Bhat, Mei-Ho Lee, Peter Vavagiakis, Paul Visintainer, Glenny Vasquez, Elaine Larson, Franklin D. Lowy
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006708
Abstract: Background Antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections have increased dramatically in the community, yet S. aureus nasal colonization has remained stable. The objectives of this study were to determine if S. aureus colonization is a useful proxy measure to study disease transmission and infection in community settings, and to identify potential community reservoirs. Methodology/Principal Findings Randomly selected households in Northern Manhattan, completed a structured social network questionnaire and provided nasal swabs that were typed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis to identify S. aureus colonizing strains. The main outcome measures were: 1) colonization with S. aureus; and 2) recent serious skin infection. Risk factor analyses were conducted at both the individual and the household levels; logistic regression models identified independent risks for household colonization and infection. Results 321 surveyed households contained 914 members. The S. aureus prevalence was 25% and MRSA was 0.4%. More than 40% of households were colonized. Recent antibiotic use was the only significant correlate for household colonization (p = .002). Seventy-eight (24%) households reported serious skin infection. In contrast with colonization, five of the six risk factors that increased the risk of skin infection in the household at the univariate level remained independently significant in multivariable analysis: international travel, sports participation, surgery, antibiotic use and towel sharing. S. aureus colonization was not significantly associated with serious skin infection in any analysis. Among multiperson households with more than one person colonized, 50% carried the same strain. Conclusions/Significance The lack of association between S. aureus nasal colonization and serious skin infection underscores the need to explore alternative venues or body sites that may be crucial to transmission. Moreover, the magnitude of colonization and infection within the household suggests that households are an underappreciated and substantial community reservoir.
Characterization of the Melanoma miRNAome by Deep Sequencing
Mitchell S. Stark,Sonika Tyagi,Derek J. Nancarrow,Glen M. Boyle,Anthony L. Cook,David C. Whiteman,Peter G. Parsons,Christopher Schmidt,Richard A. Sturm,Nicholas K. Hayward
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009685
Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 18–23 nucleotide non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression in a sequence specific manner. Little is known about the repertoire and function of miRNAs in melanoma or the melanocytic lineage. We therefore undertook a comprehensive analysis of the miRNAome in a diverse range of pigment cells including: melanoblasts, melanocytes, congenital nevocytes, acral, mucosal, cutaneous and uveal melanoma cells.
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