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Influencia del género y la percepción de la imagen corporal en las conductas alimentarias de riesgo en adolescentes de Mérida
López Atencio,Pedro; Molina,Zarela; Rojas,Lizbeth;
Anales Venezolanos de Nutrición , 2008,
Abstract: the object of this study was to analyze the influence of gender and body image perception in risk eating conducts associated with the upheavals of eating disorders in adolescents of first and second year of highschool in eight public institutions of the municipio libertador in merida venezuela, they were selected in an intentional form. a descriptive field, was performed, in which 421 adolescents participated, 56, 5% men and 43,5% females, the average of age for the 15,75 men was ± 1,05 years and for 15,80 females ±1.07 years. for the gathering of the corporal image data, an instrument was designed and validated, in this the participant chose between four alternatives the option that represented more his/her condition at the moment, 57.5%, perceived themselves as normal, 30.6%, as thin; and 11.9% with overweight. the perception of obese corporal image was not reported. the normal and thin body image were perceived among the adolescents with a higher frequency in men 32.5%, whereas the perception of the image with overweight was more frequent in the females (7.4%). the registry of eating disorders was done through a questionnaire designed and validated by a group of experts constituted by dietitians, sociologists and clinical psychologists in which the interviewed was asked in person to report the eating conduct practiced for the control of weight during the previous six months. the findings allow us to confirm that women whose perception of their image is characterized by the excess present major risks associated with the upheavals of the eating disorders (9,586 f=2 p=0,008 (12,622 f=5 p=0,027).
INSATISFACCIóN POR LA IMAGEN CORPORAL Y LA BAJA AUTOESTIMA POR LA APARIENCIA FíSICA EN ESTUDIANTES DE LA FACULTAD DE MEDICINA DE LA UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES DEL ESTADO MERIDA VENEZUELA
Pedro López Atencio,José R. Prado P.,Mercedes Montilla,Zarela Molina Viana
Revista en Ciencias del Movimiento Humano y Salud , 2008,
Abstract: La presente investigación tuvo como propósito central evaluar la insatisfacción por la imagen corporal y su relación con la baja autoestima por la apariencia física en estudiantes de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Los Andes en Mérida Venezuela. El estudio fue de tipo no experimental correlacional. La muestra estuvo constituida por 189 estudiantes, 27% masculino y 73% femenino, con una edad promedio de 19,58 a os ± 1,57 (varones 19,81 a os ± 1,74 y para las mujeres 20,24 a os ± 1,76). Los participantes fueron seleccionados de los cursos del primer a o de las carreras de: medicina, enfermería y nutrición, los cuales fueron seleccionados de forma intencional. El instrumento empleado para determinar la Insatisfacción por la Imagen Corporal fue el Body Shape Questionnaire (Cooper y Taylor, 1987). El método de Graffar Modificado fue utilizado para determinar el estrato socioeconómico de los participantes (Méndez y De Méndez, 1994). A los datos se les aplicó el análisis descriptivo (frecuencia, porcentajes, media) e inferencial (ANOVA de un solo factor a través del paquete estadístico SPSS versión 9.0). Entre los principales hallazgos en el estudio se pudo determinar una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre la insatisfacción con la imagen corporal, la baja autoestima por la apariencia física con el género χ2 (2, N= 189) = 9,686, p=0,008. A través de ANOVA se pudo determinar que las diferencias en las medias para los niveles de insatisfacción y baja autoestima con la imagen corporal y el género son estadísticamente significativas, F=11,236; p=0,008, F=10,23; p=0,002 respectivamente. Conclusiones: los resultados obtenidos permiten sugerir sobre la relación que existe entre la insatisfacción y la baja autoestima por la apariencia física, existiendo un rechazo por la propia imagen corporal causada por la percepción distorsionada o no de la misma, lo que podría afectar la autoestima por la apariencia física. Además, se observa que la salud psicológica de los estudiantes se relaciona más con su satisfacción por su apariencia física que como se percibe su imagen corporal. Por lo tanto, este grupo de participantes debe analizarse en relación con su autoestima por la apariencia física, como una expresión del ambiente institucional. También es importante enfatizar que el género puede ser un factor de riesgo en los desórdenes de hábitos alimenticios. Consideramos lo anterior porque las mujeres mostraron niveles de insatisfacción más altos, ya que su apariencia física se encuentra condicionada por una mayor insatisfacción con su imagen corporal ta
Vacíos y complementos
López,Pedro Javier;
Civilizar Ciencias Sociales y Humanas , 2010,
Abstract: the south african truth and reconciliation commission (trc) has been presented as an exemplar tool related to subjects as memory reconstruction or reconciliation; none the less, several criticisms have been made in relation to its results. this essay focuses on the criticisms related to the exclusion of some discourses from the end results of the trc, such as those from women, ex combatants and forced removals. those discourses, whether they were absent form the conclusions of trc, have found different ways to expose themselves, completing with this, the version of south african history and apartheid deduced from the commission.
Making the decolonized visible: Puerto Rican poetry of the last four decades
Pedro López Adorno
Centro Journal , 2006,
Abstract: This essay is a comprehensive synthesis of ideas regarding the aporistic relationship between subalternity and cultural visibility in the context of Puerto Rican literary production. In offering both a panorama and a critique of the decolonized poetic tradition of Puerto Rican authors, I first point out the obstacles faced by such authors and the strategies that they have employed to make themselves visible. The essay also glimpses at the contradictions between poetic visibility and the horizon of expectations of the reader of poetry. Other issues branching out of the discussion are: the problem posed by the dichotomy of oral and written poetry and the need for a pan-theoretical approach that would not homogenize the particularist texts available. Complementing this synthesis is the critical overview given of each decade′s major poetic environments and representative poets: from the essentialist cultural nationalism of 1960s poetics to the more fluid, transnationalist, and, in some cases, postmodern sensibilities of `70s, `80s, and `90s poetics
Efecto de la suplementación con leucaena (leucaena leucocephala lam. De wit) sobre la degradabilidad ruminal del pasto alemán (echinochloa polystachya h.b.k. Hitch)
Vergara-López,Juan; Rodríguez-Petit,ángel; Navarro,Carlos; Atencio,ángel;
Revista Científica , 2006,
Abstract: to evaluate the effects of leucaena supplementation on in situ ruminal dry matter (dm) degradability of aleman-grass (ag), dm potential degradability (a+b), soluble fraction (a), maximum degradability (dm), degradation rate (c), ruminal ph and ammonia nitrogen, three ruminal cannulated criollo limonero steers were fed at 14-day adaptation period (f1) and samples were taken during the following 4-day period (f2). diets were: t1, aleman-grass (ag) + concentrate (co); t2, pa + 2 kg leucaena once a day and t3, pa + 2 kg leucaena twice a day. during f2 nylon bags were sequentially incubated on 0; 6; 12; 24; 48; 72 and 96 h, and rumen contents ph were measured on 0; 3; 6; 9; 12 y 24 h post feeding. a latin square design with three replications was used and ruminal degradability data was analyzed by nonlinear regression model. no differences between treatments were found for a, b and c. a+b was higher (p < 0.05) on t3 (62.91%) than t1 (58.31%) or t2 (59.17%). ruminal ph was higher (p < 0.05) in t3 (6.74) than t1 (6.66) and t2 (6.65). ammonia nitrogen values were 405.00; 486.14 and 508.25 mg l-1 for t1, t2 y t3, respectively. it was conclude that l. leucocephala fed twice a day increases dm degradability of aleman-grass
Hematología y química sanguínea de juveniles de Rubio (Salminus affinis Pisces: Characidae) del río Sinú Hematology and Blood Chemistry of Juveniles Rubio (Salminus affinis Pisces: Characidae) Captured in the River Sinú
Atencio-García Víctor,Genes López Fernando,Madariaga Mendoza Diana,Pardo Carrasco Sandra
Acta Biológica Colombiana , 2007,
Abstract: Rubio Salminus affinis es un pez reofílico, distribuido en ríos de Colombia y Ecuador . Se estudiaron características hematológicas y química sanguínea buscando generar información básica para desarrollar tecnologías de producción piscícola. Fueron examinados diez rubios juveniles aparentemente sanos (117,5±38,6 g de peso y 17,6±3,3 cm de longitud total) capturados en el río Sinú. Los peces se tranquilizaron durante cinco minutos en agua a 18 °C y se tomaron 2 mL de sangre por vacutecnia con EDTA (Vacuette , Greiner Bioone, USA). La química se determinó utilizando reactivos para cada parámetro (ByoSystems SA, Espa a) y el hemograma se desarrolló con técnicas tradicionales, a excepción del recuento total de leucocitos y trombocitos en el que se utilizó el reactivo de Natt y Herricks. Los frotis sanguíneos fueron te idos con Wright y en ellos se determinaron las dimensiones celulares. El recuento total de eritrocitos fue 2,2±0,4x106/mm3, los trombocitos 25,4±4,4x103/mm3 y los leucocitos fueron estimados en 6,1±2,0x103/mm3. El conteo diferencial de leucocitos fue 68,8±5,9% linfocitos, 28,5±5,2% neutrófilos, 2,1±0,9% monocitos, 0,4±1,3% basófilos y 0,2±0,4% eosinófilos. La hemoglobina en 12,53±2,2 g/dL y el hematocrito 36,2%. Los índices eritrocitarios: volumen corpuscular medio (VCM) 163,8±22,6 fL, concentración de hemoglobina corpuscular media (CHCM) 35,0±7,5 g/dL y hemoglobina corpuscular media (HCM) de 58,5±19,7 pg. Las proteínas totales fueron 3,8±5,9 g/dL, glucosa 128,9±21,9 mg/dL, colesterol 277,8±92,7 mg/dL, triglicéridos 192,0±109,1 mg/dL y albúmina 2,0±0,3 g/dL. Los resultados sugieren que las características hematológicas de rubio están en el rango reportado para peces neotropicales aparentemente sanos. Rubio Salminus affinis is distributed in Colombia and Ecuador rivers. To develop new technologies of fishery production, hematological and blood chemistry of 10 juvenile Rubios captured in Sinú river, apparently healthy were examined (117.5+38.6 g of weight and 17.6+3.3 cm of total length). Fishes were calmed during five minutes in water at 18 °C and 2 mL of blood samples were taken in EDTA (Vacuette ). The chemistry was determined using ByoSystems INC ( Spain ), reagents and blood count were developed with traditional techniques with the exception of total leukocyte and thrombocyte for which the reagent of Natt and Herricks was used. The blood smears were dyed with Wright and cellular dimensions were determined. The total erythrocytes were of 2.2+0.4x106/mm3, thrombocytes 25.4+4.4x103/mm3 and leukocytes were estimated in 6.1+2.0x103/mm3. The diff
Pre-processing and differential expression analysis of Agilent microRNA arrays using the AgiMicroRna Bioconductor library
Pedro López-Romero
BMC Genomics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-12-64
Abstract: This report presents the new bioinformatic tool AgiMicroRNA for the pre-processing and differential expression analysis of Agilent microRNA array data. The software is implemented in the open-source statistical scripting language R and is integrated in the Bioconductor project (http://www.bioconductor.org webcite) under the GPL license. For the pre-processing of the microRNA signal, AgiMicroRNA incorporates the robust multiarray average algorithm, a method that produces a summary measure of the microRNA expression using a linear model that takes into account the probe affinity effect. To obtain a normalized microRNA signal useful for the statistical analysis, AgiMicroRna offers the possibility of employing either the processed signal estimated by the robust multiarray average algorithm or the processed signal produced by the Agilent image analysis software. The AgiMicroRNA package also incorporates different graphical utilities to assess the quality of the data. AgiMicroRna uses the linear model features implemented in the limma package to assess the differential expression between different experimental conditions and provides links to the miRBase for those microRNAs that have been declared as significant in the statistical analysis.AgiMicroRna is a rational collection of Bioconductor functions that have been wrapped into specific functions in order to ease and systematize the pre-processing and statistical analysis of Agilent microRNA data. The development of this package contributes to the Bioconductor project filling the gap in microRNA array data analysis.MicroRNAs are a family of small single-stranded non-coding RNAs which regulate gene expression [1]. Functional studies show that microRNAs participate in virtually every cellular process investigated, and changes in their expression might underlie many human diseases [2]. One of the commercial microarrays for microRNA profiling has been developed by Agilent Technologies. Agilent microarrays use a single-color
La investigación en salud pública: de la transición epidemiológica a la transición epistemológica
Villasana López,Pedro Enrique;
Revista Cubana de Salud Pública , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0864-34662007000400013
Abstract: a critical-hermeneutic approach to some of the several manifestations of the relationship between public health research in venezuela and the contextual historical-political scenarios where it is made was presented in this article. it was attempted to characterize the phenomenon and identify the possible epistemological fundamentals for such a relationship. research/context relationship shows certain regularities and equivalences that assist in explaining the emphasis at different "historical times" on "specific" healthcare problems. the designation as a "healthcare problem" progressively discloses the "epistemological background" in which such designation is possible. the system of determinants where a public health problem emerges as such can be viewed and identified at the different considered times. the epidemiological transition described in the 70's and the 80's of the 20th century seems to meet with a suggestive epistemological transition that takes place in an accelerated way during this period. at the same time, the above-mentioned allows setting the conditions for making particular types of research on certain problems possible or impossible. then, various epistemological backgrounds begin to be delineated, thus showing close relationships with possibility or impossibility for sovereign practice not only in public health research but also in formulating national health policies and building the national public health system of venezuela on the basis of the systematic study and understanding of the realities of the country.
Aproximación a la noción salud en la globalización desde la epistemología de Edgar Morin
Villasana López,Pedro Enrique;
Salud de los Trabajadores , 2006,
Abstract: the objective of this paper is to approach the concept of health and the conditions that make possible an integral and integrating approach to edgar morin′s epistemology of complexity, within the framework of globalization. based on interpretive systemology methods to provide a logical- hermeneutical approach, an interpretive model of morin′s thought is produced. such a model allows one to advance the notions of human being, society and health. from this perspective, a characterization of the human being as an autonomous citizen, in contrast to an individual, is generated. this contrast allows the distinction between individuality and individualism within a society characterized as an inter-solidaristic social system (iss). this iss involves a series of relationships founded on respect and solidarity. how the unity of individuality within the diversity of human beings is constituted, emerging as citizens of the social system, is shown. the concept of health is shaped as a condition-state, both collective and individual; as a dynamic and multidimensional character that allows the development of individual and collective autonomous beings. this property is only possible in an iss, where citizens and nations pursue both the common and individual good, respecting the various autonomies and diversities with a deep sense of belonging to the society which makes them possible as human beings. health is a positive state of being that goes beyond the mere absence of disease, a condition of self-defined well-being, self-shaped by citizens and collectives.
La investigación en salud pública: De la transición epidemiológica a la transición epistemológica Public health research: Going from epidemiological transition to epistemological transition
Pedro Enrique Villasana López
Revista Cubana de Salud Pública , 2007,
Abstract:
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